進階搜尋


下載電子全文  
系統識別號 U0026-0908201622262100
論文名稱(中文) 甲基安非他命藥物記憶的消除可透過mGluR5來調控
論文名稱(英文) Extensive Extinction-Elicited Inhibition of Methamphetamine-Primed Drug Memory Is Mediated by the Metabotropic Glutamate 5 Receptor
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 藥理學研究所
系所名稱(英) Department of Pharmacology
學年度 104
學期 2
出版年 105
研究生(中文) 黃建軒
研究生(英文) Chien-Hsuan Huang
學號 S26021096
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
論文頁數 83頁
口試委員 召集委員-陳柏熹
口試委員-林惠菁
指導教授-簡伯武
中文關鍵字 場地制約偏好  藥物成癮 
英文關鍵字 condictioned place preference  addiction 
學科別分類
中文摘要 成癮是一種慢性疾病,可以被視為是一種不良學習及藥物記憶形成的疾病。一般記憶消除(extinction)的方式可以覆蓋掉原初的藥物記憶,但是這樣的方式很容易又會再復發。而加強記憶消除的強度就可以達到消除藥物記憶再復發的傾向。
AMPA受體有參與記憶形成的過程。近期的研究已證實了AMPA受體中的其中一種subunit,GluR2,在記憶消除後於NAcore腦區的表現量會增加。缺乏GluR2的AMPA受體是鈣離子通透型的AMPA受體。儘管如此,鈣離子通透型的AMPA受體在記憶消除中的角色仍然並不清楚。此外,在之前的研究當中已知,麩胺酸第5型受體(metabotropic glutamate receptors 5, mGluR5)在恐懼記憶中會藉由增加突觸後細胞AMPA受體的內吞作用來誘導長期抑制現象。因此,麩胺酸第5型受體在記憶消除的角色值得被討論。
這裡我們使用場地制約偏好(conditioned place preference, CPP)的動物行為模式,尋找一個能夠更有效使甲基安非他命(methamphetamine)藥物記憶忘卻的方法以及理解其背後的作用機制。小鼠使用甲基安非他命條件制約(conditioning)三天後,會顯著地增加其待在與藥物有配對的空間中,顯示使用甲基安非他命會引發明顯的回饋效果(reward effect)。之後小鼠會再使用生理食鹽水(saline)制約6天或10天來消除甲基安非他命的藥物記憶。我們發現把消除記憶的時間從6天延長至10天(extensive extinction, EE)可以避免甲基安非他命藥物記憶的復發。接著我們使用電生理的方式確認了強化記憶消除作用(extensive extinction, EE)的AMPA受體於突觸上的表現量會降低,而一般記憶消除作用則不會。鈣離子通透型的AMPA受體的比例在強化記憶消除作用中會降低,一般記憶消除作用則不會。此外,我們發現在一般記消除作用時同時活化麩胺酸第5型受體會產生和強化記憶消除作用一樣的結果:避免藥物記憶復發、減少突觸上AMPA受體和鈣離子通透型AMPA受體的比例。之後我們再使用西方墨點法(western blot)來確認突觸上AMPA受體的subunit,GluR2,的表現量。結果顯示強化記憶消除作用和一般記消除作用時同時活化麩胺酸第5型受體都會使表面上GluR2的表現量下降。相反地,在強化記憶消除作用時同時抑制麩胺酸第5型受體則會破壞強化記憶消除作用的結果,使結果類似於一般記消除作用。這些結果顯示甲基安非他命藥物記憶的記憶消除作用會受到麩胺酸第5型受體的調控,以及鈣離子通透型AMPA受體在這些過程當中扮演重要的角色。
英文摘要 Addiction is a chronic disorder, which can be regarded as a disorder of abnormal learning and memory formation. Extinction can cover original drug memory, but easily relapses. Facilitated extinction would diminish the propensity to relapse. AMPA receptors (AMPARs) are involved in memory processes. Recent researches have demonstrated that GluR2, one of AMPARs subunits, expression was increased in NAcore after extinction. Lacking-GluR2 AMPARs are calcium-permeable AMPARs (CP-AMPARs). However, the role of CP-AMPARs in the memory impairment is still unclear. Moreover, in previous studies, activation of metabotropic glutamate receptors 5 (mGluR5) induced long-term depression attributable to the endocytosis of postsynaptic AMPARs in fear conditioning. Therefore, the role of mGluR5 in the memory impairment remains to be clarified. Here we used a conditioned place preference (CPP) protocol to seek a more effective extinction methodology of methamphetamine (MeAM) memory and delineate its underlying mechanism. Conditioning MeAM for 3 days in mice markedly increased the time spent in the MeAM-paired compartment indicating that MeAM induced a significant rewarding effect. The mice were then conditioned with saline for 6 or 10 days to extinction MeAM memory. We found that prolongation of extinction duration from 6 to 10 days (extensive extinction) prevented MeAM priming effect. Then we used electrophysiology to confirm the synaptic insertion of AMPARs reduced in EE, but not in extinction. The percentage of CP-AMPARs decreased in EE, but not in extinction. Additionally, we found that extinction with mGluR5 activation had similar results to EE: reduced relapse after extinction, decreased synaptic AMPARs and the percentage of CP-AMPARs. Moreover, we used western blot to investigate the surface level of GluR2 subunit of AMPARs and the results showed EE and extinction with mGluR5 activation down regulated the surface of GluR2. On the contrary, EE with mGluR5 inhibition suppressed the results of EE. It had similar results to extinction. These data indicated that EE training-elicited inhibition of MeAM-primed reinstatement is mediated by the metabotropic glutamate 5 receptor and CP-AMPARs play an important role in these processes.
論文目次 中文摘要Abstract in Chinese 2
英文摘要Abstract in English 5
Content 8
圖表索引Lists of Figures and Tables 9
縮寫檢索表Abbreviations 11
Chapter 1: Introduction 13
Chapter 2: Specific Aims 30
Chapter 3: Material and methods 32
Chapter 4: Results 43
Chapter 5: Discussion 65
References 73
參考文獻 Anwyl R (2009). Metabotropic glutamate receptor-dependent long-term potentiation. Neuropharmacology 56(4): 735-740.

