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系統識別號 U0026-1008202021564000
論文名稱(中文) 臺灣商港管理機關發展垂釣事業之可行性評估
論文名稱(英文) Feasibility Assessment of Commercial Port Authorities Developing Recreational Fishing Industry in Taiwan
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 海洋科技與事務研究所
系所名稱(英) Institute of Ocean Technology and Marine Affairs
學年度 108
學期 2
出版年 109
研究生(中文) 江明樺
研究生(英文) Ming-Hua Chiang
學號 NA6071037
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 199頁
口試委員 口試委員-高世明
口試委員-莊士賢
指導教授-陳璋玲
中文關鍵字 休閒垂釣  商港  管理經營  可行性評估 
英文關鍵字 Recreational Fishing  Commercial Ports  Management  Feasibility Assessment 
學科別分類
中文摘要   本研究以臺灣商港管理機關港務公司為經營主體,分析商港發展垂釣事業之可行性評估,並針對推動垂釣事業之法令適法性、區位合宜性、市場可及性及潛在需求性,以及商業模式可行性及財務效益性進行探討,同時蒐集商港釣魚團體對現況及未來管理方式之看法,最後依據上述結果提出相關建議。
  本研究於九處商港針對釣客進行問卷調查,回收有效問卷3,382份,分析結果為:(一)釣客特徵:前往商港垂釣之釣客主要以男性為主,年齡平均為40.7歲,動機主要為個人興趣及運動休閒,大部分前往鄰近的商港釣魚,受地緣關係影響大。(二)釣魚活動特性:前往商港垂釣的頻率分布極端,由偶爾去(每月1-3次佔37.2%)及經常去(每月七次以上44.1%)組成,平均一個禮拜可達兩次,頻率高。交通工具主要為汽車及機車,每次垂釣平均停留6.8小時。(三)釣客對於管理方式之看法:釣客普遍認同現行委託社團管理垂釣場域之方式,亦認同繳交清潔維護費,願付金額介於100-200元。管理方面,釣客認為只需要場地維護的管理。
  法令適法性方面,港務公司可依「國營港務股份有限公司設置條例」第2條,經營性質上屬於觀光遊憩業之休閒垂釣事業,但「商港法」明文規定商港垂釣區委託登記有案之社團管理,且防波堤屬公共基礎設施,為國家所有,港務公司於防波堤僅有興建維護等管理權,能否以防波堤作營利行為尚待釐清。
  區位合宜性方面,利用風速符合標準天數佔一年比例之條件、垂釣區域旁有無可使用空地,以及垂釣場域使用者類別,三項指標進行分析。結果顯示,安平港及布袋港區位合宜性較其他商港佳。
  市場可及性及潛在需求性方面,107年全部商港釣客人數為3,567人,107年全部商港最大釣客人數為19,359人。依據商港與委託單位簽訂契約之年齡規定,18歲以上得進入垂釣,以及問卷結果顯示釣客多為男性,根據內政部戶政司民國108年8月人口統計資料,並假設臺灣18歲以上男性每10人中有1人為潛在垂釣人口,預估全國潛在釣客人數約有976,681人。由上述資料得知,商港垂釣人口市佔率分別為0.36%及1.98%,皆小於2%,結果顯示釣客於商港垂釣之市場可及性及潛在需求性不高。
  商業模式可行性及財務效益性方面,每年各港商港釣客人次預估之效益,基隆港為-188萬元、臺北港為-278萬元、臺中港為-188萬元、布袋港為2萬元、安平港為-158萬元及花蓮港為-466萬元,顯示各港的經營效益不佳。若加總上述效益值,商港釣客人次預估之效益為-1276萬元。
  未來若港務公司為休閒垂釣事業之經營主體,可能會面臨到效益不佳,且需直接面對釣客對於垂釣場域之品質要求及相關問題,使得垂釣場域需要額外派遣人力,管理及解決釣客間糾紛,進而增加人事成本,但如果因此提高收費價格,將可能減少前往商港垂釣之釣客人數,造成垂釣事業收入下降,而難以經營。綜合上述可行性評估結果,商港以港務公司為經營主體發展休閒垂釣事業可行性較低。
  本研究就研究結果,提出以下建議:(一)建議政府設置其他垂釣場域。(二)建議維持現有委託釣魚社團自主管理垂釣區域,相關業務由現有管理部門適度調整人力辦理較為合適。(三)由於許多資料缺乏(如堤面整修費用、釣客人次、海堤開放天數、全國釣魚人口等),係以假設值或初估值進行推估。建議未來強化釣魚社團蒐集釣客人次及開放天數等資料,以更精確評估垂釣活動之效益。(四)建議邀請專家學者、釣魚社團及垂釣活動承辦人等,成立垂釣小組,就委託方式、場域規範及社團應辦理事項等,進行滾動式檢討,以持續改善商港辦理垂釣活動之運作模式。
英文摘要   The objective of this research is to assess feasibility of commercial port authorities developing recreational fishing industry in Taiwan. To fulifill this objective, four aspects of developing recreational fishing industry in commercial harbors were analyzed, including legal feasibility, suitability of port sites, financial viability, and potential demand for recreational fishing. In addition, the views of anglers on the current as well as future management measures were explored. Suggestions were accordingly proposed.
