進階搜尋


下載電子全文  
系統識別號 U0026-0908201614143800
論文名稱(中文) 鳳凰立方衛星姿態判定與控制次系統之運作程序
論文名稱(英文) Operating Strategy in PHOENIX’s Attitude Determination and Control Subsystem
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 電機工程學系
系所名稱(英) Department of Electrical Engineering
學年度 104
學期 2
出版年 105
研究生(中文) 吳聲浩
研究生(英文) Sheng-Hao Wu
學號 N26034346
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
論文頁數 133頁
口試委員 指導教授-莊智清
口試委員-苗君易
口試委員-張浩基
口試委員-壽鶴年
口試委員-余國瑞
中文關鍵字 立方衛星  姿態判定  姿態控制  軟體程序模擬  任務模擬 
英文關鍵字 CubeSat  attitude determination  attitude control  software-in-the-loop simulation  mission simulation 
學科別分類
中文摘要 鳳凰(PHOENIX)立方微衛星是一枚參與歐盟QB50計畫的衛星,由國立成功大學研製與開發。QB50計劃目標為針對低熱層進行量測,以及做為太空技術的平台展示。基於此目的,建立精確的姿態判定與控制程序能使衛星達到任務需求的姿態。
此研究論文闡述了完整的PHOENIX立方衛星上姿態控制次系統之開發流程。在初期的的初步設計審查(Preliminary Design Review)與關鍵設計審查(Critical Design Review)階段運用了軟體迴路模擬來設計與驗證控制流程,之後並將測試結果實現於姿態控制飛行軟體中。姿態控制飛行軟體可被區分為四部分: 初始流程(Initialization Process)、穩定流程(Stabilization Process)、磁力棒展開流程(Magnetometer Deployment Process)及異常處理(Anomaly Handling)。前兩者負責衛星的姿態控制程序使其達到三軸穩定飛行姿態。磁力棒展開流程主要針對展開的程序控制以及事後的參數校正及驗證。異常處理則是以自動化防範機制讓衛星避免處於不穩定的情境。
在後期的組裝整合階段,進行了功能性測試來確保衛星組件的硬體模組品質。最後,在系統測試階段,團隊建立了任務模擬(Mission Simulation),來針對衛星的飛行控制軟體進行驗證。此外,藉由嵌入式處理器產生數組的即時性(Real-Time)虛擬感測器資料,來模擬太空的環境數據,使得整個測試更為全面性。
英文摘要 The 2U CubeSat project PHOENIX is being developed at NCKU as part of the QB50 mission. The objective of the QB50 mission is to study the key constituents in lower thermosphere (90-320km) as well as serving as a platform for in-orbit technology demonstration. In order to reach this objective, attitude determination and control is required to perform precise stabilization and control the satellite to the desired orientation.
This thesis discusses the entire development process of Attitude Determination and Control Subsystem (ADCS) for the PHOENIX CubeSat, with emphasis on the control strategy design and verification methods. Starting from Software-in-the-Loop simulation, software based on MATLAB/Simulink is utilized for the analysis of the operation procedure in both the Preliminary Design Stage (PDR) and Critical Design Review (CDR) stage. The optimal combination of estimators and controllers are designed and implemented into ADCS flight software: ADCS task, which is part of the flight software in the PHOENIX On-Board Data Handling (OBDH) board. The ADCS task is divided into four parts: initialization process, stabilization process, magnetometer deployment process and anomaly handling. The first two are in charge of decreasing the satellite angular velocity and reorienting itself into 3-axis stabilization mode. The magnetometer deployment process comprise the verification and calibration procedure of the magnetometer after it is deployed. The anomaly handling recovers the CubeSat from any unexpected scenario by activating the stabilization procedure autonomously.
Reference functional tests are applied on the sensors and actuators module to ensure their quality for the space mission. With the view to thoroughly and effectively test the ADCS software, the mission simulation has been conducted in different mission scenarios so that those functions related to ADCS could be analyzed and verified. This testing implements a set of Electrical Ground Support Equipment (EGSE), to simulate several pseudo ADCS sensor data which will be read by to OBDH and test by the ADCS flight software to overcome the restriction in the laboratory environment that is not able to generate the real sensor measurement in space. In conclusion, the mission simulation not only provide an insight into the operating strategy, but also a powerful approach to verify both the hardware and software functionality.
