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系統識別號 U0026-0908201016565600
論文名稱(中文) 運用福爾摩沙二號衛星高時空分辨率遙測影像探討曾文水庫水質之時空變化
論文名稱(英文) Investigating the Spatial and Temporal Variation of Water Qualities in Tseng-Wen Reservoir Using Formosat-2 High Spationtemporal Remote Sensing Imagery
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 衛星資訊暨地球環境研究所
系所名稱(英) Institute of Satellite Informatics and Earth Environment
學年度 98
學期 2
出版年 99
研究生(中文) 鄭依凡
研究生(英文) I-Fan Cheng
學號 l9697403
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 110頁
口試委員 口試委員-溫清光
口試委員-張智華
指導教授-劉正千
中文關鍵字 曾文水庫  福衛二號  經驗式  葉綠素a  懸浮固體物  水庫水位  全年水庫交換率  降雨強度  CTSI 優養指標 
英文關鍵字 Tseng Wen Reservoir  Formosat-2  empirical algorithm  chlorophyll a (Chl-a)  suspended solids (SS)  reservoir water level  exchange rate  intensity of rainfall  CTSI index 
學科別分類
中文摘要 本研究以台灣最大水庫─曾文水庫為研究區域,利用2005 年1 月至2009 年間,共203 幅福衛二號影像,其中有116 幅在水庫水面完全沒有雲的覆蓋之福衛二號影像。影像經過幾何糾正及大氣校正,利用Chang et al.[2009]於2005 年9 月至2006 年12 月逐月的現地採樣分析及USB-2000 高光譜儀量測遙測反射率Rrs,並於2006 年12 月12 日取得同步拍攝之福衛二號影像,所建立由影像推估水質之經驗式,包括葉綠素a (Chl-a)及懸浮固體物 (SS)。
由水質分佈圖發現水庫水質的變化與水位變化、全年水庫交換率及降雨強度有關。全年水庫交換率高低對水庫水質有相當的影響,交換率高(約5.0)全年水庫水質變化較小,水質較佳,交換率低(約4.5)之水庫水質季節變化明顯;降雨強度也是影響水質變化重要的因素,強降雨強度(單日累積降雨量大於400 mm)後之水質濃度上升,而低降雨強度高累積雨量之降雨後水質濃度下降。再加上近年來大雨集中且降雨強度提升,由優養指標CTSI 發現,近幾年CTSI 降低,但TSI(SD)卻是升高的,說明了大雨讓水庫充分交換,但也帶入更多的泥沙及水庫再揚起作用,使得透明度降低。因此本研究建議應該加強SS 濃度的監測,而水庫集水區內崩塌及降雨分佈情形將成為新的研究重點課題。
英文摘要 This research took the Tseng Wen Reservoir, the largest reservoir in Taiwan, as research area. And by employing a total of 203 Formosat-2 images of study area acquired from January 2005 to December 2009, 116 of them are not fully covered by clouds. All these images were processed from the raw data to the georefereced and radiometric-calibrated images. Using Chang et al.[2009] in September 2005 to December 2006 monthly in situ sampling, USB-2000 high-spectral measurements on remote sensing reflectance Rrs, and in 2006/12/12 to obtain simultaneous Formosat-2 image. Establishing the between water quality and images empirical algorithm to estimation the water quality concentrate, including chlorophyll a (Chl-a) and suspended solids (SS).
Found the water quality distribution maps was changes by the reservoir water level, exchange rate and the intensity of rainfall. In the exchange rate: when the high exchange rate (about 5.0), the water quality was had little changed, and water quality is better, and when the low exchange rate (about 4.5), the water quality in seasonal changes was significant. In the intensity of rainfall: after the heavy rainfall intensity (single-day cumulative rainfall is greater than 400 mm), the water quality concentration increased, and after the low rainfall intensity with high rainfall accumulated, the water quality concentration decreased. Furthermore, the heavy rain to gat in short time and intensity was increased in recent years. From the CTSI index found the index decreased in recent years, but the TSI(SD) was increased. This phenomenon interpreted heavy rain not only made the water changed enough, but also bring into more sediment made the transparency reduced. Therefore, in this study suggests improving the SS concentration monitoring, especially landslide in catchment area and rainfall distribution will be the focus of important research topics.
論文目次 摘要 ....................................................................................................................................... i
Abstract ................................................................................................................................ ii
誌謝 ..................................................................................................................................... iv
目錄 ...................................................................................................................................... v
圖目錄 ............................................................................................................................... viii
表目錄 ................................................................................................................................. xi
第 1 章 前言 ....................................................................................................................... 1
1.1 研究動機 ................................................................................................................ 1
1.1.1 水庫水質監測之重要性 .......................................................................... 1
1.1.2 發展趨勢 .................................................................................................. 1
1.1.3 瓶頸 .......................................................................................................... 1
1.1.4 本研究之必要性 ...................................................................................... 2
1.2 研究目的 ................................................................................................................ 2
1.3 研究架構 ................................................................................................................ 3
第 2 章 文獻回顧 ............................................................................................................... 5
2.1 帄台回顧整理 ........................................................................................................ 5
2.2 水質演算法回顧整理 .......................................................................................... 19
2.3 小結 ...................................................................................................................... 20
第 3 章 研究區域 ............................................................................................................. 21
3.1 地理位置及地形概況 .......................................................................................... 21
3.2 水文條件及氣候 .................................................................................................. 23
3.3 水質概況 .............................................................................................................. 24
第 4 章 研究材料 ............................................................................................................. 25
4.1 福衛二號影像 ...................................................................................................... 25
4.2 相關資料整理 ...................................................................................................... 26
4.2.1 降雨 ........................................................................................................ 26
4.2.2 水庫水位 ................................................................................................ 30
4.2.3 颱風事件 ................................................................................................ 30
4.2.4 水質資料 ................................................................................................ 34
第 5 章 研究方法 ............................................................................................................. 36
5.1 影像前處理 .......................................................................................................... 36
5.2 大氣校正 .............................................................................................................. 41
5.3 繪製水質分佈圖 .................................................................................................. 46
第 6 章 結果與討論 ......................................................................................................... 48
6.1 結果 ...................................................................................................................... 48
6.2 討論 ...................................................................................................................... 57
6.2.1 水庫水位與水質變化關係 .................................................................... 57
6.2.2 強降雨強度降雨及高累積雨量降雨對水質變化情形之影響 ............ 58
6.2.3 全年水庫交換率 .................................................................................... 59
6.2.4 優養指標CTSI ...................................................................................... 61
6.2.5 特殊事件 ................................................................................................ 63
第 7 章 結論與建議 ......................................................................................................... 66
7.1 結論 ...................................................................................................................... 66
7.2 建議 ...................................................................................................................... 68
參考文獻 ............................................................................................................................. 69
附錄一 曾文水庫2005 年至2009 年福衛二號影像列表 .......................................... 74
附錄二 相對輻射校正前後數值表 .............................................................................. 85
附錄三 文水庫2005 年至2009 年水質濃度分佈圖 .................................................. 86
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