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系統識別號 U0026-1005201608125700
論文名稱(中文) 糧食供應、飲食攝取和健康的生態研究:跨年代及跨國分析
論文名稱(英文) Ecological study on the relationship among food supply, consumption and health: time trend and across-nation analyses
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 環境醫學研究所
系所名稱(英) Institute of Environmental and Occupational Health
學年度 104
學期 2
出版年 105
研究生(中文) 彭巧珍
研究生(英文) Cheau-Jane Peng
電子信箱 cjpeng2010@gmail.com
學號 S78021050
學位類別 博士
語文別 英文
論文頁數 84頁
口試委員 召集委員-陳國東
指導教授-郭浩然
口試委員-潘文涵
口試委員-蘇世斌
口試委員-王應然
中文關鍵字 糧食安全指數  營養素安全指數  糧食平衡表  台灣營養狀況變遷調查  食物供應  植物性來源與動物性來源熱量比  飲食西化程度 
英文關鍵字 Food Security Index  Nutrient Security Index  food balance sheet (FBS)  Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan (NAHSIT)  food supply  plant-to-animal food supply ratios  dietary westernization 
學科別分類
中文摘要 目的:整合我國糧食和營養素供應量、國人飲食實際攝取量數據,和飲食建議攝取量三者,發展一套食物與營養素安全指標,藉以評估我國的食物和營養素安全程度,並追蹤比較1984年至2009年間,台灣與亞洲九大國、世界各大洲、與全球平均,食物充裕度和飲食西化程度。
方法:以農委會糧食平衡表1991年至2010年數據,依衛生主管機關建議的飲食指南每份食物份量基準,計算六大類食物每人日供應份數,對比於飲食指南建議的六大類食物份數和國人膳食營養素參考攝取量(Dietary Reference Intakes),可得 ”供應量-建議量比”(supply-to-needs ratio, S-Nr);另以1993-1996年、2005-2008年二次國民營養狀況變遷調查抽樣族群的六大類食物攝取量,對比於飲食指南建議份數,可得”攝取量-建議量比”(Intake-to-needs ratio, I-Nr)。將二估計值計算幾何平均(geometric means),所得數字與1.0相比,為本研究所發展的糧食或營養素安全指數(Food Security Indices,FSIs,Nutrient Security Indices,NSIs)。此外,選取聯合國糧農組織公告的會員國糧食平衡表糧食供應數據,比較1984-2009年期間,台灣與鄰近的東亞、南亞、東南亞各前三大國、及北美、南美、澳紐、歐洲、非洲五大洲和全球總平均的糧食供應隨年代變化的狀況,並用北美、澳紐、歐洲三區經人口數加權計算所得之每人日六大類食物可獲量為「西方飲食參考值」,計算台灣和東亞、南亞、東南亞各前三大國共十國的飲食可獲量與「西方飲食參考值」對比後反應的飲食西化程度。
結果:從1997年至2010年,許多食物和營養素的”供應量-建議量比(S-Nr)”出現明顯下降情形,2010年為例,乳製品和蔬菜類已經跌至1.0以下,亦即全國平均每人日的糧食供應已經不足符合每人日的建議攝取量。至於食物實際攝取量,第二次國民營養調查所見的六大類食物攝取,除了全穀雜糧類外,其餘五大類食物均有增加,但也僅有蔬菜類在2005-2008調查時達到飲食指南建議的每人每日3份攝取。以本研究所發展的糧食或營養素安全指數計算,二次調查都以乳製品的糧食安全指數(FSI)最高(分別為2.16、2.26),原因是低供應量外加低攝取量。而豆魚肉蛋類的糧食安全指數為次高,二次調查時FSI分別為1.78和1.91,其原因是過高的供應量和過高的攝取量。水果類的FSI於二次調查分別為1.50和1.17,其情況是稍低於建議量的供應和稍高的攝取。營養素的NSI與糧食的FSI相當平行。台灣與亞洲九國、五大洲、和全球總平均在1984-2009的糧食供應變化,台灣的食物能量供應相當充裕,然而全穀雜糧類每人日可獲量、米麥可獲量比二數值均為最低、豆魚肉蛋類、油脂與堅果類則是亞洲十國中最高。亞洲十國的飲食西化程度比較,台灣在動物來源提供的熱量(熱量絕對值、佔總熱量百分比)、蛋白質總量、動物性蛋白質量、脂肪總量、動物性脂肪量各指數均為亞洲十國之冠,全穀雜糧類每人日可獲量、植物性來源與動物性來源熱量比則皆為十國最低,由此可推知,台灣的飲食西化程度是鄰近十國之中最高者。
結論:本研究發展一套糧食安全指數和營養素安全指數運算邏輯,其特色是結合糧食供應、人民實際攝取、和健康飲食建議三面相於一體,亦即是基於人民健康基礎的糧食和營養素安全指數,而糧食安全指數和營養素安全指數計算公式相當友善,以1.0為基準,容易辨識、可為跨食物類別和不同年代比較的客觀指標。台灣的六大類糧食供應,表面看來充裕,但趨勢線上已可觀察到一些糧食安全上的隱憂;又,與亞洲鄰國相比,台灣的飲食西化程度情況最明顯。以上跨年代、跨國的糧食供應分析,提供台灣糧食供應、食物攝取與健康的相關訊息,可提供政策及學術面參酌。
英文摘要 Aims. To track Taiwanese food and nutrient supplies and population intake against the nutrition recommendations by food security indices which used designed by the author to evaluate food insecurity, and to compare quality, quantity, and trends of food supply and degree of food westernization in Taiwan from 1984 to 2009 compared with Asian countries and world continents by using FAO/UN and Taiwan food balance data.