論文目次 摘要 I
Abstract II
Acknowledgements IV
Contents V
List of Tables VIII
List of Figures X
List of Acronyms XIII
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
1.1 Overview 1
1.2 Literature Review 4
1.3 Thesis Organization 5
Chapter 2 PHOENIX CubeSat 7
2.1 QB50 Mission 7
2.2 PHOENIX CubeSat Configuration 10
2.3 Attitude Determination and Control Subsystem 14
2.3.1 Design Criteria and Recommendations 14
2.3.2 ADCS Coordination Definition 16
2.3.3 ADCS Module 17
2.3.4 Development Evolution and Verification Tool 22
Chapter 3 ADCS Software-in-the-Loop Simulation 25
3.1 Parameters and Environment 25
3.2 Disturbance Analysis 27
3.3 Scenario Simulation 29
3.3.1 High Initial Rate Detumbling 30
3.3.2 Detumbling Control 32
3.3.3 Y-Momentum Stabilization 34
3.4 Strategy Design 37
Chapter 4 ADCS Strategy and Implementation 38
4.1 Overall Flight Software Architecture 38
4.2 Task Descriptions 38
4.2.1 Telecom Task 39
4.2.2 Housekeeping Task 39
4.2.3 Monitoring Task 40
4.2.4 Payload Operation Task (INMS) 40
4.2.5 ADCS Task 41
4.3 ADCS Operating Strategy 41
4.3.1 Software architecture 41
4.3.2 Primary Process 44
4.3.2.1 Initialization Process 45
4.3.2.2 Stabilization Process 46
4.3.2.3 Magnetometer Deployment Process 48
4.3.2.4 Anomaly Handling 49
4.3.3 Summary 50
Chapter 5 Verification of the ADCS 52
5.1 Functional Testing 52
5.1.1 Sensors Testing and Results 53
5.1.1.1 Coarse Sun Sensor (CSS) 53
5.1.1.2 Magnetometer 55
5.1.1.3 MEMS Rate Sensor 60
5.1.1.4 Sun Sensor & Nadir Sensor 61
5.1.2 Actuators Testing and Results 65
5.1.2.1 Magnetorquers 65
5.1.2.2 Y-Momentum Wheel 68
5.2 ADCS Flight Software Testing 70
5.2.1 Mission Simulation 71
5.2.2 Testing Configuration 71
5.2.2.1 Criteria and Constraints 73
5.2.2.2 Electrical Ground Support Equipment 74
5.2.2.3 Pseudo Data Structure 74
5.2.3 Testing Scenario 75
5.2.3.1 EOP & Stabilized Mode 76
5.2.3.2 Magnetometer Deployment 79
5.2.3.3 Nominal & Safe Mode 82
Chapter 6 Conclusions and Future Work 84
6.1 Discussion 84
6.2 Future Research 85
Appendix A Mathmatical Background 87
A.1 Attitude Definitions and Representation 87
A.2 Equation of Motions 94
A.3 Disturbance Torques 97
A.4 Orbital Dynamics 99
A.5 Space Environment Model 103
Appendix B Algorithm Background 111
B.1 Attitude Determination 112
B.2 Attitude Control 126
References 130
參考文獻 [1] (2016). QB50 Mission. Available: https://www.qb50.eu/
[2] O. L. d. Weck, "Attitude Determination and Control - Space System Product Development," Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2001.
[3] J. R. Wertz, Space Attitue Determination and Control: Kluwer Academic, 1978.
[4] J. Elstak, Z. d. Groot, E. Bertels, and J. Rotteveel, "The QB50 Precusor Flight: Status, Preliminary Results and Lessons Learned," in 6th European CubeSat Symposium, Switzerland, 2014.
[5] H. Steun and L. Visagie, "Final Lessons Learned from QB50 Precurosr ADCS," in 8th QB50 Workshop, Belgium, 2015.
[6] S. R. Strain and J. Eterno, "NASA Attitude Determination and Control System Techincal Report," NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 2011.
[7] A. Mehrparvar, "CubeSat Design Specification rev. 13," The CubeSat Program, California Polytechnic State University, 2014.
[8] J. Puig-Suari, C. Turner, and R. Twiggs, "CubeSat: The Development and Launch Support Infrastructure for Eighteen Different Satellite Customers on One Launch," in 14th AIAA/USU Confererence on Small Satellite, Utah, 2001.
