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系統識別號 U0026-1002201515180300
論文名稱(中文) 台灣北部觀音山鈣鹼質岩漿地球化學特性:結晶分化及岩漿起源之意涵
論文名稱(英文) Geochemical characteristics of the calc-alkaline magmas from Kuanyinshan in northern Taiwan: Implications on crystal fractionation and magma origin
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 地球科學系
系所名稱(英) Department of Earth Sciences
學年度 103
學期 1
出版年 104
研究生(中文) 林育嘉
研究生(英文) Yu-Chia Lin
學號 L46011015
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 136頁
口試委員 指導教授-楊懷仁
口試委員-何恭算
口試委員-蕭炎宏
中文關鍵字 觀音山  安山岩  結晶分化  高鋁玄武岩 
英文關鍵字 Kuanyinshan  andesite  crytal fractionation  high-alumina basalt 
學科別分類
中文摘要 觀音山火成岩位於臺灣北部火山帶西南端,為單一中心噴發的複式火山,Chen(1990)認為臺灣北部火山帶普遍具有高鋁玄武岩,卻未明確指出觀音山地區有高鋁玄武岩產出,本研究以觀音山火成岩之岩象、礦物化學、主要與微量元素含量以及Sr、Nd與Hf同位素組成探討岩漿演化過程及源區特性。
本研究採自觀音山地區火成岩樣本共43件,依據Hwang及Lo(1986)提出地層單位將樣本分為四類:普通輝石玄武岩質安山岩(Augite basaltic andesite;PA)、兩輝石安山岩(Two-pyroxene andesite;TPA)、紫蘇輝石安山岩(Hypersthene andesite;HA)及橄欖石玄武岩(Olivine Basalt;OB),而HA樣本若含角閃石斑晶,則再細分為紫蘇輝石-角閃石安山岩(Hypersthene-Hornblende andesite;HHA)。4類樣本產狀差異極大,可於野外直接分類。
由主要元素含量分類圖(Na2O + K2O對SiO2做圖、AFM圖、FeO/MgO比值對SiO2含量做圖及K2O含量對SiO2含量做圖)得知觀音山火成岩為鈣鹼質岩漿,以MgO含量推測觀音山火成岩受到結晶分化作用影響,非原始岩漿。若將La對其他微量元素做圖,觀音山本體熔岩流PA、TPA、HA及HHA四群樣本自身呈現連續性分佈,此現象不能由同源區岩漿經過結晶分化作用所產生,亦無法以簡單的岩漿混合作用解釋,故觀音山本體熔岩流四群樣本必需來自不同源區之岩漿,並且各自經歷不同礦物相之結晶分化作用所產生。觀音山火成岩稀土元素分佈圖呈輕稀土元素富集及重稀土元素虧損之型態。整體不相容元素分佈圖顯示,觀音山火成岩皆具Nb、Ta及Ti等高場強元素負異常,及Cs、Rb及Ba等大離子岩石圈元素高度富集、輕稀土元素富集以及明顯Pb正異常之典型島弧特徵。
根據Crawford et al.(1987)與Draper及Johnston(1992)對高鋁玄武岩之定義,本研究認為樣本PA-5及PA-6屬高鋁玄武岩。觀音山本體熔岩流各層成份變化可以結晶分化作用解釋。由MgO含量及87Sr/86Sr比值做圖以及石英顆粒產狀推測觀音山火成岩中,僅PA樣本曾受地殼混染影響。混雜模擬結果顯示以99-99.5%貧脊地函與0.5-1%固體沉積物混雜源區,與觀音山火成岩具有相似之87Sr/86Sr及143Nd/144Nd同位素比值。
英文摘要 The petrogenesis of Kuanyinshan lavas is still unclear. All rock samples collected from Kuanyinshan area were sliced and ground for petrographic and bulk chemical analyses. The results showed that five lava groups forming Kuanyinshan were evolved from different parental magmas, which cannot be related by fractional crystallization and magma mixing. We used the hightest-MgO samples from each group as hypothetical parental magmas to model Rayleigh crystal fractionation with different crystal mineral assemblages. Involvement of metasomatic agents composed of depleted mantle and bulk sediments in the source region can account for Kuanyinshan lavas.
