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系統識別號 U0026-1008202015313900
論文名稱(中文) 基於電腦視覺與危險能量場之工業型機械手臂避障研究
論文名稱(英文) Study on Collision Avoidance for Industrial Manipulators Based on Computer Vision and Danger Fields
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 電機工程學系
系所名稱(英) Department of Electrical Engineering
學年度 108
學期 2
出版年 109
研究生(中文) 楊士賢
研究生(英文) Shih-Sian Yang
學號 N26074312
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 80頁
口試委員 指導教授-鄭銘揚
口試委員-蘇科翰
口試委員-周阜毅
口試委員-溫峻明
中文關鍵字 視覺影像控制  Kinect 攝影機  危險能量場  零空間再分配方法  線上軌跡生成函式庫  人機協作 
英文關鍵字 Vision Control  Kinect Camera  Danger Fields  Joint Redistribution  Online Trajectory Generation  Human-Robot Collaboration 
學科別分類
中文摘要 隨著時代的進步與科技的推陳出新,機器人與人之間逐漸發展出密不可分的關係,為了追求更多元的工業製造模式與較具效率的生產方法,開始出現了替換傳統人機分工模式的浪潮,其中以發展機器人與人之間共同從事任務的新型態合作模式最引人注意。然而隨著兩者之間的互動距離縮短,操作工業機器人所擁有的潛在危險性將隨之增加,如何在不犧牲原有工作表現的前提之下,良好地控制機器人使其避免傷害人體是當前發展的關切議題。有鑑於此,本論文主要目的在於發展可應用於工業型機械手臂上的人機互動架構,藉由視覺影像與危險能量場的概念來控制機械手臂於複雜的動態環境中進行作業,並透過關節空間再分配演算法與線上軌跡生成函式庫等方法約束機械手臂的運動行為,使其能夠以安全的方式與操作人員共同從事任務,最後則進行數種實驗驗證本論文所提出方法之可行性。期望本論文所發展之架構能夠使工業型機械手臂在遭遇動態障礙物體時,以平穩的方式脫離該處,在維持原有工作效率的同時兼能保有人機互動的安全性,為未來全新型態的機器人合作模式奠定發展基礎。
英文摘要 With the progress of time and the innovations of technology, the relationship between robots and humans has gradually become closer than ever. In order to pursue more diverse and efficient manufacturing methods, many approaches have been advocated to replace the traditional human-machine-work-separately manufacturing mode. Among them, the human-robot collaboration mode has received most attention. However, with the interaction distance between the human operator and the robot decreasing, the potential danger of operating industrial robots will increase accordingly. As a result, how to control robots so as not to harm the human operator without sacrificing work performance is a current issue of concern. In view of this, the main purpose of this thesis is to develop a human-robot interaction architecture that can be applied to industrial robots. A robot can be operated in a dynamic complex environment through the concept of computer vision and danger fields. Methods such as joint redistribution and online trajectory generation constrain the motion behavior of the robot arm, so that it can perform cooperation tasks with humans in a safe manner. As such, several experiments are conducted to verify the feasibility of the proposed approach. It is expected that the architecture developed in this thesis will enable the industrial robot to escape from a particular location in a stable manner when encountering dynamic obstacles while also maintaining work efficiency and safety. This new type of human-robot collaboration mode will lay the foundation for future industrial development.
論文目次 中文摘要 I
EXTENDED ABSTRACT III
INTRODUCTION IV
METHODS IV
RESULTS AND ANALYSIS VIII
CONCLUSION X
誌謝 XI
目錄 XII
表目錄 XV
圖目錄 XVI
第一章、緒論 1
1.1 研究動機與目的 1
1.2 文獻回顧 2
1.3 論文架構與貢獻 4
第二章、使用RGBD 攝影機之三維影像重建 6
2.1 Kinect 攝影機簡介 6
2.2 深度影像預處理 7
2.2.1 Kinect 深度資訊串轉換 8
2.2.2 深度影像填補 9
2.3 三維影像重建 10
2.3.1 色彩與深度資訊擬合 11
2.3.2 相機內部參數 12
2.3.3 相機外部參數與世界座標系 13
2.3.4 手眼校正 15
第三章、機械手臂運動學模型 17
3.1 基於DH 表之順向運動學 17
3.2 機器人雅可比矩陣 23
3.2.1 微分旋轉變化 24
3.2.2 幾何解機器人雅可比矩陣 26
3.3 微分運動學與雅可比矩陣零空間投影 27
第四章、基於危險能量場之障礙物避免策略 29
4.1 危險能量場與危險程度 29
4.2 危險能量場與末端避障命令 33
4.3 基於關節空間再分配方法之連桿避障策略 35
4.3.1 風險函數與連桿限制 35
4.3.2 雅可比矩陣零空間飽和再分配演算法 37
4.4 Reflexxes Motion Library 41
第五章、實驗架構與結果分析 44
5.1 實驗架構 44
5.1.1 實驗設備 44
5.1.2 實驗場景 46
5.1.3 系統架構 46
5.2 實驗方法及結果分析 47
5.2.1 Kinect 深度影像修復結果 47
5.2.2 障礙物偵測與基於危險能量場之避障命令生成結果 49
5.2.3 RML 約束軌跡急跳度與零空間飽和再分配結果 52
第六章、結論與建議 70
6.1 結論 70
6.2 未來展望與建議 71
參考文獻 73
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