||Technology Integration Mechanism, Knowledge Integration Mechanism, and Organizational Absorptive Capacity on New Product Development Performance
||Department of Business Administration
Technology Integration Mechanism
Knowledge Integration Mechanism
New Product Development
隨著環境與顧客需求的快速變遷，傳統的產品創新方式已不足以滿足顧客對新產品的需求，促使企業紛紛向外尋求夥伴廠商的協助並進行更深入的互動，以提供符合創新、快速且符合客戶需求的新產品。而在雙方資訊與知識分享的過程中，如何進行科技面與知識面上的整合，以及增進組織的知識吸收能力，便成為廠商於開發新產品時的關鍵能力。準此，本研究結合企業社會資本理論(corporate social capital)、智慧資本(intellectual capital)及吸收能力(absorptive capacity)架構，探討組織內外部資源整合對科技整合機制與知識整合機制，以及知識吸收能力對新產品開發的影響。自產業取得204份有效問卷，並以驗證性因素分析(CFA)及結構方程模型(SEM)進行分析。資料分析結果顯示，企業社會資本中的結構資本與共享文化對科技與知識整合機制皆有正向影響；智慧資本中則僅組織資本對知識整合機制產生影響。另外，組織的科技與知識整合機制對知識吸收能力有正面的影響，而知識吸收能力則會進一步對新產品開發產生正向影響。最後，本研究建議廠商在利用外部知識協助開發新產品時，必須建立在充分的互動關係基礎上，並提供良善的組織環境使員工願意貢獻知識，同時增進組織資本的累積；當組織藉由內部機制整合既有內外部資源後，便能強化組織的吸收能力，達到增進組織新產品開發績效的目標。
With the rapid changes now occurring in the environment, traditional product innovation is insufficient to satisfy customer requirements. In order to provide new products that are more innovative and are suited to customer needs, enterprises have started to look for help from external partners. Consequently, determining a method by which to integrate technology and knowledge on both sides and to enhance knowledge absorption in the information sharing process has become more critical as firms launch new product development (NPD). Thus, this study combines corporate social capital (CSC), intellectual capital and absorptive capacity (ACAP) into a context, discussing the influence of internal/external resource integration on technology and knowledge integration mechanisms (TIM and KIM) and ACAP’s effect on NPD. 204 valid responses were collected. Both confirmatory factor analysis and the structural equation model were adopted for data analysis. The results of the data analysis indicated that structural capital and the shared culture of CSC positively affect TIM and KIM, while organizational capital was shown to have a positive influence on KIM. Moreover, TIM and KIM were shown to have a positive influence on ACAP, resulting in a further positive effect on NPD. Finally, this study suggests that firms have to establish interaction bases if they intend to utilize external knowledge to assist NPD. In addition, firms should offer a friendly environment to encourage employees to be more willing to contribute their knowledge.
CHAPTER 1 Introduction 1
1.1 Research Background and Motivations 1
1.2 Research Objectives 4
1.3 Research Procedure 5
CHAPTER 2 Literature Review 7
2.1 Corporate Social Capital 7
2.1.1. Structural Capital 9
2.1.2. Relational Capital 12
2.1.3. Cognitive Capital 17
2.2 Intellectual Capital 21
2.2.1 Human Capital 22
2.2.2 Organizational Capital 24
2.3 Technology Integration Mechanisms 26
2.4 Knowledge Integration Mechanisms 29
2.5 Absorptive Capacity 31
2.6 New Product Development and Performance 36
2.7 Conceptual Framework 39
2.8 Hypothesis Development 41
2.8.1. Corporate Social Capital and Integration Mechanisms 41
2.8.2 Intellectual Capital and Integration Mechanisms 48
2.8.3 Technology Integration Mechanisms and Knowledge Integration Mechanisms 51
2.8.4 Technology and Knowledge Integration Mechanisms and Absorptive Capacity 52
2.8.5 Absorptive Capacity and New Product Development Performance 56
CHAPTER 3 Research Method 59
3.1 Constructs and Hypotheses 59
3.1.1 Construct Definition 59
3.1.2 Hypotheses 61
3.2 Measurement Development 63
3.3 Pilot Test 65
3.4 Procedure of Data Analysis 70
CHAPTER 4 Research Analyses & Results 71
4.1 Data Collection and Demographics Analysis 71
4.2 Descriptive Analysis 74
4.3 Measurement Model Analysis 78
4.3.1. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) 78
4.3.2. Reliability Analysis and Convergent Validity 88
4.3.3. Discriminant Validity Analysis 90
4.4 Hypothesis Testing 91
4.5 Additional Analysis 96
4.5.1 T-test and ANOVA Analysis 96
(1) Seniority 96
(2) Industry 98
(3) Size 103
(4) Capital 104
4.5.2 Additional Analysis on Corporate Social Capital 106
CHAPTER 5 Conclusions & Recommendations 109
5.1 Research Findings 109
(1) Structural Capital (Interaction Ties) and TIM 109
(2) Structural Capital (Interaction Ties) and KIM 110
(3) Relational Capital (Trust & Reciprocity) and TIM 111
(4) Relational Capital (Trust & Reciprocity) and KIM 111
(5) Cognitive Capital (Shared Language & Culture) and TIM 112
(6) Cognitive Capital (Shared Language & Culture) and KIM 114
(7) Human Capital and KIM 115
(8) Organizational Capital and KIM 116
(9) TIM and KIM 117
(10) TIM and KIM’s Effect on Organizational Absorptive Capacity 118
(11) Absorptive Capacity on New Product Development Performance 119
5.2 Demographic Condition ANOVA on Variable 120
5.3 The Findings from Exploratory Factor Analysis 121
5.4 Theoretical Implications 122
5.5 Managerial Implications 123
5.6 Limitations and Directions for Future Research 125
Appendix (A) Pilot Test Questionnaire 146
Appendix (B) Formal Questionnaire 149
List of Tables
Table 3-1 The Definition of Variables and Dimensions 60
Table 3-2 Research Hypotheses 62
Table 3-3 Analyzed Result of Pilot Test (N=30) 67
Table 4-1 Respondent Characteristics (N=204) 73
Table 4-2 Descriptive Analysis of Scale Items on Each Variable (N=204) 75
Table 4-3 Result of Confirmatory Factor Analysis (N=204) 79
Table 4-4 Results of Measurement Model Fit for Confirmatory Factor Analysis 88
Table 4-5 Results of Convergent Validity and Reliability Analysis 89
Table 4-6 Results of Discriminant Validity Analysis 91
Table 4-7 Results of SEM Model Fit 92
Table 4-8 Results of SEM Paths Analysis 96
Table 4-9 T-test Analysis on the effect of Seniority on Each Variable 97
Table 4-10 ANOVA of Different Industry Divisions on Each Variable 99
Table 4-11 ANOVA of Size Level on Each Variable 103
Table 4-12 ANOVA of Different Capital Level on Each Variable 105
Table 4-13 Results of SEM Paths Analysis (Additional Analysis) 108
List of Figures
Figure 1-1 Research Procedures 6
Figure 2-1 Research Framework 40
Figure 4-1 Result of 1st Order CFA 84
Figure 4-2 Result of 2nd Order CFA (TIM) 85
Figure 4-3 Result of 2nd Order CFA (ACAP) 86
Figure 4-4 Result of 2nd Order CFA (NPD) 87
Figure 4-5 Results of SEM 94
Figure 4-6 Results of SEM (Additional Analysis) 107
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