論文目次 目錄
摘要 I
Abstract III
致謝 VI
目錄 VII
章節目錄 VII
表目錄 IX
圖目錄 X

章節目錄
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 前言 1
1.2 地質背景 3
1.3 文獻分析 5
1.4 研究目的 9
第二章 研究方法及原理 10
2.1 野外採樣與樣本編號及分類 10
2.2 岩象觀察 12
2.3 礦物化學分析 12
2.4 礦物比例分析 13
2.4.1 軟體介紹 13
2.4.2 分析流程 14
2.5 全岩主要及微量元素分析 20
2.5.1 X光螢光分析(XRF) 20
2.5.2 樣本酸溶處理 21
2.5.3 四極式感應耦合電漿質譜儀分析(Q-ICP-MS) 22
2.6 Sr-Nd-Hf同位素分析 23
2.6.1 Hf元素層析 24
2.6.2 多接收器感應耦合電將質譜儀分析(MC-ICP-MS) 27
2.6.3 Sr-Nd元素層析 29
2.6.4 熱離子源質譜儀分析(TIMS) 30
第三章 分析結果 31
3.1 岩象 32
3.2 礦物化學 40
3.3 主要元素 46
3.4 微量元素 57
3.4.1 檢測微量元素精確度 57
3.4.2 微量元素含量 70
3.5 87Sr/86Sr-143Nd/144Nd-176Hf/177Hf同位素比值 76
第四章 討論 80
4.1 觀音山火成岩之高鋁特性 80
4.2 觀音山火成岩受風化作用影響 82
4.3 觀音山本體熔岩流結晶分化機制 84
4.3.1 以結晶分化模擬計算觀音山本體熔岩流PA樣本成份變化 87
4.3.2 以結晶分化模擬計算觀音山本體熔岩流TPA樣本成份變化 88
4.3.3 以結晶分化模擬計算觀音山本體熔岩流HA樣本及HHA樣本成份變化 96
4.3.4 以結晶分化模擬計算觀音山本體熔岩流成份變化小結 97
4.4 觀音山火成岩受地殼混染影響 104
4.5 地函源區成份性質 106
4.6 擬礦物相三角圖探討 111
第五章 結論 114
參考文獻 116
中文文獻 116
英文文獻 117
附錄 131



表目錄
表3- 1觀音山火成岩之岩性分類比較表。 31
表3- 2 觀音山火成岩樣本之斑晶礦物種類及比例。 33
表3- 3觀音山火成岩礦物主要元素成份表。 41
表3- 4觀音山火成岩主要元素含量(%)、微量元素濃度(ppm)及Sr-Nd-Hf同位素。 48
表3- 5 觀音山火成岩與斐濟島岩性比較表。 55
表3- 6觀音山火成岩微量元素濃度(ppm)及偏差值。 59
表4- 1高鋁玄武岩定義與觀音山火成岩成份比較表。 81
表4- 2模擬結晶分化計算之分配係數表。 86
表4- 3貧脊及富化端元成份與沉積物於熔融或脫水物質間分配係數表。 109


圖目錄
圖1- 1台灣附近板塊構造及北部火山帶(NTVZ)岩體分佈圖。 4
圖1- 2觀音山地質圖及其附近火成岩體相對位置。 8
圖2- 1觀音山樣本及露頭照片。 11
圖2- 2以影像處理計算礦物比例步驟0之示意圖。 15
圖2- 3以影像處理計算礦物比例步驟1之示意圖。 16
圖2- 4以影像處理計算礦物比例步驟2之示意圖(1)。 16
圖2- 5以影像處理計算礦物比例步驟2之示意圖(2)。 17
圖2- 6以影像處理計算礦物比例步驟3之示意圖(1)。 17
圖2- 7以影像處理計算礦物比例步驟3之示意圖(2)。 18
圖2- 8以影像處理計算礦物比例步驟4之示意圖。 18
圖2- 9以影像處理計算礦物比例步驟5之示意圖。 19
圖2- 10以影像處理計算礦物比例步驟6之示意圖。 19
圖2- 11日本新潟大學理學部地質科學系之X光螢光分析儀。 21
圖2- 12樣本酸溶處理流程圖。 22
圖2- 13 Sr-Nd-Hf管柱層析流程見圖。 23
圖2- 14 176Hf/177Hf比值化學前處理之第一根層析管柱示意圖。 25