Auerbach BD, Osterweil EK, Bear MF (2011). Mutations causing syndromic autism define an axis of synaptic pathophysiology. Nature 480(7375): 63-68.

Bali A, Randhawa PK, Jaggi AS (2015). Stress and opioids: role of opioids in modulating stress-related behavior and effect of stress on morphine conditioned place preference. Neuroscience and biobehavioral reviews 51: 138-150.

Bassani S, Folci A, Zapata J, Passafaro M (2013). AMPAR trafficking in synapse maturation and plasticity. Cellular and molecular life sciences : CMLS 70(23): 4411-4430.

Bellone C, Luscher C (2006). Cocaine triggered AMPA receptor redistribution is reversed in vivo by mGluR-dependent long-term depression. Nature neuroscience 9(5): 636-641.

Blackshaw LA, Page AJ, Young RL (2011). Metabotropic glutamate receptors as novel therapeutic targets on visceral sensory pathways. Frontiers in neuroscience 5: 40.

Boehm J, Kang MG, Johnson RC, Esteban J, Huganir RL, Malinow R (2006). Synaptic incorporation of AMPA receptors during LTP is controlled by a PKC phosphorylation site on GluR1. Neuron 51(2): 213-225.

Bossert JM, Liu SY, Lu L, Shaham Y (2004). A role of ventral tegmental area glutamate in contextual cue-induced relapse to heroin seeking. The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 24(47): 10726-10730.

Bowie D, Mayer ML (1995). Inward rectification of both AMPA and kainate subtype glutamate receptors generated by polyamine-mediated ion channel block. Neuron 15(2): 453-462.

Broussard JI (2012). Co-transmission of dopamine and glutamate. The Journal of general physiology 139(1): 93-96.

Brown RM, Stagnitti MR, Duncan JR, Lawrence AJ (2012). The mGlu5 receptor antagonist MTEP attenuates opiate self-administration and cue-induced opiate-seeking behaviour in mice. Drug and alcohol dependence 123(1-3): 264-268.

Cadet JL, Brannock C, Jayanthi S, Krasnova IN (2015). Transcriptional and epigenetic substrates of methamphetamine addiction and withdrawal: evidence from a long-access self-administration model in the rat. Molecular neurobiology 51(2): 696-717.

Chen CK, Lin SK, Sham PC, Ball D, Loh EW, Hsiao CC, et al (2003). Pre-morbid characteristics and co-morbidity of methamphetamine users with and without psychosis. Psychological Medicine 33(8): 1407-1414.

