||Co-gasification of Sewage Sludge and Shiitake
||Department of Mechanical Engineering
Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy
共氣化技術是一種可以製造出有價值合成氣的一種相對傳統掩埋更清潔的一種污泥解決方案。在本研究當中透過使用熱重分析(TGA)結合傅立葉轉換紅外線光譜法分析了污水污泥、香菇包及其混合物的熱解特性。在純氮環境下，混合污泥與香菇包可以促進焦炭的分解但會抑制無機物的分解。並且烷烴等高分子碳氫化合物的排放是被抑制的。然而，在混摻比(BR)是75%時，C-O鍵與C-H鍵的排放是上升的，因此推測混合污泥與香菇包可以促進分解大分子碳氫化合物成小分子物質。本研究也利用實驗室等級流體化床氣化爐系統探討不同條件下之氣化性能，包括空氣當量比(ER)與溫度對污泥、香菇包與其混合物氣化結果的影響。從實驗結果中可知，操作溫度的升高會促進氣化過程中的氣體熱值、冷氣效率(cold gas efficiency)和碳轉化效率的上升。但是，不同的燃料會有個別的最佳空氣當量比；對於純污泥氣化來說最佳空氣當量比為0.25，然而純香菇包之最佳空氣當量比為0.1。而在共氣化之實驗中，隨著汙泥混摻比的降低，產氣的氣體熱值、冷氣效率和碳轉化效率均升高。當燃空比為0.25時，在混合物中添加25％或75％的污泥的共氣化提高了碳轉化效率。因此可得知污泥與香菇共氣化對改善碳轉化效率有積極作用，並可能有助於促進污泥作為氣化輔助資源的應用，最後，本研究使用Aspen plus軟體以吉布斯平衡模型與動力學模型進行模擬並預測氣化結果，從比較結果中可知動力學模型比吉布斯平衡模型更精確地預測實驗結果，而並且隨著空氣當量比的變化，動力學模型較能預測出與實驗相同的趨勢。
The co-gasification process may be a cleaner alternative solution to sewage sludge valorization and the production of valuable synthetic gases. In this study, the pyrolysis characteristics of sewage sludge, shiitake substrate, and their blends were analyzed via a thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) combined with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. From TGA, the addition of the sludge in the shiitake might improve the decomposition of char and inhibit the decomposition of inorganic materials in the pyrolysis. The addition of sludge to the blends decreased the alkanes, aliphatic aldehyde C=O groups, and C=C in aromatic compound emissions. An increase in the emitted C-O and C-H was found for blending ratio (BR) = 75%. This study presents the gasification performance results based on different scenarios. These scenarios included co-gasification of sewage sludge and shiitake and variations in the air supply and operating temperature. Increases in the operating temperature led to increases in Lower heating value (LHV), Cold gas efficiency (CGE), and Caron conversion efficiency (CCE) in the gasification process. Also, the optimal equivalence ratio (ER) was found to depend on the fuel species. The LHV and CGE of the product gas increased with decreases in BR. The addition of 25% and 75% sewage sludge in the blend had a positive effect in terms of improving the CCE when the ER was 0.25. Therefore, sludge co-gasification with shiitake improves the CCE and may help promote the use of sludge as a gasification assistance resource. The kinetic model was found to be more reliable for simulating the gasification process as compared with the Gibbs equilibrium model. Compared with Gibbs equilibrium model, the trend of the kinetic model result is coinciding with experimental data in this study.
Table of Contents IV
List of Tables VI
List of Figures VI
1. Introduction 1
1.1 Thermochemical Conversion of Biomass 1
1.2 Biomass Gasification 2
1.2.1 Gasification Reactions 3
1.2.2 Gasification Reactors 4
1.2.3 Gasification Agent 5
1.2.4 Co-gasification of Biomass 6
1.3 Process Simulation of Biomass Gasification 7
1.4 Objective of the study 10
2. Materials and Methodology 12
2.1 Sample Pretreatment 12
2.2 Sample Analysis 13
2.2.1 Proximate Analysis 14
2.2.2 Ultimate Analysis 15
2.3 Thermogravimetric Combine Infrared Spectroscopy analysis 15
2.4 Lab-scale Gasification System 16
2.5 Aspen Plus Simulation Methodology 20
2.5.1 Gibbs Equilibrium Model 20
2.5.2 Kinetic Model 22
3. Results and Discussion 24
3.1 Fuel Properties 24
3.2 Thermogravimetric Analysis 25
3.3 Infrared Spectroscopy Analysis 28
3.4 Gasification Characteristics 32
3.4.1 Gasification of Sewage Sludge 32
3.4.2 Gasification of Shiitake 33
3.4.3 Gasification of Sewage Sludge and Shiitake Blends 35
3.5 Aspen Plus of Gasification 38
3.5.1 Gibbs Equilibrium Model Results 38
3.5.2 Kinetic Model Results 40
4. Conclusion 43
5. References 46
6. Tables and Figures 52
6.1 Tables 52
6.2 Figures 56
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