||Operating Strategy in PHOENIX’s Attitude Determination and Control Subsystem
||Department of Electrical Engineering
此研究論文闡述了完整的PHOENIX立方衛星上姿態控制次系統之開發流程。在初期的的初步設計審查(Preliminary Design Review)與關鍵設計審查(Critical Design Review)階段運用了軟體迴路模擬來設計與驗證控制流程，之後並將測試結果實現於姿態控制飛行軟體中。姿態控制飛行軟體可被區分為四部分: 初始流程(Initialization Process)、穩定流程(Stabilization Process)、磁力棒展開流程(Magnetometer Deployment Process)及異常處理(Anomaly Handling)。前兩者負責衛星的姿態控制程序使其達到三軸穩定飛行姿態。磁力棒展開流程主要針對展開的程序控制以及事後的參數校正及驗證。異常處理則是以自動化防範機制讓衛星避免處於不穩定的情境。
The 2U CubeSat project PHOENIX is being developed at NCKU as part of the QB50 mission. The objective of the QB50 mission is to study the key constituents in lower thermosphere (90-320km) as well as serving as a platform for in-orbit technology demonstration. In order to reach this objective, attitude determination and control is required to perform precise stabilization and control the satellite to the desired orientation.
This thesis discusses the entire development process of Attitude Determination and Control Subsystem (ADCS) for the PHOENIX CubeSat, with emphasis on the control strategy design and verification methods. Starting from Software-in-the-Loop simulation, software based on MATLAB/Simulink is utilized for the analysis of the operation procedure in both the Preliminary Design Stage (PDR) and Critical Design Review (CDR) stage. The optimal combination of estimators and controllers are designed and implemented into ADCS flight software: ADCS task, which is part of the flight software in the PHOENIX On-Board Data Handling (OBDH) board. The ADCS task is divided into four parts: initialization process, stabilization process, magnetometer deployment process and anomaly handling. The first two are in charge of decreasing the satellite angular velocity and reorienting itself into 3-axis stabilization mode. The magnetometer deployment process comprise the verification and calibration procedure of the magnetometer after it is deployed. The anomaly handling recovers the CubeSat from any unexpected scenario by activating the stabilization procedure autonomously.
Reference functional tests are applied on the sensors and actuators module to ensure their quality for the space mission. With the view to thoroughly and effectively test the ADCS software, the mission simulation has been conducted in different mission scenarios so that those functions related to ADCS could be analyzed and verified. This testing implements a set of Electrical Ground Support Equipment (EGSE), to simulate several pseudo ADCS sensor data which will be read by to OBDH and test by the ADCS flight software to overcome the restriction in the laboratory environment that is not able to generate the real sensor measurement in space. In conclusion, the mission simulation not only provide an insight into the operating strategy, but also a powerful approach to verify both the hardware and software functionality.
List of Tables VIII
List of Figures X
List of Acronyms XIII
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
1.1 Overview 1
1.2 Literature Review 4
1.3 Thesis Organization 5
Chapter 2 PHOENIX CubeSat 7
2.1 QB50 Mission 7
2.2 PHOENIX CubeSat Configuration 10
2.3 Attitude Determination and Control Subsystem 14
2.3.1 Design Criteria and Recommendations 14
2.3.2 ADCS Coordination Definition 16
2.3.3 ADCS Module 17
2.3.4 Development Evolution and Verification Tool 22
Chapter 3 ADCS Software-in-the-Loop Simulation 25
3.1 Parameters and Environment 25
3.2 Disturbance Analysis 27
3.3 Scenario Simulation 29
3.3.1 High Initial Rate Detumbling 30
3.3.2 Detumbling Control 32
3.3.3 Y-Momentum Stabilization 34
3.4 Strategy Design 37
Chapter 4 ADCS Strategy and Implementation 38
4.1 Overall Flight Software Architecture 38
4.2 Task Descriptions 38
4.2.1 Telecom Task 39
4.2.2 Housekeeping Task 39
4.2.3 Monitoring Task 40
4.2.4 Payload Operation Task (INMS) 40
4.2.5 ADCS Task 41
4.3 ADCS Operating Strategy 41
4.3.1 Software architecture 41
4.3.2 Primary Process 44
18.104.22.168 Initialization Process 45
22.214.171.124 Stabilization Process 46
126.96.36.199 Magnetometer Deployment Process 48
188.8.131.52 Anomaly Handling 49
4.3.3 Summary 50
Chapter 5 Verification of the ADCS 52
5.1 Functional Testing 52
5.1.1 Sensors Testing and Results 53
184.108.40.206 Coarse Sun Sensor (CSS) 53
220.127.116.11 Magnetometer 55
18.104.22.168 MEMS Rate Sensor 60
22.214.171.124 Sun Sensor & Nadir Sensor 61
5.1.2 Actuators Testing and Results 65
126.96.36.199 Magnetorquers 65
188.8.131.52 Y-Momentum Wheel 68
5.2 ADCS Flight Software Testing 70
5.2.1 Mission Simulation 71
5.2.2 Testing Configuration 71
184.108.40.206 Criteria and Constraints 73
220.127.116.11 Electrical Ground Support Equipment 74
18.104.22.168 Pseudo Data Structure 74
5.2.3 Testing Scenario 75
22.214.171.124 EOP & Stabilized Mode 76
126.96.36.199 Magnetometer Deployment 79
188.8.131.52 Nominal & Safe Mode 82
Chapter 6 Conclusions and Future Work 84
6.1 Discussion 84
6.2 Future Research 85
Appendix A Mathmatical Background 87
A.1 Attitude Definitions and Representation 87
A.2 Equation of Motions 94
A.3 Disturbance Torques 97
A.4 Orbital Dynamics 99
A.5 Space Environment Model 103
Appendix B Algorithm Background 111
B.1 Attitude Determination 112
B.2 Attitude Control 126
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