Clem RL, Barth A (2006). Pathway-specific trafficking of native AMPARs by in vivo experience. Neuron 49(5): 663-670.

Clem RL, Huganir RL (2010). Calcium-permeable AMPA receptor dynamics mediate fear memory erasure. Science (New York, NY) 330(6007): 1108-1112.

Clem RL, Huganir RL (2013). Norepinephrine enhances a discrete form of long-term depression during fear memory storage. The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 33(29): 11825-11832.

Cleva RM, Gass JT, Widholm JJ, Olive MF (2010). Glutamatergic targets for enhancing extinction learning in drug addiction. Current neuropharmacology 8(4): 394-408.

Collier AD, Khan KM, Caramillo EM, Mohn RS, Echevarria DJ (2014). Zebrafish and conditioned place preference: a translational model of drug reward. Progress in neuro-psychopharmacology & biological psychiatry 55: 16-25.

Collingridge GL, Peineau S, Howland JG, Wang YT (2010). Long-term depression in the CNS. Nature reviews Neuroscience 11(7): 459-473.

Cowen MS, Krstew E, Lawrence AJ (2007). Assessing appetitive and consummatory phases of ethanol self-administration in C57BL/6J mice under operant conditions: regulation by mGlu5 receptor antagonism. Psychopharmacology 190(1): 21-29.

Davis HP, Squire LR (1984). Protein synthesis and memory: a review. Psychological bulletin 96(3): 518-559.

Descarries L, Berube-Carriere N, Riad M, Bo GD, Mendez JA, Trudeau LE (2008). Glutamate in dopamine neurons: synaptic versus diffuse transmission. Brain research reviews 58(2): 290-302.

Doerks T, Copley RR, Schultz J, Ponting CP, Bork P (2002). Systematic identification of novel protein domain families associated with nuclear functions. Genome research 12(1): 47-56.

Donevan SD, Rogawski MA (1995). Intracellular polyamines mediate inward rectification of Ca(2+)-permeable alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 92(20): 9298-9302.

Du J, Creson TK, Wu LJ, Ren M, Gray NA, Falke C, et al (2008). The role of hippocampal GluR1 and GluR2 receptors in manic-like behavior. The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 28(1): 68-79.

Dudai Y, Eisenberg M (2004). Rites of passage of the engram: reconsolidation and the lingering consolidation hypothesis. Neuron 44(1): 93-100.

Fowler SW, Walker JM, Klakotskaia D, Will MJ, Serfozo P, Simonyi A, et al (2013). Effects of a metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 positive allosteric modulator, CDPPB, on spatial learning task performance in rodents. Neurobiology of learning and memory 99: 25-31.

Francesconi A, Duvoisin RM (2000). Opposing effects of protein kinase C and protein kinase A on metabotropic glutamate receptor signaling: selective desensitization of the inositol trisphosphate/Ca2+ pathway by phosphorylation of the receptor-G protein-coupling domain. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 97(11): 6185-6190.

Fuchs RA, Weber SM, Rice HJ, Neisewander JL (2002). Effects of excitotoxic lesions of the basolateral amygdala on cocaine-seeking behavior and cocaine conditioned place preference in rats. Brain research 929(1): 15-25.

Ghavipanjeh GR, Pourshanazari AA, Alaei H, Karimi S, Nejad MA (2015). Effects of Temporary Inactivation and Electrical Stimulation of the Dorsal Raphe Nucleus on Morphine-induced Conditioned Place Preference. The Malaysian journal of medical sciences : MJMS 22(2): 33-40.

Godino A, Jayanthi S, Cadet JL (2015). Epigenetic landscape of amphetamine and methamphetamine addiction in rodents. Epigenetics : official journal of the DNA Methylation Society: 0.

Grobler SR, Chikte U, Westraat J (2011). The pH Levels of Different Methamphetamine Drug Samples on the Street Market in Cape Town. ISRN dentistry 2011: 974768.

Haering SC, Tapken D, Pahl S, Hollmann M (2014). Auxiliary subunits: shepherding AMPA receptors to the plasma membrane. Membranes 4(3): 469-490.

Hanley JG (2014). Subunit-specific trafficking mechanisms regulating the synaptic expression of Ca(2+)-permeable AMPA receptors. Seminars in cell & developmental biology 27: 14-22.

