In the time of Roman Empire, the concept “public construction” has been existed, such as the squares, theatres, arenas, bathrooms, public toilets, drainage and water pipes for the people. It changed from few industries in the 15th century to industrial city in the 19th century. Due to the mess, diseases and ecological damage caused by Industrial Revolution in the 19th century, drainage system, piped water system and hygiene were improved. After World War II in 1949, the advanced countries around the world all valued public construction and there was particularly the rise of the middle class. For 400 years, in Taiwan, it has been changed from trading with China through harbors and bull cart lanes for agriculture in early times to the formation of roads, railways, airports and harbors in the Japanese Occupation Period. After 1949, Taiwan experienced the restoration as well as Land Reform. In 1970s, economy was boosted by the Ten, Twelve and Fourteen Major Construction Projects. In 1990s, the Six-year National Construction was a turning point. Social construction was valued in public construction and it was the start of enormous national debts. The development of public construction was the solution for great damage in the 19th century. Taiwan thus controlled public construction by the budgets. In 1970s, because of the Ten Major Construction Projects, Taiwan undertook enormous foreign debts. In 1989, revenue and expenditure were balanced at this turning point. In 1990s, public construction was launched with the expansion of debts. In 2012, the national debts reached 40% of the limit of total debts. The significance of public construction is economic growth, enhancement of life quality, social welfare, upgrading of techniques in public construction, increase of jobs and social, economic and environmental balanced development. The demand for the free ride was developed from governmental management to private participation in public construction, international technical support and fund support. Currently, investment decision-making of non-profit-seeking public construction is undertaken by the government. Investment decision-making of money-making public construction is based on private measures and it will enhance private participation in public construction, private financing and public and private cooperation. In the future, users’ payment and investment portfolio of financing can be applied to investment decision-making of public construction.