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論文名稱(中文) 觸覺體驗教材與兒童創造力之關聯研究─以國小生活課程為例
論文名稱(英文) A Study of Tactile Experience Teaching Materials and Children's Creativity
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 工業設計學系
系所名稱(英) Department of Industrial Design
學年度 103
學期 2
出版年 104
研究生(中文) 劉素瑜
研究生(英文) Su-Yu Liu
學號 P36004140
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
論文頁數 84頁
口試委員 指導教授-馬敏元
口試委員-何俊亨
口試委員-陳國祥
口試委員-游曉貞
中文關鍵字 兒童培育  創造力啟發  觸覺體驗  國小生活課程 
英文關鍵字 Child development  Creativity  Tactile experience  Life curriculum 
學科別分類
中文摘要   創造力學說自Guilford開始已有約半世紀的歷史,在講求創新、多元化的二十一世紀,創造力的培育更是廣受重視。許多學者認為,兒童時期是創造力啟發的黃金時期,啟發創造力的方式有多種,而覺知領域的擴增,意即增加兒童生活中視、聽、味、嗅、觸的五感體驗,亦有助於創造力的提昇(Montessori, 1914; Cross, 1983; Tschimmel, 2005; 山本美芽, 2006)。然而,在加強感官體驗的各種創造力研究之中,觸覺體驗是在兒童時期十分關鍵、卻容易被忽略的一環。因此,本研究之目的為「在國小生活課程中,藉由觸覺教材的教學與體驗,探討觸覺體驗與創造力之關聯性。」
  教材的設計分為三單元(三堂課),帶領孩子在溫濕度、軟硬度、光滑度等主題下進行觸覺體驗。本次共有三個國小一年級的班級參與實驗,在一組對照組之外,更以二實驗組來探討視、觸不同體驗順序對創造力啟發造成的影響。在教學的前、後,以陶倫斯創造思考測驗(Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking,TTCT)作為實驗工具,進行創造力的量測;測驗所得之創造力總分以ANOVA及成對T檢定進行分析。
  分析結果發現,觸覺教材的確能提昇兒童的創造力。三組中體驗順序為觸覺─視覺的實驗組B在測驗前、後的創造力總分差異達到顯著(p = .037 < .05),特別是在於標題力(p = .0115 < .05)及開放力(p = .011 < .05)有顯著進步。藉此,本研究針對兒童創造力之啟發,提出三項主要的觸覺教材設計原則:
  (1) 體驗順序之安排:經由觸覺先入的程序以屏蔽視覺,能恢復接受觸覺刺激的 能力,避免視覺經驗的覆蓋,維持兒童探索的精神。
  (2) 標題力的提昇:體驗過程中不斷鼓勵兒童表達感受,培養他們將觸覺經驗轉譯成語彙的能力。
  (3) 開放力的提昇:豐富兒童的觸覺生活經驗,並在教學中思想保持開放,傳達「沒有正確答案」的觀念,幫助兒童建立多元的思考方式。
英文摘要 It is already over half a century since Guilford put forward The theory of creativity. In 21st century, the period of high innovation and diversification, cultivating creativity become more and more important. To many scholars, childhood is the golden age to enlighten people’s creativity. There are many ways to inspire creativity. Furthermore, it’s benefit to strengthen children’s creativity by increasing the experiences of the sense of sight, the sense of hearing, the sense of taste, the sense of smell and the sense of touch in their childhood (Montessori, 1914; Cross, 1983; Tschimmel, 2005; Yamamoto, 2006). However, among all the researches of sense-organs perception strengthening, the tactile experiences are crucial but easily neglected in childhood. Therefore, the purpose of this research is to discuss the relation between the tactile experiences and creativity by using some tactile teaching materials in elementary school’s classes.

The teaching materials are divided to three topics: dry/moist, soft/hard, and smooth/rough. There were three 1st grade classes joined this program. One class was control group, the other two classes were treatment groups, which used the teaching materials in different visual and tactile order. Before and after the teaching, TTCT was taken to measure children’s creativity, and the scores of creativity was analyzed through ANOVA and T-test.

