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系統識別號 U0026-0908201115500200
論文名稱(中文) 結合全景攝影機與PTZ攝影機之移動物體偵測與追蹤研究
論文名稱(英文) Study on Fusion of Omni-directional and PTZ Cameras for Moving Object Detection and Tracking
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 電機工程學系碩博士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Electrical Engineering
學年度 99
學期 2
出版年 100
研究生(中文) 黃嬿慈
研究生(英文) Yen-Tzu Huang
學號 n26984151
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 103頁
口試委員 指導教授-鄭銘楊
口試委員-李祖聖
口試委員-蘇國嵐
中文關鍵字 視覺監控  全景攝影機  PTZ攝影機 
英文關鍵字 vision surveillance system  omni-directional camera  PTZ camera 
學科別分類
中文摘要 基於視覺之智慧型安全監控系統為近年來相當受到矚目的議題,研究主題包含電腦視覺演算法與多攝影機之溝通與資訊融合等。本論文以全景攝影機搭配PTZ攝影機,實現全方位視覺監控系統。主要的構思係利用全景攝影機具有寬廣視野的特性,以多重追蹤法與卡爾曼濾波器追蹤與預測全方位場景中移動目標物之路徑與方位。在雙攝影機之資訊融合部份,依據PTZ攝影機之運動方式分為主被動控制架構與合作式控制架構。在主被動式架構下,PTZ攝影機運動方向取決於全景攝影機影像上目標物體之方位。在合作式控制架構下,PTZ攝影機接受來自全景攝影機之命令後,即搭配SDG背景補償法擷取目標物樣板。在成功獲得目標物特徵後,便可運用樣板比對法進行自主性追蹤,持續鎖定目標物體於畫面中心。本論文以室內環境為實驗場景,由實驗結果可知,在此兩種架構下,均能對場景中的目標物進行持續性的追蹤,成功實現一結合全景攝影機與PTZ攝影機之全方位即時視覺監控系統。
英文摘要 In recent years, vision surveillance and monitoring systems are issues of high concern. The research topics include computer vision, communication among multi-cameras and data fusion. A panoramic vision surveillance system consists of an omni-directional and a PTZ cameras is implemented in this thesis. With the full field of view (FOV) property of the omni-directional camera, the path and direction of moving objects in the scene can be both tracked and predicted by multi-cue tracking and a Kalman filter, respectively. For information fusion, the architecture of the control would be divided into master-slave control and cooperative control according to the types of PTZ camera movement. In master-slave control, the movement of PTZ camera depends on the moving object azimuth of an omni-directional camera. In cooperative control, a PTZ camera would obtain its target template by SDG background compensation after receiving the omni-directional camera command. Subsequently, the PTZ camera can automatically track the target once successfully acquiring the features of the target, and continuously lock the target into the center of the screen. From the experimental results, the surveillance system can continuously detect and track in an indoor environment. As a result, a panoramic surveillance system combining an omni-directional and a PTZ cameras is successfully implemented in this thesis.
論文目次 中文摘要 III
ABSTRACT IV
誌謝 V
目錄 VI
表目錄 X
圖目錄 XI
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 前言 1
1.2 研究動機與目的 4
1.3 文獻回顧 4
1.4 本文架構 6
第二章 攝影機簡介 7
2.1 前言 7
2.2 PTZ攝影機 8
2.2.1 一般攝影機之透視投影模型 8
2.2.2 一般攝影機之內部參數校正 10
2.3 全景攝影機 11
2.3.1 全景攝影機簡介 12
2.3.2 全景攝影機之單一視點(SVP)限制 13
2.3.3 全景攝影機之投影模型與內部參數 15
2.3.4 全景攝影機校正之內部參數 18
2.4 雙攝影機校正 19
2.4.1 雙攝影機之對應幾何 20
2.4.1.1全景影像之有效區域 20
2.4.1.2全景影像與PTZ攝影機運動角度之關係 22
第三章 全景攝影機目標物偵測與追蹤 26
3.1 前言 26
3.2 全景攝影機之前景偵測 26
3.2.1 前景偵測 26
3.2.2 適應性背景減去法 29
3.3 全景攝影機之多目標物追蹤 32
3.3.1 全景攝影機影像分析 33
3.3.2 目標物追蹤機制移動物之連通物件分析 34
3.3.2.1目標物之特徵淬取 36
3.3.2.2目標物之軌跡比對與更新 37
3.3.3 目標物追蹤預測 42
3.3.3.1卡爾曼濾波器(Kalman Filter) 43
第四章 PTZ攝影機目標物偵測與追蹤 46
4.1 前言 46
4.2 PTZ攝影機之控制架構 47
4.2.1 主被動式控制架構 47
4.2.2 合作式控制架構 47
4.3 PTZ攝影機之目標物偵測 51
4.3.1 背景補償法 51
4.3.2 SDG模型 58
4.4 PTZ攝影機之目標物追蹤 64
4.4.1 雙重目標物特徵比對法 64
4.4.1.1SDG背景補償之移動物質心位置 64
4.4.1.2色彩亮度比對法 65
4.4.1.3色彩長條圖比對法 67
4.4.1.4特徵資訊融合 68
4.4.1.5樣板比對之搜尋策略 69
第五章 雙攝影機視覺監控系統之實現 71
5.1 實驗硬體設備簡介 71
5.1.1 電腦設備 71
5.1.2 全景攝影機 72
5.1.3 Sony EVI-D70 PTZ攝影機 73
5.1.4 UPMOST UPG305 USB影像擷取卡 75
5.2 系統介面設計與運作流程 77
5.3 實驗結果 78
5.3.1 全景攝影機與PTZ攝影機之對應關係 78
5.3.2 全景攝影機多目標物追蹤 81
5.3.3 全景攝影機與PTZ攝影機之視覺監控系統 89
第六章 結論與建議 97
6.1 結論 97
6.2 未來展望與建議 98
參考文獻 99
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