Methods. Food balance sheets from 1991 to 2010 were used to estimate food and nutrient supplies and data from 1993-1996 (n = 3,915) and 2005-2008 (n = 2,908) Taiwanese Nutrition and Health Surveys to assess intake of Taiwanese population. Levels of age-and-gender specific Food Guides and Dietary Reference Intakes were multiplied by the population size and then summed to determine food and nutrient needs. Food Security Indices (FSIs) and Nutrient Security Indices (NSIs) were defined as the geometric means of supply-to-needs ratio (S-Nr) and intake-to-needs ratio (I-Nr) with reference to an ideal of 1.0. Higher values indicate potential food insecurity. Food balance sheets of Taiwan and international countries, including five continents and three most populated countries each in Eastern, Southern, and South Eastern Asia over the period 1984-2009 were compared to evaluate the quantity and quality of food supply per capita referenced to Taiwan food guides. The population-weighted means of food supply from Europe, North America, South America, and Australia & New Zealand Continents in terms of energy and nutrient distributions, animal/plant sources, and sugar/alcohol contribution were used as indicators of westernization. Trends of food supply per capita of six food groups were plotted, and linear regression was applied to evaluate food changes.
Results. From 1997 to 2010, the S-Nr for most food categories and nutrients decreased; dairy products and vegetables fell below the recommendations in 2010. For food intake, all except cereals/roots increased between the two surveys, but only vegetables and soy/fish/meat/egg met the needs in 2005-2008. For both surveys, high FSIs for dairy (2.16, 2.26) were due to low supply and low intake, and those for soy/fish/meat/egg (1.78, 1.91) to oversupply and overconsumption. The FSIs for fruit improved from 1.50 to 1.17, with a smaller supply but more consumption. NSIs explained the FSIs. Comparing quantity and quality of food supply internationally for the period of 1984-2009, Taiwan’s food supply provided sufficient quantity in food energy, with the lowest cereals/roots supply and rice to wheat ratio, but the highest meat and oil supplies per capita among the 10 studied Asian countries. Taiwan food supply showed the most westernization among these countries as indicated by high animal-derived energy (kcal, %kcal), daily dietary protein, protein from animal source, daily dietary fat, fat from animal source, the lowest cereals/roots per capita, and the lowest plant-to-animal energy ratio.
Conclusion. Novel FSI and NSI algorisms were developed in this study. FSIs and NSIs capture composite information about the food supply, intake, and recommendations, which allows food security to be monitored with action-points of 1.0 for food and nutrition policy. Food supply of Taiwan, although currently sufficient, indicated some security problems. Evaluation of the quantity, quality, and trends reflected by food balance data of Taiwan indicated a high tendency of diet westernization when compared with neighborhood Asian countries as well as world continents. These time trend, across nation analyses reveal some relationship among Taiwanese food supply, consumption and health.
論文目次 CHAPTER 1.INTRODUCTION 1
CHAPTER 2.OBJECTIVES 5
CHAPTER 3.METHODS 6
1.Database 6
2.Annual food and nutrient availability 7
3.Food and nutrient needs 8
4.Population food and nutrient intakes 9
5.Food Security Index and Nutrient Security Index algorithms and formulae 9
6.Comparison of Asian countries and world continents 11
7.Indices of food westernization 12
8.Data management and statistical analysis 12
CHAPTER 4.RESULTS 13
1.Food and nutrient availabilities, example of the year 2010 13
2.Trends in Taiwan FBS foods and nutrients, 1991–2010 14
3.Food and nutrient intakes from 1993-1996 to 2005-2008 15
4.Food and nutrient intakes and their relation to needs (I-Nr) from 1993-1996 to 2005-2008 15
5.Food and Nutrient Security Indices 15
6.Comparison of quantity of food supply 16
7.Comparison of food supply and plant-to-animal ratios of Asian countries 18
8.Comparison of dietary westernization indices 19
CHAPTER 5.DISCUSSION 20
1.Food and Nutrient Security Indices 20
2.Food commodities from food balance sheets, the food security index, and the needs-based algorithms 22
3.Discrepancies in supply data 23
4.Dietary surveys and the food security index 23
5.Dietary guidance and needs 24
6.Population considerations 24
7.Sustainability 24
8.Westernization 25
9.Limitations 26
10.Implications 27
11.Other settings 27
CHAPTER 6.CONCLUSIONS 29
CHAPTER 7.REFERENCES 30
CHAPTER 8.APPENDIXES 74
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