Hardt O, Nader K, Wang YT (2014). GluA2-dependent AMPA receptor endocytosis and the decay of early and late long-term potentiation: possible mechanisms for forgetting of short- and long-term memories. Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London Series B, Biological sciences 369(1633): 20130141.

Hart CL, Marvin CB, Silver R, Smith EE (2012). Is cognitive functioning impaired in methamphetamine users? A critical review. Neuropsychopharmacology : official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology 37(3): 586-608.

Hayashi T, Huganir RL (2004). Tyrosine phosphorylation and regulation of the AMPA receptor by SRC family tyrosine kinases. The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 24(27): 6152-6160.

He K, Song L, Cummings LW, Goldman J, Huganir RL, Lee HK (2009). Stabilization of Ca2+-permeable AMPA receptors at perisynaptic sites by GluR1-S845 phosphorylation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 106(47): 20033-20038.

Henley JM, Wilkinson KA (2013). AMPA receptor trafficking and the mechanisms underlying synaptic plasticity and cognitive aging. Dialogues in clinical neuroscience 15(1): 11-27.

Hong I, Kim J, Kim J, Lee S, Ko HG, Nader K, et al (2013). AMPA receptor exchange underlies transient memory destabilization on retrieval. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 110(20): 8218-8223.

Horio M, Fujita Y, Hashimoto K (2013). Therapeutic effects of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 positive allosteric modulator CDPPB on phencyclidine-induced cognitive deficits in mice. Fundamental & clinical pharmacology 27(5): 483-488.

Incontro S, Ciruela F, Ziff E, Hofmann F, Sanchez-Prieto J, Torres M (2013). The type II cGMP dependent protein kinase regulates GluA1 levels at the plasma membrane of developing cerebellar granule cells. Biochimica et biophysica acta 1833(8): 1820-1831.

Inda MC, Muravieva EV, Alberini CM (2011). Memory retrieval and the passage of time: from reconsolidation and strengthening to extinction. The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 31(5): 1635-1643.

Ito R, Robbins TW, McNaughton BL, Everitt BJ (2006). Selective excitotoxic lesions of the hippocampus and basolateral amygdala have dissociable effects on appetitive cue and place conditioning based on path integration in a novel Y-maze procedure. The European journal of neuroscience 23(11): 3071-3080.

Jia Z, Lu YM, Agopyan N, Roder J (2001). Gene targeting reveals a role for the glutamate receptors mGluR5 and GluR2 in learning and memory. Physiology & behavior 73(5): 793-802.

Knackstedt LA, Moussawi K, Lalumiere R, Schwendt M, Klugmann M, Kalivas PW (2010). Extinction training after cocaine self-administration induces glutamatergic plasticity to inhibit cocaine seeking. The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 30(23): 7984-7992.

Koh DS, Burnashev N, Jonas P (1995). Block of native Ca(2+)-permeable AMPA receptors in rat brain by intracellular polyamines generates double rectification. The Journal of physiology 486 ( Pt 2): 305-312.

Kourrich S, Rothwell PE, Klug JR, Thomas MJ (2007). Cocaine experience controls bidirectional synaptic plasticity in the nucleus accumbens. The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 27(30): 7921-7928.

Kroker KS, Rast G, Rosenbrock H (2011). Differential effect of the mGlu5 receptor positive allosteric modulator ADX-47273 on early and late hippocampal LTP. Neuropharmacology 61(4): 707-714.

Kufahl PR, Hood LE, Nemirovsky NE, Barabas P, Halstengard C, Villa A, et al (2012). Positive Allosteric Modulation of mGluR5 Accelerates Extinction Learning but Not Relearning Following Methamphetamine Self-Administration. Frontiers in pharmacology 3: 194.

Kullmann DM, Lamsa KP (2007). Long-term synaptic plasticity in hippocampal interneurons. Nature reviews Neuroscience 8(9): 687-699.

Lamsa KP, Heeroma JH, Somogyi P, Rusakov DA, Kullmann DM (2007). Anti-Hebbian long-term potentiation in the hippocampal feedback inhibitory circuit. Science (New York, NY) 315(5816): 1262-1266.

Lee S, Kim SJ, Kwon OB, Lee JH, Kim JH (2013). Inhibitory networks of the amygdala for emotional memory. Frontiers in neural circuits 7: 129.

Li X, Meng L, Huang K, Wang H, Li D (2015). Environmental enrichment blocks reinstatement of ethanol-induced conditioned place preference in mice. Neuroscience letters 599: 92-96.