[9] H. Heidt, J. Puig-Surai, A. Moore, S. Nakasuka, and R. Twiggs, "CubeSat: A New Generation of Picosatellite for Education and Industry Low-Cost Space Experimentation," in 14th AIAA/USC Conference on Small Satellites, Utah, 2000.
[10] Y. Hashida, "Kalman Filtering and the Attitude Detmerination and Control Task," in 2004 Conference and Exhibit AIAA Space, 2004.
[11] K. Svartveit, "Attitude Determination of the NCUBE Satellite," M. S. Thesis, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, 2003.
[12] J. Auret, "Design of an Aerodynamic Attitude Control System for a CubeSat," M. S. Thesis, University of Stellenbosch, 2012.
[13] T. Meng, H. Wang, Z. Jin, and K. Han, "Attitude stabilization of a pico-satellite by momentum wheel and magnetic coils," Journal of Zhejiang University Science A, vol. 10, pp. 1617-1213, 2009.
[14] J. Lv and G. M. D. Gao, "Bias Moemntum Satellite Magnetic Attitude Control Based on Genetic Algorithms," in 2006 International Control Conference, 2006.
[15] L. Visagie, "QB50 ADCS Reference Manual Version 2.0," Surrey Space Centre, 17 July 2015.
[16] N. K. Ure, T. B. Kaya, and G. Inalhan, "The Development of a Software and Harware-in-the-Loop Test System for ITU-PSAT II nano satellite ADCS," in 2011 IEEE Aerospace Conference, United States, 2011.
[17] C. Y. Chong, "Design, Implementation and Verification of Micro Satellite Attitude Determination and Control Subsystem," M. S. Thesis, National Cheng Kung University, 2011.
[18] M. K. Quadino, "Testing the Attitude Determination and Control of a CubeSat with Hardware-in-the-Loop," M. S. Thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2014.
[19] R. Reinhard and C. O. Sama, "QB50 Mission Objectives," in 5th QB50 Workshop, Belgium, 2013.
[20] S. Bandyopadhyay, G. P. Subramanian, R. Foust, D. Morgan, and S. J. Chung, "A Review of Impending Small Satellite Formation Flying Missions," University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Illinois, USA, 2014.
[21] H. Vo, "Using CubeSat to Train Aerospace Engineering Wokrforce at a Minority Institution," in NASA Academy of Aerospace Quality Workshop, USA, 2015.
[22] R. A. Chaudery, "QB50 INMS User Manual Issue 1," Mullard Space Science Laboratory, London, 2014.
[23] H. Martin, "NanoRacks ISS CubeSat Deplotment," in 13th CubeSat Developers Workshop, USA, 2016.
[24] (2014). NanoRacks Deployment Available: https://www.flickr.com/photos/nanoracks/12792531473/
[25] K. Huang, J. Wu, M. Cheng, A. Heimenm, E. Juang, T. Y. Lin, et al., "PHOENIX Deisng Overview," 2015.
[26] S. H. Wu and J. C. Juang, "Pre-Mission Analysis and Architecture Design of Electrical Power Subsystem for 2U CubeSat," in 10th IAA Symposium on Small Satellite for Earth Observation, Berlin, Germany, 2015.
[27] A. Denis, "QB50 System Requirements and Recommendations Issue 7," 2015.
[28] L. Visagie and M. Kearney, "ADCS Interface Control Document v.3.2," Surrey Space Centre, 2015.
[29] Vina, "Attitude Determination and Control Subsystem for PHONEIX CubeSat: Design, Implementation, and Testing," M.S. thesis, National Cheng Kung University, 2015.
[30] P. J. Botma, "The Design and Development of an ADCS OBC for a CubeSat," M.S. thesis, Stellenbosch University, South Africa, 2011.
[31] (2016). AGI STK. Available: http://www.agi.com/products/stk/
[32] (2016). EOS satellite simulation. Available: http://www.eosimulation.com/
[33] L. Visagie, "QB50 ADCS CubeSupport User Manual version 2.0," Surrey Space Centre, 2015.
[34] T. Y. Lin, "Design and Verification of the Control Procedure of Attitude Determination and Control Subsystem for Nanosatellite," M.S. thesis, National Cheng Kung University, 2014.
[35] L. Visagie, "QB50 ADCS Commissioning Manual v 1.0," Surrey Space Centre, 2015.