圖2- 15 176Hf/177Hf比值化學前處理之第二根層析管柱示意圖。 26
圖2- 16 176Hf/177Hf比值化學前處理之第二根層析管柱沖提圖。 26
圖2- 17多接收器感應耦合電將質譜儀原理示意圖。 28
圖2- 18多接收器感應耦合電將質譜儀。 29
圖3- 1觀音山火成岩PA樣本中斜輝石大斑晶BEI影像。 34
圖3- 2觀音山火成岩PA樣本中具環帶斜輝石斑晶BEI影像。 34
圖3- 3觀音山火成岩PA樣本中橄欖石斑晶BEI影像。 35
圖3- 4觀音山火成岩TPA樣本中斜輝石及直揮石斑晶BEI影像。 35
圖3- 5觀音山火成岩TPA樣本中橄欖石斑晶BEI影像。 36
圖3- 6觀音山火成岩HHA樣本中直輝石及斜長石斑晶BEI影像。 36
圖3- 7觀音山火成岩HHA樣本中角閃石斑晶BEI影像。 37
圖3- 8觀音山火成岩HHA樣本中較大斜長石斑晶BEI影像。 37
圖3- 9觀音山火成岩OB樣本中橄欖石斑晶BEI影像。 38
圖3- 10觀音山火成岩OB樣本中斜輝石斑晶BEI影像。 38
圖3- 11觀音山火成岩PA樣本中,石英顆粒BEI影像。 39
圖3- 12觀音山火成岩分類圖。 53
圖3- 13觀音山火成岩分類圖。 55
圖3- 14觀音山火成岩MgO含量對其他氧化物變異圖。 56
圖3- 15 ICP-MS分析不同質量數與XRF分析結果相對圖。 63
圖3- 16 ICP-MS及XRF量測Y濃度之整體不相容元素比較圖。 68
圖3- 17 157Gd及160Gd稀土元素分佈比較圖。 69
圖3- 18觀音山火成岩相容元素濃度對MgO含量做圖。 71
圖3- 19 觀音山火成岩鑭元素對其他微量元素含量變異圖。 72
圖3- 20觀音山火成岩樣本經球粒隕石標準化稀土元素分佈圖。 75
圖3- 21觀音山火成岩不同岩性樣本之稀土元素分佈比較圖。 75
圖3- 22觀音山火成岩樣本經原始地函標準化不相容元素分佈圖。 76
圖3- 23觀音山火成岩87Sr/86Sr-143Nd/144Nd比值與其他端元成份比較圖。 77
圖3- 24觀音山火成岩87Sr/86Sr-143Nd/144Nd-176Hf/177Hf比值圖。 78
圖3- 25觀音山火成岩87Sr/86Sr-143Nd/144Nd比值圖。 78
圖3- 26觀音山火成岩87Sr/86Sr、143Nd/144Nd及176Hf/177Hf比值對噴發時間做圖。 79

圖4- 1 Rb/Sr比值與La元素分佈圖。 83
圖4- 2第一組分配係數模擬觀音山PA樣本結晶分化曲線圖。 90
圖4- 3第二組分配係數模擬觀音山PA樣本結晶分化曲線圖。 91
圖4- 4 第三組分配係數模擬觀音山PA樣本結晶分化曲線圖。 92
圖4- 5第一組分配係數模擬觀音山TPA樣本結晶分化曲線圖。 93
圖4- 6第二組分配係數模擬觀音山TPA樣本結晶分化曲線圖。 94
圖4- 7第三組分配係數模擬觀音山TPA樣本結晶分化曲線圖。 95
圖4- 8第一組分配係數模擬觀音山HA樣本結晶分化曲線圖。 98
圖4- 9第二組分配係數模擬觀音山HA樣本結晶分化曲線圖。 99
圖4- 10第三組分配係數模擬觀音山HA樣本結晶分化曲線圖。 100
圖4- 11第一組分配係數模擬觀音山HHA樣本結晶分化曲線圖。 101
圖4- 12第二組分配係數模擬觀音山HHA樣本結晶分化曲線圖。 102
圖4- 13第三組分配係數模擬觀音山HHA樣本結晶分化曲線圖。 103
圖4- 14觀音山火成岩87Sr/86Sr比值對MgO含量變化圖。 105
圖4- 15貧脊地函與固體沉積物混雜模擬結果。 109
圖4- 16貧脊地函與沉積物熔融物質混雜模擬結果。 110
圖4- 17貧脊地函與沉積物脫水物質混雜模擬結果。 110
圖4- 18觀音山火成岩擬礦物相三角圖。 113
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