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論文名稱(中文) 一百萬元的微笑:戴爾‧卡內基《贏得友誼》與1930 年代美國成功手冊的歷史
論文名稱(英文) The Smile Worth a Million: Dale Carnegie’s How to Win Friends and Influence People and the History of Success Manuals in 1930s
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 歷史學系
系所名稱(英) Department of History
學年度 103
學期 2
出版年 104
研究生(中文) 王瑋麟
研究生(英文) Wei-Lin Wang
學號 K36001083
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 80頁
口試委員 共同指導教授-王秀雲
指導教授-陳恒安
口試委員-李鑑慧
口試委員-孫隆基
口試委員-劉開鈴
中文關鍵字 戴爾‧卡內基  成功手冊  消費社會  推銷術  他人導向的人格特質  中產階級白人男性 
英文關鍵字 Dale Carnegie  success manual  consumer society  salesmanship  other-directed personality  middle-class white males 
學科別分類
中文摘要 本文將美國成功手冊作家戴爾‧卡內基(Dale Carnegie,1888—1955)於1930年代出版的著作《如何贏得友誼並影響他人》(How to Win Friends and Influence People)與以往的成功手冊比較,探討其歷史特殊性。

本文主要以出版於1870年代至1930年代期間的成功手冊,包括了卡內基的《贏得友誼》以及他的其它著作,作為分析與探討的材料。在分析和探討的過程中,本文將《贏得友誼》置放於成功手冊的歷史脈絡。藉此,本文發現《贏得友誼》在某些面向上不同於以往的成功手冊,這些成功手冊包括了班傑明‧富蘭克林(Benjamin Franklin ,1706—1790)的《自傳》(The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin,1791)、斯邁爾(Samuel Smiles ,1812—1904)的《自助》(Self-help,1860)。卡內基所列舉出來的典範人物往往是事業有成的企業家、銷售員或業務員。其次,卡內基所給予讀者的關於如何成功的建議,並不是被以往的成功手冊作家所不斷地強調的那些勤勞、節儉的美德,而是某種推銷術。

此外,卡內基的《贏得友誼》所預設的目標讀者是那些為大企業工作的員工(尤其是銷售員、業務員),而不是那些居住在鄉村或小城鎮的、擁有屬於自己的事業的零售商或小地主——這些人是以往的成功手冊的目標讀者。卡內基的目標讀者通常也是中產階級白人男性。然而,他書中所描繪的成功者,似乎與以往的成功的中產階級白人男性非常不同,尤其是卡內基給予讀者的建議,如保持微笑、避免樹敵,給人一種缺少陽剛特質的印象。

本文最後指出,卡內基是在美國社會逐漸轉變為大企業主導下的消費社會的年代中出版《贏得友誼》。在消費社會中,大企業須確保其商品或服務得以快速且持續地受到消費才能維持其賴以作為大企業的龐大組織。大企業將那些受到以往的成功手冊作家所推崇的勤奮、節儉等美德,視為潛在的敵人,同時以標準化的方式來量產更多的銷售員或業務員,協助其開拓市場。大企業開始尋求推銷術,想要把推銷的技巧、經驗快速地傳授給新進的員工。如此,大企業所做的努力改變了美國社會,也改變了銷售員或業務員作為一種職業的工作方式與內容。卡內基的《贏得友誼》若不是在這樣子的時代背景下出版,恐怕難以引起廣大的美國社會大眾的共鳴。
英文摘要 This thesis examines the historical significances of Dale Carnegie’s How to Win Friends and Influence People (published in 1936), one of the best-selling self-help books in the twentieth century America. I focus particularly on the differences between How to Win Friends and previous success manuals.

This thesis shows that the book appealed to a wide readership, particularly white middle-class males working for large corporations. The advices that were offered in the book such as keeping a smile or avoiding confrontations, seem to indicate the decline of the form masculinity that can be commonly found in previous success manuals.

This thesis concludes that the rise of the consumer society paved the way for the popularity of Carnegie’s How to Win Friends.
論文目次 第一章 前言 1
第二章 卡內基與成功手冊 19
第一節 卡內基以前的成功手冊 19
第二節 卡內基作為1930年代的成功手冊作家 32
第三節 小結 37
第三章 卡內基與中產階級白人男性 38
第一節 卡內基的目標讀者 38
第二節 卡內基給其讀者的訊息 45
第三節 小結 50
第四章 卡內基與消費社會 52
第一節 大企業與消費者 52
第二節 大企業與業務員、銷售員 59
第三節 大企業所帶來的衝擊 62
第四節 小結 66
第五章 結論 68
參考文獻
(一) 史料  74
(二) 英文參考書目 77
(三) 中文參考書目 80
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