[36] (2016). Finite-state machine. Available: http://www.wikiwand.com/en/Finite-state_machine
[37] P. P. Chu, RTL Hardware Design Using VHDL: Chapter 10-Finite State Machine: Principle and Practice: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2006.
[38] A. Girault, B. Lee, and E. A. Lee, "Hierarchical Finite State Machines with Multiple Concurrency," IEEE Transactions on Compute-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems, vol. 18, pp. 742-760, 1999.
[39] M. F. Westgaard, "Software Design and Controller Evaluation for the ADCS on the NTNU Test Satellite," Master Thesis, Master of Science in Cybernetics and Robotics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, 2015.
[40] (2007). Drawback on FSM. Available: http://aigamedev.com/open/article/fsm-age-is-over/
[41] L. Visagie, "QB50 ADCS Version 2.1 - Release Notes," Surrey Space Centre, 2016.
[42] J. D. Foley, "Calibration and Characterization of CubeSat Magnetic Sensors Using a Helmholtz Cage," M. S. thesis, California Polytechnic State University, 2012.
[43] J. C. Spinmann and J. W. Cutler, "Magnetic Sensor Calibration and Residual Dipole Characterization for Application to Nanosatellites," in AIAA/AAS Astrodynamics Specialist Conference, Canada, 2010.
[44] "Smart Digital Magnetometer HMR2300 datasheet," Honeywell Aerospace2012.
[45] "CubeSpace CubeSense UserManual 1.0," CubeSpace, 2015.
[46] M. Swartwout, "The First One Hundred CubeSats: A Statistical Look," Journal of Small Satellies, pp. 213-233, 2013.
[47] (2016). Free-RTOS. Available: http://www.freertos.org/
[48] T. C. Huang, "Implementation and Verification of Reliable Flight Software for CubeSats," M. S. thesis, National Cheng Kung University, 2016.
[49] O. Wang, "Electotron Losses and Fields Investigation - Mission PDR Attitude Determination and Control," University of California, Los Angeles, 2015.
[50] (2016). MathWorks. Available: http://www.mathworks.com/
[51] J. Diebel, "Representing attitude: Euler angles, unit quaternions, and rotation vectors," Matrix, vol. 58, pp. 15-16, 2006.
[52] A. S. Mohammed, M. Benyettou, Y. Bentoutou, A. Boudjemai, Y. Hashida, and M. Sweeting, "Three-axis active control system for gravity gradient stabilised microsatellite," Acta Astronautica, vol. 64, pp. 796-809, 2009.
[53] J. R. Wertz, Spacecraft attitude determination and control vol. 73: Springer Science & Business Media, 2012.
[54] M. H. S. Schalkowsky, "Spacecraft Magnetic Torques," 1969.
[55] 莊智清, 衛星導航: 全華圖書, 2012.
[56] F. L. Markley and J. L. Crassidis, Fundamentals of Spacecraft Attitude Determination and Control vol. 33: Springer, 2014.
[57] C. R. O. Longo, S. L. Rickman, and L. B. J. S. Center, Method for the calculation of spacecraft umbra and penumbra shadow terminator points: National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 1995.
[58] W. H. Steyn and V. Lappas, "Cubesat solar sail 3-axis stabilization using panel translation and magnetic torquing," Aerospace Science and Technology, vol. 15, pp. 476-485, 2011.
[59] W. H. Steyn, "An attitude control system for SumbandilaSat an Earth observation satellite," in The 4S (Small Satellite Systems and Services) Symposium. Rhodes Greece: ESA Proceedings SP-660, 2008.
[60] W. H. Steyn, Y. Hashida, and V. Lappas, "An attitude control system and commissioning results of the SNAP-1 nanosatellite," 2000.
[61] W. Steyn and Y. Hashida, "An attitude control system for a low-cost Earth observation satellite with orbit maintenance capability," 1999.
[62] W. T. Thomson, "Spin stabilization of attitude against gravity torque," Journal of Astronautical Science, vol. 9, pp. 31-33, 1962.
論文全文使用權限
  • 同意授權校內瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,於2018-09-01起公開。
  • 同意授權校外瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,於2018-09-01起公開。


  • 如您有疑問,請聯絡圖書館
    聯絡電話:(06)2757575#65773
    聯絡E-mail:etds@email.ncku.edu.tw