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系統識別號 U0026-0908201422582400
論文名稱(中文) 大陸遊客、外籍遊客和國內遊客對於擁擠知覺與調適行為之比較
論文名稱(英文) The comparison of crowding perception and coping behavior among Mainland Chinese, foreign and Taiwan tourists
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 交通管理科學系
系所名稱(英) Department of Transportation & Communication Management Science
學年度 102
學期 2
出版年 103
研究生(中文) 林芃斈
研究生(英文) Peng-Hsueh Lin
學號 R56014028
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
論文頁數 63頁
口試委員 指導教授-孫雅彥
口試委員-莊淑姿
口試委員-顏宏旭
口試委員-鄭永祥
中文關鍵字 大陸遊客  擁擠知覺  調適行為 
英文關鍵字 Mainland Chinese tourists  crowding perception  coping behavior 
學科別分類
中文摘要 自從2008年政府開放大陸遊客來臺後,國際來臺遊客人數大幅上升,其中以大陸遊客成長速度最快;另一方面,國內國人遊客人數也逐年提升。大量遊客人數對於熱門景點除了會造成環境資源影響,也會影響遊客間的擁擠知覺(crowding perception),進而產生調適行為(coping behavior)。
本研究以阿里山森林遊樂區為調查地點,並將影響擁擠知覺的因素分為四個構面:(一)環境特性,包含整體旅客數、資源充份性、環境品質與空間設計;(二)其他旅客特性,包含其他遊客現地行為;(三)旅次特性,包含此次旅行特性、停留時間、同行人數、旅遊型態、動機、預期遊客人數與正向擁擠認知;(四)個人特性,包含性別、年齡、教育程度、主要職業、家庭平均年收入、居住地、過去旅行經驗、相似度概念。另外,遊客感受到擁擠感所產生的調適行為可分成時間替代、資源替代、絕對替代、合理化與直接行動。
本研究目的為(一)探討在高密度使用人數之觀光景點中,影響擁擠知覺的因素,(二)比較大陸遊客、外籍遊客與國內遊客對於擁擠知覺程度的差異,(三)探討擁擠知覺是否影響調適行為,(四)面對日益增長的遊客數,了解大陸遊客、外籍遊客與國內遊客對於調適反應的差異。
研究結果發現預期遊客人數、正向擁擠認知、其他遊客現地行為、整體旅客數、資源充份性、年齡與旅遊型態等七個變數皆顯著影響擁擠知覺;且擁擠知覺會正向影響遊客產生調適行為的機率。臺灣遊客的擁擠知覺明顯高於外籍遊客與大陸遊客,同時,臺灣遊客產生調適行為的比例也高於大陸與外籍遊客。當遊客面臨擁擠時,臺灣遊客會趨向縮短在此地停留時間、避免靠近人多的地方,且較不會推薦他人拜訪阿里山森林遊樂區;而大陸遊客則較會將遊客過多的狀況發表在社群網站上。
本研究建議管理單位可以加強宣導並禁止遊客負面行為,並擴建自小客車停車場、增設公用廁所數量及座位空間,並進行自由行遊客與團體遊客分流,讓遊客在阿里山森林遊樂區感受較不擁擠,進而提升遊憩體驗,增加遊客再次到訪意願。
英文摘要 China has recently become the number one source market for international tourism expenditures, reporting an average annual growth rate of 20% in outbound travel from 2010 to 2012. While Taiwan is making considerable efforts to compete for a share of this market, there is also a growing need for a detailed examination of the impacts of Chinese tourists on the Taiwan society. One effect has been an increasing level of crowding in many tourist destinations on the island.
The main purpose of this research is thus to examine the crowding perceptions and the coping behaviors of Chinese inbound tourists, other foreigners, and domestic tourists at an nature-oriented tourism attraction site in Taiwan. Taiwan received a total of 0.3 million tourists from Mainland China in 2008 and increased to 2.9 million in 2013, with an annual growth rate of 66%, thus providing a good context to examine issues related crowding. This paper divided the factors that influence crowding perceptions into four dimensions: situational characteristics, characteristics of others, trip characteristics, and personal characteristics. In addition, the variables related to coping behaviors were divided into temporal substitution, resource substitution, absolute displacement and rationalization and reflective substitution.
We used an on-site questionnaire to collect the data, and then analyzed this using multiple regression, binary logistic regression and ordinal logistic regression. The results showed that the tourists’ expectations, good crowding perception, on-site behavior of others tourists, number of tourists admitted, resource availability, age and type of travel arrangement were valid determinants of crowding perceptions. The results also indicated that Taiwanese tourists’ crowding perceptions were significantly higher than those of Mainland Chinese and foreign tourists. Similarly, the proportion of Taiwan tourists engaging in coping behaviors was significantly higher than that seen with Mainland Chinese and foreign tourists. When domestic tourists feel that a place is more crowded, they leave earlier, avoid such places and do not recommend the attraction to others. In contrast, when Mainland Chinese tourists feel more crowded, they share negative information about the crowded conditions through social media. Foreign tourists were found with no specific coping behavior.
The results of this study can be used to develop more effective managerial strategies and assist in the forecasting of possible temporal and spatial displacements that may occur in response to increasing demand at tourist sites in Taiwan. The value of this research lies in its consideration of the emerging Chinese outbound market to many Asian destinations, and the importance of managing crowding issues in tourism setting.
論文目次 Chapter 1 Introduction 1
1.1 The Tourism industry in Taiwan 1
1.2 Influence of Mainland Chinese tourists on Taiwan 1
1.3 Carrying capacity, crowding perception and coping behavior 2
1.4 Research purpose 3
1.5 Research contribution 4
1.6 Overview 5
Chapter 2 Literature review 6
2.1 Overview of Taiwan’s tourism 6
2.1.1 Tourism development in Taiwan 6
2.1.2 The policies for Mainland tourists in Taiwan 6
2.1.3 Alishan Forest Recreation Area 7
2.2 Crowding perception 8
2.3 Coping behaviors 14
Chapter 3 Methods 16
3.1 Data sampling 16
3.2 Measures 19
3.2.1 Determinants of crowding perception 19
3.2.2 Crowding perception 19
3.2.3 Coping behavior 19
3.3 Hypotheses 23
H1: Situational variables impact crowding perception. 23
H2: Characteristics of others impacts crowding perception. 23
H3: Trip characteristics impacts crowding perception. 23
H4: Personal characteristics impact crowding perception. 24
H5: Crowding perception impacts tourists’ coping behaviors. 24
3.4 Analyses 25
3.4.1 Descriptive statistics 25
3.4.2 Multiple regression analysis 25
3.4.3 Binary logistic regression analysis 25
3.4.4 Ordinal logistic regression analysis 25
Chapter 4 Results 27
4.1 Descriptive statistics 27
4.1.1 Personal characteristics 27
4.1.2 Situational variables 29
4.1.3 Characteristics of others 31
4.1.4 Trip characteristics 31
4.1.5 Crowding perception 35
4.1.6 Coping behavior 36
4.2 Regression analysis 38
4.2.1 Multiple regression 38
4.2.2 Binary logistic regression 40
4.2.3 Ordinal logistic regression 41
Chapter 5 Discussion and Conclusion 43
5.1 Findings 43
5.2 Discussion 43
5.2.1 Important determinants of crowding perception 43
5.2.2 Crowding and coping 45
5.2.3 Taiwan and Mainland China 45
5.3 Managerial Implication 46
5.4 Limitation 47
References 49
APPENDIX I: Questionnaire 54
APPENDIX II: Homoscedasticity 56
APPENDIX III: Ordinal Logistic Regression 58
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