||The comparison of crowding perception and coping behavior among Mainland Chinese, foreign and Taiwan tourists
||Department of Transportation & Communication Management Science
Mainland Chinese tourists
自從2008年政府開放大陸遊客來臺後，國際來臺遊客人數大幅上升，其中以大陸遊客成長速度最快；另一方面，國內國人遊客人數也逐年提升。大量遊客人數對於熱門景點除了會造成環境資源影響，也會影響遊客間的擁擠知覺(crowding perception)，進而產生調適行為(coping behavior)。
China has recently become the number one source market for international tourism expenditures, reporting an average annual growth rate of 20% in outbound travel from 2010 to 2012. While Taiwan is making considerable efforts to compete for a share of this market, there is also a growing need for a detailed examination of the impacts of Chinese tourists on the Taiwan society. One effect has been an increasing level of crowding in many tourist destinations on the island.
The main purpose of this research is thus to examine the crowding perceptions and the coping behaviors of Chinese inbound tourists, other foreigners, and domestic tourists at an nature-oriented tourism attraction site in Taiwan. Taiwan received a total of 0.3 million tourists from Mainland China in 2008 and increased to 2.9 million in 2013, with an annual growth rate of 66%, thus providing a good context to examine issues related crowding. This paper divided the factors that influence crowding perceptions into four dimensions: situational characteristics, characteristics of others, trip characteristics, and personal characteristics. In addition, the variables related to coping behaviors were divided into temporal substitution, resource substitution, absolute displacement and rationalization and reflective substitution.
We used an on-site questionnaire to collect the data, and then analyzed this using multiple regression, binary logistic regression and ordinal logistic regression. The results showed that the tourists’ expectations, good crowding perception, on-site behavior of others tourists, number of tourists admitted, resource availability, age and type of travel arrangement were valid determinants of crowding perceptions. The results also indicated that Taiwanese tourists’ crowding perceptions were significantly higher than those of Mainland Chinese and foreign tourists. Similarly, the proportion of Taiwan tourists engaging in coping behaviors was significantly higher than that seen with Mainland Chinese and foreign tourists. When domestic tourists feel that a place is more crowded, they leave earlier, avoid such places and do not recommend the attraction to others. In contrast, when Mainland Chinese tourists feel more crowded, they share negative information about the crowded conditions through social media. Foreign tourists were found with no specific coping behavior.
The results of this study can be used to develop more effective managerial strategies and assist in the forecasting of possible temporal and spatial displacements that may occur in response to increasing demand at tourist sites in Taiwan. The value of this research lies in its consideration of the emerging Chinese outbound market to many Asian destinations, and the importance of managing crowding issues in tourism setting.
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
1.1 The Tourism industry in Taiwan 1
1.2 Influence of Mainland Chinese tourists on Taiwan 1
1.3 Carrying capacity, crowding perception and coping behavior 2
1.4 Research purpose 3
1.5 Research contribution 4
1.6 Overview 5
Chapter 2 Literature review 6
2.1 Overview of Taiwan’s tourism 6
2.1.1 Tourism development in Taiwan 6
2.1.2 The policies for Mainland tourists in Taiwan 6
2.1.3 Alishan Forest Recreation Area 7
2.2 Crowding perception 8
2.3 Coping behaviors 14
Chapter 3 Methods 16
3.1 Data sampling 16
3.2 Measures 19
3.2.1 Determinants of crowding perception 19
3.2.2 Crowding perception 19
3.2.3 Coping behavior 19
3.3 Hypotheses 23
H1: Situational variables impact crowding perception. 23
H2: Characteristics of others impacts crowding perception. 23
H3: Trip characteristics impacts crowding perception. 23
H4: Personal characteristics impact crowding perception. 24
H5: Crowding perception impacts tourists’ coping behaviors. 24
3.4 Analyses 25
3.4.1 Descriptive statistics 25
3.4.2 Multiple regression analysis 25
3.4.3 Binary logistic regression analysis 25
3.4.4 Ordinal logistic regression analysis 25
Chapter 4 Results 27
4.1 Descriptive statistics 27
4.1.1 Personal characteristics 27
4.1.2 Situational variables 29
4.1.3 Characteristics of others 31
4.1.4 Trip characteristics 31
4.1.5 Crowding perception 35
4.1.6 Coping behavior 36
4.2 Regression analysis 38
4.2.1 Multiple regression 38
4.2.2 Binary logistic regression 40
4.2.3 Ordinal logistic regression 41
Chapter 5 Discussion and Conclusion 43
5.1 Findings 43
5.2 Discussion 43
5.2.1 Important determinants of crowding perception 43
5.2.2 Crowding and coping 45
5.2.3 Taiwan and Mainland China 45
5.3 Managerial Implication 46
5.4 Limitation 47
APPENDIX I: Questionnaire 54
APPENDIX II: Homoscedasticity 56
APPENDIX III: Ordinal Logistic Regression 58
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