  Surveys for anglers were conducted at nine commercial ports. A total of 3,382 valid questionnaires were obtained. The results showed that: 1) the average age of anglers is 40.7 and the major motivation for recreational fishing is personal interest and leisure; 2) anglers generally go fishing two times a week and go to harbors by cars or motorcycles; 3) anglers mostly agree to the current management mode of fishing sites, which is a specific angler association being entrusted by port authorities to manage the site, the payment of cleaning fees which were between 100 and 200 NTD. Analyzing the legal feasibility showed that port authorities is eligible to run recreational fishing business since it
belongs to tourism and recreation which is allowed according to Article 2 of Taiwan International Ports Corporation, Ltd. Establishment Act. However, Article 36 of Commercial Port Act stipulates that angler associations are the ones to be entrusted to manage fishing sites, not port authorities themselves. Furthermore, breakwaters are public facilities and it is therefore doubtful that port authorities can use public facilities to run recreational fishing business to make profits.
  The data of wind speed, availability of unused spaces around fishing areas, and types of users were used to analyse the suitability of port sites. The anslysis showed that Budai harbor and Anping harbor are relatively suitable ports to develop recreational fishing industry.
  Market demand for recreational fishing was investigated by evaluating the number of potential anglers in Taiwan. The result showed that the percentage of anglers at commercial harbors was very low, less than 2% of the whole population of angers. This indicates that the potential demand for recreational fishing at commercial harbors is low.
  Analyzing financial viability showed that all harbors presented negative net benefits per year. The total loss would be 12.76 million NTD. Based the analysis of four aspects, it was conducted that the feasibility of port authorities developing recreational fishing industry is low.
  In the end, suggestions were proposed: 1) in addition to commercial harbors, the government actively establishes other recreational fishing sites; 2)
the current management of fishing sites is maintained; 3) in light of this research mostly relying on assumed data, it is recommended to strengthen to collect data on the actual number of anglers and the number of days open for
fishing; 4) an ad hoc committee is established, including experts, anglers and port authorities, to regularly check the current operation mode and take adaptive measures to improve recreational fishing quality at commercial harbors.