Lin CW, Chen CY, Cheng SJ, Hu HT, Hsueh YP (2014). Sarm1 deficiency impairs synaptic function and leads to behavioral deficits, which can be ameliorated by an mGluR allosteric modulator. Frontiers in cellular neuroscience 8: 87.

Liu SQ, Cull-Candy SG (2000). Synaptic activity at calcium-permeable AMPA receptors induces a switch in receptor subtype. Nature 405(6785): 454-458.

Lynch G, Cox CD, Gall CM (2014). Pharmacological enhancement of memory or cognition in normal subjects. Frontiers in systems neuroscience 8: 90.

Mahanty NK, Sah P (1998). Calcium-permeable AMPA receptors mediate long-term potentiation in interneurons in the amygdala. Nature 394(6694): 683-687.

Mantsch JR, Weyer A, Vranjkovic O, Beyer CE, Baker DA, Caretta H (2010). Involvement of noradrenergic neurotransmission in the stress- but not cocaine-induced reinstatement of extinguished cocaine-induced conditioned place preference in mice: role for beta-2 adrenergic receptors. Neuropsychopharmacology : official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology 35(11): 2165-2178.

Mao LM, Liu XY, Zhang GC, Chu XP, Fibuch EE, Wang LS, et al (2008). Phosphorylation of group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR1/5) in vitro and in vivo. Neuropharmacology 55(4): 403-408.

Mao SC, Chang CH, Wu CC, Orejarena MJ, Manzoni OJ, Gean PW (2013). Inhibition of spontaneous recovery of fear by mGluR5 after prolonged extinction training. PloS one 8(3): e59580.

Menard C, Tse YC, Cavanagh C, Chabot JG, Herzog H, Schwarzer C, et al (2013). Knockdown of prodynorphin gene prevents cognitive decline, reduces anxiety, and rescues loss of group 1 metabotropic glutamate receptor function in aging. The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 33(31): 12792-12804.

Milton AL, Everitt BJ (2012). The persistence of maladaptive memory: addiction, drug memories and anti-relapse treatments. Neuroscience and biobehavioral reviews 36(4): 1119-1139.

Montagud-Romero S, Aguilar MA, Maldonado C, Manzanedo C, Minarro J, Rodriguez-Arias M (2015). Acute social defeat stress increases the conditioned rewarding effects of cocaine in adult but not in adolescent mice. Pharmacology, biochemistry, and behavior 135: 1-12.

Moult PR, Gladding CM, Sanderson TM, Fitzjohn SM, Bashir ZI, Molnar E, et al (2006). Tyrosine phosphatases regulate AMPA receptor trafficking during metabotropic glutamate receptor-mediated long-term depression. The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 26(9): 2544-2554.

Mueller D, Stewart J (2000). Cocaine-induced conditioned place preference: reinstatement by priming injections of cocaine after extinction. Behavioural brain research 115(1): 39-47.

Nestler EJ (2008). Review. Transcriptional mechanisms of addiction: role of DeltaFosB. Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London Series B, Biological sciences 363(1507): 3245-3255.

Nestler EJ (2012). Transcriptional mechanisms of drug addiction. Clinical psychopharmacology and neuroscience : the official scientific journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology 10(3): 136-143.

Niciu MJ, Kelmendi B, Sanacora G (2012). Overview of glutamatergic neurotransmission in the nervous system. Pharmacology, biochemistry, and behavior 100(4): 656-664.

Palmer CL, Cotton L, Henley JM (2005). The molecular pharmacology and cell biology of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors. Pharmacological reviews 57(2): 253-277.

Parsons RG, Ressler KJ (2013). Implications of memory modulation for post-traumatic stress and fear disorders. Nature neuroscience 16(2): 146-153.

Phelps EA, Lempert KM, Sokol-Hessner P (2014). Emotion and decision making: multiple modulatory neural circuits. Annual review of neuroscience 37: 263-287.

Quirk GJ, Mueller D (2008). Neural mechanisms of extinction learning and retrieval. Neuropsychopharmacology : official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology 33(1): 56-72.

Radfar SR, Rawson RA (2014). Current research on methamphetamine: epidemiology, medical and psychiatric effects, treatment, and harm reduction efforts. Addiction & health 6(3-4): 146-154.

Renthal W, Nestler EJ (2009). Chromatin regulation in drug addiction and depression. Dialogues in clinical neuroscience 11(3): 257-268.