After analyzed the total score of creativity from these three groups, the result shows that Treatment group B has the obvious progress in this program, especially on the abilities “Abstractness of Titles” and “Resistance to Premature Closure”. Thence, it was proof that tactile teaching materials would help in inspiring children’s creativity, and three main principles for design the teaching materials were found:
(1) The order in tactile experience: Touching the object without looking first will avoid to effect by sense of sight but received the stimulation by tactile channel.
(2) Increase abstractness of titles: Encourage children to express their own feeling, try to turn all tactile feeling into description.
(3) Increase Resistance to premature closure: Enrich children’s tactile experience, let them build up habit of diverse thinking rather than end up the question rashly.
論文目次 摘要 i
SUMMARY ii
誌謝 iii
TABLE OF CONTENTS iv
LIST OF TABLES vii
LIST OF FIGURES viii
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Research Background and Motivation 1
1.2 Research Hypothesis 4
1.3 Research Purpose 4
1.4 Research Field 5
1.5 Research Framework 6
CHAPTER 2 CITATION AND REFERENCE 7
2.1 Child Development 7
2.1.1 Development of body 8
2.1.2 Development of cognition 8
2.1.3 Development and nurture of creativity 11
2.1.4 Summary of the paragraph 12
2.2 Sensory Experience 13
2.2.1 The Basic Research of Tactile 13
2.2.2 Tactile Experience 15
2.2.3 Complex experience of visual and tactile senses 17
2.3 Creativity Theory 19
2.3.1 Connotation of creativity 19
2.3.2 Teaching creativity 20
2.3.3 Measuring creativity 21
2.4 Primary School Life Curriculum 23
2.4.1 Content of life curriculum 23
2.4.2 Life curriculum teaching design 26
CHAPTER 3 TEACHING MATERIALS AND COURSE DESIGN 27
3.1 Tactile Material Selection 27
3.1.1 Types of materials 27
3.1.2 Types of tactile impressions 28
3.1.3 Participants 30
3.1.4 Strength of tactile impressions: testing & result 30
3.2 Teaching Materials and Course Design 32
3.2.1 Lesson one─sense of warm/ cold, dry/ moist 33
3.2.2 Lesson two─sense of light & thin/ heavy & thick, hard/ soft, elastic/ inelastic 35
3.2.3 Lesson three─sense of smooth/ rough, textured/ no texture 37
CHAPTER 4 INSTRUCTION AND TESTING 40
4.1 Experimental Subjects and Grouping 41
4.2 The Process of Tactile Experience 42
4.3 The Way of Creativity Measuring 44
CHAPTER 5 RESULT AND ANALYSIS 46
5.1 Results and Analysis of Creativity Test 46
5.1.1 Pretest of creativity test 46
5.1.2 Posttest of creativity test 53
5.1.3 Analysis of five subscales of creativity 55
5.2 Observation of Children's Vocabulary Expressing Behavior in Class 56
5.3 Comprehensive Discussion 59
5.3.1 Relevance of tactile experience teaching material to inspiration of creativity 59
5.3.2 Impact of visual and tactile sensation sequence on inspiring creativity 60
5.3.3 Design principles for tactile experience teaching material 61
CHAPTER 6 CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS 64
6.1 Conclusion 64
6.1.1 Applying tactile teaching materials in life curriculum 64
6.1.2 The connection between tactile teaching materials and creativity inspiring 64
6.1.3 The principle of designing tactile teaching material 65
6.2 Prospect 66
REFERENCES 67
Appendix 73
A. Score of tactile impressions 73
A.1 Sense of Warm/ Cold 73
A.2 Sense of Light & Thin/ Heavy & Thick 74
A.3 Sense of Dry/ Moist 75
A.4 Sense of Hard/ Soft 76
A.5 Sense of Smooth/ Rough 77
A.6 Sense of Elastic/ Inelastic 78
A.7 Sense of Textured/ No Texture 79
B. Consent of Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking 80
C. Score of Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking 81
C.1 Score of control group 81
C.2 Score of treatment group A 82
C.3 Score of treatment group B 83
D. Timetable of experiment 84
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