  The goal of research is to assess the feasibility of developing recreational fishing in Taiwan commercial ports. The research conducts a survey with anglers in commercial ports. Based on the servey results, the feasibility assessment will contain four parts: benefits, locations appropriate, assessment the number of anglers at ports and legality. The angler questionnaire results indicate that: 1) the anglers’ average age is 40.7, and the motivation for fishing is personal interest and recreation; 2) the average period of anglers fishing in commercial ports is two times a week, and the vehicles anglers mainly use are cars and scooters; 3) anglers agree with entrusting local fishing community to manage the fishing area; 4) the period of price they are willing to pay is between 100 and 200 NT. The total benefits of nine ports are estimated -12,760,000 NT. The suitable ports for fishing according to enviroment feature are Budai and Anping. The number of anglers fishing in commercial ports is calculated between 3,567 and 19,359. The best way for TIPC to manage recreational fishing legally is entrusting local fishing community according to “The Commercial Port Law” Article 36. As mentioned above, assessment feasibility of developing recreational fishing in Taiwan commercial ports by TIPC is bad. The findings suggest that the best strategy would be entrusting local fishing community. Second, local fishing community should provide the clear annual data, for example, the number of anglers and opening fishing days.
論文目次 摘 要i
Abstractiii
誌 謝vii
表目錄xi
圖目錄xii
第一章 緒論 1
 1.1 研究背景1
 1.2 研究範圍2
 1.3 研究目的2
 1.4 研究架構3
 1.5 研究流程3
第二章、文獻回顧5
 2.1 海釣活動類型5
 2.2 國外海釣管理現況7
  2.2.1 紐西蘭7
  2.2.2 西澳大利亞10
  2.2.3 日本14
  2.2.4 美國28
 2.3 國外相關研究33
 2.4 臺灣海釣之現況38
第三章、研究方法47
 3.1 研究設計及步驟47
 3.2 二手資料蒐集48
 3.3 實地現場調查48
 3.4 半結構式訪談法50
 3.5 問卷調查法55
第四章、研究結果56
 4.1 問卷調查結果分析56
 4.2 商港發展垂釣之可行性評估74
  4.2.1 法令適法性74
  4.2.2 區位合宜性79
  4.2.3 商業模式可行性及財務效益性82
  4.2.4 市場可及性及潛在需求性93
 4.3 小結96
  4.3.1 問卷調查結果分析96
  4.3.2 商港發展垂釣之可行性評估98
第五章 結論與建議100
 5.1 結論100
 5.2 建議102
參考資料105
附件一、商港法110
附件二、商港港務管理規則124
附件三、國營港務股份有限公司設置條例134
附件四、臺灣港務股份有限公司垂釣區管理要點140
附件五、基隆港、臺北港暨蘇澳港港區開放釣魚活動實施要點143
附件六、花蓮港東防波堤釣遊活動申辦安全須知148
附件七之一、與釣魚社團簽訂工作契約範例一152
附件七之二、與釣魚社團簽訂工作契約範例二155
附件七之三、與釣魚社團簽訂工作契約範例三158
附件八、研究執行照片紀錄161
附件九、釣客問卷165
附件十、日本直江津港-設施營運工作要領170
附件十一、釣客基本資料問卷結果180


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三、網路資源

臺灣港務股份有限公司。網址: https://www.twport.com.tw/chinese/
中華民國勞動部勞工保險局。網址:https://www.bli.gov.tw/index.html
蔡宗勳。布袋商港北防波堤10月起開放收費釣魚。自由時報。2019。
 網址:https://news.ltn.com.tw/news/life/paper/1315655
直江津港第3防波堤管理釣場。網址:http://happyfishing-n.jp/
神戸市立須磨・平磯海づり公園。
 網址:http://www.umiduri.com/
横浜フィッシングピアーズ。
 網址:http://honmoku.yokohama-fishingpiers.jp/
Department of Primary Industries and Regional Development-Fisheries。
 網址:http://www.fish.wa.gov.au/Pages/Home.aspx
Ministry for Primary Industtries | NZ Government。
 網址:https://www.mpi.govt.nz/
National Saltwater Recreational Fisheries Policy, NOAA Fisheries
 網址:https://www.fisheries.noaa.gov/
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