Robison AJ, Nestler EJ (2011). Transcriptional and epigenetic mechanisms of addiction. Nature reviews Neuroscience 12(11): 623-637.

Rodriguez-Arias M, Castillo A, Daza-Losada M, Aguilar MA, Minarro J (2009). Effects of extended cocaine conditioning in the reinstatement of place preference. Physiology & behavior 96(4-5): 620-630.

Seidenman KJ, Steinberg JP, Huganir R, Malinow R (2003). Glutamate receptor subunit 2 Serine 880 phosphorylation modulates synaptic transmission and mediates plasticity in CA1 pyramidal cells. The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 23(27): 9220-9228.

Snyder EM, Philpot BD, Huber KM, Dong X, Fallon JR, Bear MF (2001). Internalization of ionotropic glutamate receptors in response to mGluR activation. Nature neuroscience 4(11): 1079-1085.

Sun Y, Zong W, Zhou M, Ma Y, Wang J (2015). Pre-conditioned place preference treatment of chloral hydrate interrupts the rewarding effect of morphine. Pharmacology, biochemistry, and behavior.

Suzuki A, Josselyn SA, Frankland PW, Masushige S, Silva AJ, Kida S (2004). Memory reconsolidation and extinction have distinct temporal and biochemical signatures. The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 24(20): 4787-4795.

Tye KM, Deisseroth K (2012). Optogenetic investigation of neural circuits underlying brain disease in animal models. Nature reviews Neuroscience 13(4): 251-266.

Uchino M, Sakai N, Kashiwagi K, Shirai Y, Shinohara Y, Hirose K, et al (2004). Isoform-specific phosphorylation of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 by protein kinase C (PKC) blocks Ca2+ oscillation and oscillatory translocation of Ca2+-dependent PKC. The Journal of biological chemistry 279(3): 2254-2261.

Ungless MA, Whistler JL, Malenka RC, Bonci A (2001). Single cocaine exposure in vivo induces long-term potentiation in dopamine neurons. Nature 411(6837): 583-587.

Wang JQ, Guo ML, Jin DZ, Xue B, Fibuch EE, Mao LM (2014). Roles of subunit phosphorylation in regulating glutamate receptor function. European journal of pharmacology 728: 183-187.

Watanabe T, Yamamoto R, Maeda A, Nakagawa T, Minami M, Satoh M (2002). Effects of excitotoxic lesions of the central or basolateral nucleus of the amygdala on naloxone-precipitated withdrawal-induced conditioned place aversion in morphine-dependent rats. Brain research 958(2): 423-428.

Watterson E, Daniels CW, Watterson LR, Mazur GJ, Brackney RJ, Olive MF, et al (2015). Nicotine-induced place conditioning and locomotor activity in an adolescent animal model of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Behavioural brain research.

Xiao MY, Zhou Q, Nicoll RA (2001). Metabotropic glutamate receptor activation causes a rapid redistribution of AMPA receptors. Neuropharmacology 41(6): 664-671.

Yonelinas AP, Ritchey M (2015). The slow forgetting of emotional episodic memories: an emotional binding account. Trends in cognitive sciences 19(5): 259-267.

Yu S, Zhu L, Shen Q, Bai X, Di X (2015). Recent advances in methamphetamine neurotoxicity mechanisms and its molecular pathophysiology. Behavioural neurology 2015: 103969.

Yu YJ, Chang CH, Gean PW (2013). AMPA receptor endocytosis in the amygdala is involved in the disrupted reconsolidation of Methamphetamine-associated contextual memory. Neurobiology of learning and memory 103: 72-81.

Zonouzi M, Renzi M, Farrant M, Cull-Candy SG (2011). Bidirectional plasticity of calcium-permeable AMPA receptors in oligodendrocyte lineage cells. Nature neuroscience 14(11): 1430-1438.

Zorrilla EP, Logrip ML, Koob GF (2014). Corticotropin releasing factor: a key role in the neurobiology of addiction. Frontiers in neuroendocrinology 35(2): 234-244.
論文全文使用權限
  • 同意授權校內瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,於2017-08-01起公開。
  • 同意授權校外瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,於2017-09-01起公開。


  • 如您有疑問,請聯絡圖書館
    聯絡電話:(06)2757575#65773
    聯絡E-mail:etds@email.ncku.edu.tw