||Ecological study on the relationship among food supply, consumption and health: time trend and across-nation analyses
||Institute of Environmental and Occupational Health
Food Security Index
Nutrient Security Index
food balance sheet (FBS)
Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan (NAHSIT)
plant-to-animal food supply ratios
方法：以農委會糧食平衡表1991年至2010年數據，依衛生主管機關建議的飲食指南每份食物份量基準，計算六大類食物每人日供應份數，對比於飲食指南建議的六大類食物份數和國人膳食營養素參考攝取量（Dietary Reference Intakes），可得 ”供應量-建議量比”（supply-to-needs ratio, S-Nr）；另以1993-1996年、2005-2008年二次國民營養狀況變遷調查抽樣族群的六大類食物攝取量，對比於飲食指南建議份數，可得”攝取量-建議量比”（Intake-to-needs ratio, I-Nr）。將二估計值計算幾何平均（geometric means），所得數字與1.0相比，為本研究所發展的糧食或營養素安全指數（Food Security Indices，FSIs，Nutrient Security Indices，NSIs）。此外，選取聯合國糧農組織公告的會員國糧食平衡表糧食供應數據，比較1984-2009年期間，台灣與鄰近的東亞、南亞、東南亞各前三大國、及北美、南美、澳紐、歐洲、非洲五大洲和全球總平均的糧食供應隨年代變化的狀況，並用北美、澳紐、歐洲三區經人口數加權計算所得之每人日六大類食物可獲量為「西方飲食參考值」，計算台灣和東亞、南亞、東南亞各前三大國共十國的飲食可獲量與「西方飲食參考值」對比後反應的飲食西化程度。
Aims. To track Taiwanese food and nutrient supplies and population intake against the nutrition recommendations by food security indices which used designed by the author to evaluate food insecurity, and to compare quality, quantity, and trends of food supply and degree of food westernization in Taiwan from 1984 to 2009 compared with Asian countries and world continents by using FAO/UN and Taiwan food balance data.
Methods. Food balance sheets from 1991 to 2010 were used to estimate food and nutrient supplies and data from 1993-1996 (n = 3,915) and 2005-2008 (n = 2,908) Taiwanese Nutrition and Health Surveys to assess intake of Taiwanese population. Levels of age-and-gender specific Food Guides and Dietary Reference Intakes were multiplied by the population size and then summed to determine food and nutrient needs. Food Security Indices (FSIs) and Nutrient Security Indices (NSIs) were defined as the geometric means of supply-to-needs ratio (S-Nr) and intake-to-needs ratio (I-Nr) with reference to an ideal of 1.0. Higher values indicate potential food insecurity. Food balance sheets of Taiwan and international countries, including five continents and three most populated countries each in Eastern, Southern, and South Eastern Asia over the period 1984-2009 were compared to evaluate the quantity and quality of food supply per capita referenced to Taiwan food guides. The population-weighted means of food supply from Europe, North America, South America, and Australia & New Zealand Continents in terms of energy and nutrient distributions, animal/plant sources, and sugar/alcohol contribution were used as indicators of westernization. Trends of food supply per capita of six food groups were plotted, and linear regression was applied to evaluate food changes.
Results. From 1997 to 2010, the S-Nr for most food categories and nutrients decreased; dairy products and vegetables fell below the recommendations in 2010. For food intake, all except cereals/roots increased between the two surveys, but only vegetables and soy/fish/meat/egg met the needs in 2005-2008. For both surveys, high FSIs for dairy (2.16, 2.26) were due to low supply and low intake, and those for soy/fish/meat/egg (1.78, 1.91) to oversupply and overconsumption. The FSIs for fruit improved from 1.50 to 1.17, with a smaller supply but more consumption. NSIs explained the FSIs. Comparing quantity and quality of food supply internationally for the period of 1984-2009, Taiwan’s food supply provided sufficient quantity in food energy, with the lowest cereals/roots supply and rice to wheat ratio, but the highest meat and oil supplies per capita among the 10 studied Asian countries. Taiwan food supply showed the most westernization among these countries as indicated by high animal-derived energy (kcal, %kcal), daily dietary protein, protein from animal source, daily dietary fat, fat from animal source, the lowest cereals/roots per capita, and the lowest plant-to-animal energy ratio.
Conclusion. Novel FSI and NSI algorisms were developed in this study. FSIs and NSIs capture composite information about the food supply, intake, and recommendations, which allows food security to be monitored with action-points of 1.0 for food and nutrition policy. Food supply of Taiwan, although currently sufficient, indicated some security problems. Evaluation of the quantity, quality, and trends reflected by food balance data of Taiwan indicated a high tendency of diet westernization when compared with neighborhood Asian countries as well as world continents. These time trend, across nation analyses reveal some relationship among Taiwanese food supply, consumption and health.
CHAPTER 1.INTRODUCTION 1
CHAPTER 2.OBJECTIVES 5
CHAPTER 3.METHODS 6
2.Annual food and nutrient availability 7
3.Food and nutrient needs 8
4.Population food and nutrient intakes 9
5.Food Security Index and Nutrient Security Index algorithms and formulae 9
6.Comparison of Asian countries and world continents 11
7.Indices of food westernization 12
8.Data management and statistical analysis 12
CHAPTER 4.RESULTS 13
1.Food and nutrient availabilities, example of the year 2010 13
2.Trends in Taiwan FBS foods and nutrients, 1991–2010 14
3.Food and nutrient intakes from 1993-1996 to 2005-2008 15
4.Food and nutrient intakes and their relation to needs (I-Nr) from 1993-1996 to 2005-2008 15
5.Food and Nutrient Security Indices 15
6.Comparison of quantity of food supply 16
7.Comparison of food supply and plant-to-animal ratios of Asian countries 18
8.Comparison of dietary westernization indices 19
CHAPTER 5.DISCUSSION 20
1.Food and Nutrient Security Indices 20
2.Food commodities from food balance sheets, the food security index, and the needs-based algorithms 22
3.Discrepancies in supply data 23
4.Dietary surveys and the food security index 23
5.Dietary guidance and needs 24
6.Population considerations 24
11.Other settings 27
CHAPTER 6.CONCLUSIONS 29
CHAPTER 7.REFERENCES 30
CHAPTER 8.APPENDIXES 74
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