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系統識別號 U0026-0907201014482100
論文名稱(中文) 回收雲點萃取多苯環化合物後之非離子界面活性劑
論文名稱(英文) Recovery of Nonionic Surfactant after Cloud Point Extraction of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 化學工程學系碩博士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Chemical Engineering
學年度 98
學期 2
出版年 99
研究生(中文) 陳忠胜
研究生(英文) Hermawan Sutanto
學號 n3697702
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
論文頁數 91頁
口試委員 指導教授-陳炳宏
口試委員-林弘萍
口試委員-侯聖澍
口試委員-李岱洲
口試委員-袁維勵
中文關鍵字 none 
英文關鍵字 cloud-point extraction (CPE)  polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)  nonionic surfactant  solvent extraction  alcohols  adsorption. 
學科別分類
中文摘要 none
英文摘要 Cloud point extraction (CPE) has been applied successfully to remove the 9 compounds of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by using nonionic surfactant Tergitol 15-S-7 as separating agent. Possibly, the CPE method may be applied in treating wastewater containing PAHs pollutants. In Addition, in order to make the process more economical and efficient, the surfactant in the surfactant rich phase should be recycled and reused.
Solvent extraction and adsorption using activated carbon were used to separate the surfactant rich phase into surfactant and PAHs. In our work, alcohols like 1-hexanol, 1-octanol, 1-decanol, and 1-dodecanol were used as a solvent to extract PAHs in surfactant rich phase and recycle the fresher surfactants. Besides alcohols, solvent like ethyl acetate also being used. Activated charcoal with 100-400 mesh and 4-8 mesh sizes were used to separate the nine PAHs and nonionic surfactant from the surfactant rich phase.
The results show that alcohols can be used to extract PAHs from the surfactant rich phase well. It is indicated from almost no PAHs detected in the lower phase after solvent extraction. And for surfactant, only about 22% of surfactant can be recovered from the surfactant rich phase after the solvent extraction process. Besides solvent extraction, adsorption using activated carbon for recovering the surfactant also can be done to separate the nine PAHs from surfactant rich phase and recover the fresher surfactant. By using this method, the surfactant recovery is above 90%.
論文目次 Abstract…………………………………………………………………………………. i
Acknowledgement ……………………………………………………………………… ii
List of Contents …………………………………………………………………………. iii
List of Tables ……………………………………………………………………………. vi
List of Figures ……………………………………………………………………………vii
Chapter 1 Introduction ………………………………………………………………... 1
1.1. Research background …………………………………………………. 1
1.2. Objectives ……………………………………………………………... 4
Chapter 2 Literature Review ………………………………………………………….. 8
2.1. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) …………………………... 8
2.2. Surfactant …………………………………………………………….. 10
2.2.1. Types of surfactant ……………………………………………. 11
2.2.2. Synthesis of alcohol and phenol ethoxylated …………………. 12
2.2.2.1. Alcohol ethoxylates ………………………………….. 12
2.2.2.2. Alkylphenol ethoxylates ……………………………... 15
2.2.3. Physical properties of nonionic surfactant ……………………. 16
2.2.3.1. Solubility characteristics …………………………….. 17
2.2.3.2. Cloud point …………………………………………... 17
2.2.3.3. Wetting ………………………………………………. 18
2.2.3.4. Foaming ……………………………………………… 18
2.2.3.5. Biodegradation ………………………………………. 19
2.2.3.6. Applications …………………………………………. 19
2.2.4. Analysis of alcohols ethoxylated ……………………………... 20
2.2.5. Surfactant phase structure …………………………………….. 21
2.3. Extraction technique …………………………………………………. 23
iv
2.3.1. Extraction for solid samples ………………………………….. 23
2.3.2. Extraction for liquid samples ………………………………… 26
2.4. Cloud point extraction ………………………………………………. 28
2.4.1. Optimization of cloud point extraction ……………………….. 30
2.4.2. Analytical determinations …………………………………….. 32
2.5. Separation by inter-phase mass transfer ……………………………... 32
2.5.1. Solvent extraction for removing low-volatility organic
compounds …………………………………………………..... 35
2.6. Adsorption by activated carbons …………………………………….. 36
2.6.1. Adsorption from dilute solutions ……………………………... 38
2.6.2. Factors controlling the adsorption process …………………… 40
2.6.2.1. Characteristics of the adsorbent ……………………... 40
2.6.2.2. Characteristics of the adsorptive ……………………. 42
2.6.2.3. Solution chemistry and adsorption temperature ……. 42
Chapter 3 Experimental ……………………………………………………………... 43
3.1. Framework of the experiment ………………………………………. 43
3.2. Materials …………………………………………………………….. 44
3.2.1 Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) compounds ……... 44
3.2.2 Surfactant …………………………………………………….. 45
3.2.3 Other materials ……………………………………………….. 45
3.3. Experimental instrument ……………………………………………. 46
3.4. Experimental procedures ……………………………………………. 48
3.4.1. Cloud point extraction ……………………………………….. 48
3.4.2. Solvent extraction ……………………………………………. 48
3.4.3. Adsorption using activated carbon …………………………... 48
3.4.4. Analytical procedure ………………………………………… 49
3.5. Data analysis ………………………………………………………... 50
3.5.1. Limit of detection (LOD) ……………………………………. 50
3.5.2. Preconcentration factor (fc) ………………………………….. 51
v
3.5.3. PAHs recovery ………………………………………………. 51
3.5.4. PAHs removal ……………………………………………….. 51
3.5.5. Surfactant recovery ………………………………………….. 52
Chapter 4 Results and Discussion ………………………………………………….. 54
4.1. Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)
by HPLC ……………………………………………………………. 54
4.1.1. HPLC UV/Vis detector analysis ……………………………... 54
4.1.2. Calibration curve using UV/Vis detector ……………………. 56
4.1.3. HPLC Fluorescence detector analysis ……………………….. 62
4.1.4. Calibration curve using Fluorescence detector ………………. 66
4.2. Cloud point extraction and preconcentration factor ……………….... 71
4.3. Solvent extraction ………………………………………………….... 73
4.3.1. Effect of initial PAHs concentration …………………………. 73
4.3.2. Effect of alcohols as extractants ……………………………… 76
4.4. Adsorption using activated carbon ………………………………….. 78
4.4.1. Effect of activated carbon dose ………………………………. 79
4.4.2. Effect of particle size of activated carbon ……………………. 81
4.4.3. Effect of contact time ………………………………………… 83
Chapter 5 Conclusion .………………………………………………………………. 85
References ……………………………………………………………………………... 86
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