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系統識別號 U0026-1002201012354100
論文名稱(中文) GPS/Galileo 單頻即時動態定位效能分析
論文名稱(英文) A Feasibility Study of GPS/Galileo Single-frequency RTK Positioning
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 測量及空間資訊學系碩博士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Geomatics
學年度 98
學期 1
出版年 99
研究生(中文) 沈力洋
研究生(英文) Li-Yang Shen
學號 p6696104
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 80頁
口試委員 指導教授-楊名
口試委員-吳究
口試委員-黃金維
中文關鍵字 單頻  即時動態定位  全球導航衛星系統  Galileo  虛擬參考站  e-GPS 
英文關鍵字 single-frequency  RTK  GNSS  Galileo  VRS  e-GPS 
學科別分類
中文摘要 GPS 即時動態定位(Real-Time Kinematic, RTK)是目前最廣泛被應用在測量工程中的衛星定位技術,相較於傳統的雙頻 RTK,單頻的觀測量的週波值解算效率明顯低於雙頻,使得實務應用仍有困難。然而單頻的接收儀在價格上有其優勢,且在未來歐洲的導航衛星系統 Galileo 的加入運作後,預期可以有更強的衛星幾何及觀測數加速單頻 RTK 的解算效率。本文將設計一種單頻 RTK 的演算方法,為達到定位的即時性,計算的核心技術採用卡曼濾波器(Kalman filter),而整數週波值的搜尋採用的是低相關化週波值搜尋法(LAMBDA method);為降低系統誤差影響及基線距離限制,研究中將配合台灣 e-GPS 系統之虛擬參考站(Virtual Reference Station, VRS)技術以達到高精度的需求。

文中將藉由整天 24小時真實單頻接收儀觀測量與模擬產生的 GPS/Galileo 觀測量來驗證單頻 RTK 之效能。實驗將 RTK 系統分成三種組合:(1)GPS/Galileo 雙系統單頻:L1/E1;(2)GPS 單系統雙頻:L1/L2;(3)GPS 單系統單頻:L1。成果顯示出未來的整合系統 GPS/Galileo 單頻 RTK 週波值解算效益將是最高,可大於現行的 GPS 單、雙頻 RTK;定位精度方面也顯示整合系統單頻 RTK 之3-D RMS 優於傳統雙頻 RTK ,有將近百分之四十五的提昇。隨著多系統 GNSS時代的到來,本研究成果指出未來使用 GPS/Galileo 單頻接收儀,以 VRS-RTK 進行即時動態定位的解算效益與精度將會超越傳統的 GPS 雙頻接收儀,且可滿足一般的即時動態定位需求,配合現行 e-GPS 系統,將是台灣 RTK 使用者最有效、最經濟之定位模式。
英文摘要 Today, real-time kinematic (RTK) positioning is the most widely used GNSS technique in surveying engineering. Compared with dual-frequency RTK, even though single-frequency receivers have the cost advantage, single-frequency RTK lacks enough measurements for quick and reliable carrier phase ambiguity resolution. This situation is about to change. The European Galileo constellation is scheduled to be completed by 2013 and it will be interoperable with the existing GPS system. This combined system (GPS/Galileo) will provide twice as many satellites as today’s GPS (30), and thus it should substantially promote the application of single-frequency RTK. The model designed for single-frequency RTK based on Kalman filter and using LAMBDA method to resolve integer carrier phase ambiguities. To decrease the impact of system biases, the Virtual Reference Station (VRS) technique would be applied by Taiwan e-GPS system.

The performance of integer phase ambiguity resolution was assessed with 24-h actual GPS data and simulated GPS/Galileo data in three different scenarios: (1) single-frequency GPS (GPS L1), (2) dual-frequency GPS (GPS L1/L2), and (3) single-frequency GPS/Galileo (GPS L1/Galileo E1). Comparison results show that, among the three scenarios, the best ambiguity resolution and positioning accuracy performance are achieved with single-frequency GPS/Galileo, as a result of its much improved geometry strength. This indicates that the future dual-system RTK can be practically built with low-cost single-frequency receivers. And it should have a great impact on many engineering applications.
論文目次 摘要 I
Abstract II
誌謝 III
目錄 IV
表目錄 VI
圖目錄 VII
第一章 緒論 1
§1-1 前言 1
§1-2 研究背景與文獻回顧 2
§1-3 研究動機與目的 5
§1-4 研究方法 6
§1-5 論文架構 7
第二章 全球導航衛星系統與即時動態定位 9
§2-1 GPS與Galileo發展近況 9
§2-1-1 GPS現代化 10
§2-1-2 歐盟Galileo計畫 11
§2-2 GNSS定位原理 14
§2-2-1 GNSS系統參數整合 15
§2-2-2 GPS/Galileo觀測方程式 16
§2-2-3 觀測量誤差來源 17
§2-2-4 GNSS相對定位 20
§2-3 即時動態定位(Real-Time Kinematic) 24
§2-4 虛擬參考站即時動態定位(Virtual Reference Station RTK)26
§2-5 台灣e-GPS即時動態電子基準站觀測網 29
第三章 單頻即時動態定位演算法設計 31
§3-1 衛星觀測資料處理 32
§3-2 卡曼濾波器設計 35
§3-2-1 動態方程式 36
§3-2-2 觀測方程式 38
§3-2-3 卡曼濾波運算流程 40
§3-3 OTF整數週波值求解 41
§3-3-1 LAMBDA低相關化搜尋整數解 42
§3-3-2 決定正確整數週波值 46
§3-4 單頻即時動態定位解算流程 48
第四章 單頻RTK實驗成果分析 49
§4-1 RTK效能分析方法 49
§4-2 實驗組一:大地型GPS雙頻接收儀測試分析 51
§4-3 實驗組二:GNSS單頻接收儀與虛擬參考站測試分析 54
§4-3-1 實驗儀器介紹 54
§4-3-2 實驗場設計 57
§4-3-3 單頻接收儀RTK成果分析 59
第五章 GNSS模擬資料RTK成果分析 62
§5-1 GNSS模擬資料原理與流程 62
§5-1-1 星群模擬 63
§5-1-2 觀測量誤差模擬 66
§5-1-3 產生GPS/Galileo模擬觀測量 66
§5-2 GPS/Galileo單頻RTK成果分析 68
第六章 結論與建議 73
參考文獻 76

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