||The emperor’s new clothes: Examining employee’s voice behavior within a workgroup
||Institute of International Business
surface-and deep-level dissimilarity
建言行為之相關議題，近年來已為組織管理學界所關注，本研究探討在多樣化的工作團隊中，其年齡、性別、以及性格的多樣性，是否會對團隊成員的建言行為造成影響。研究樣本為台灣高科技產業133 個工作團隊，共558 位員工。針對133位團隊主管與558 位團隊成員進行問卷調查，驗證本研究所提出之推論與假說。
本研究嘗試以一跨層次之研究架構，分別探討，在個人層次與團隊層次之多樣性工作團隊裡，其將透過何種中介機制，傳遞團隊成員之建言行為。在程序一，本研究探討員工與主管以及員工與同事之間的特質差異程度，對員工建言行為的影響，是否會透過心理認知 (psychological perception) 過程來傳遞。故導入信任、心理安全、以及關係衝突等個人層次心理認知變數，以實證結果讓此一關聯性更臻完
在程序二，本研究探討透過團隊程序 (group process)，團隊成員的多樣性是否將對員工建言行為產生跨層次的影響，故引進團隊凝聚力與團隊合作等團隊層次中介機制，透過此二中介機制的強化，讓團隊多樣性與建言行為的研究藍圖更加地清晰，亦提供研究者未來可能的研究方向。
This study develops a conceptual framework exploring the effects of perceived dissimilarity on voice behavior in ongoing groups. Based on the similarity-attraction (Byrne, 1971) and social categorization perspectives (Turner et al., 1987; Turner et al.,1994), this study extends prior research by including two targets of voice behavior: peers (speaking out) and supervisors (speaking up). Furthermore, heterogeneity of group members is conceptualized at the individual (dissimilarity) and group (diversity) levels.
Employees’ perceived trust, psychological safety, and relationship conflict are proposed as mediators at the individual level (step 1), and it is posited that the group cohesion and cooperation processes may have a cross-level, top-down influence on individual employees’ voice behavior toward peers (step 2).In two steps, using individual and group level data, it was found that psychological perceptions of trust, psychological safety, and relationship strengthened the association between surface-and deep-level dissimilarity and voice behavior. In the second step, group cohesion and group cooperation processes mediated the cross-level, top-down effect. Theoretical and managerial implications for voice behavior in diverse groups are also discussed.
Chapter 1: INTRODUCTION.... 1
1.1 Problem Statement... 1
1.2 Significance of Research... 3
Chapter 2: LITERATURE REVIEW AND HYPOTHESES... 6
2.1 Theoretical Perspectives on Group Composition.. 6
2.1.1 The similarity-attraction perspective.. 6
2.1.2 The social-categorization perspective.. 7
2.2 Conceptualizing Diversity versus Dissimilarity... 9
2.2.1 Surface- and deep-level dissimilarity... 10
2.3 Voice Behavior..... 12
2.3.1 Speak out and speak up... 13
2.4 Why Does Dissimilarity Matter to Voice Behavior?....... 14
2.4.1 Peer-peer dissimilarity and speaking out.. 15
2.4.2 Supervisor-subordinate dissimilarity and speaking up. 17
2.5 Mediator Variables at the Individual Level... 19
2.5.1 Trust..... 19
2.5.2 Psychological safety.... 22
2.5.3 Relationship conflict.... 24
2.6 Cross-Level Mediator Variables... 27
2.6.1 Group cohesion.... 27
2.6.2 Group cooperation... 29
Chapter 3: METHODOLOGY... 34
3.1 Overview of studies... 34
3.2 Conceptual Framework..... 34
3.3 Step 1: Methods of Individual Level... 36
3.3.1 Participants and Procedures at the Individual Level.. 36
3.3.2 Measure of Step 1.... 37
3.4 Step 2: Methods of Group Level... 41
3.4.1 Participants and Procedures at the Group Level.. 41
3.4.2 Measure of Step 2.... 42
Chapter 4: RESULTS..... 48
4.1 Step 1: Hypothesis Testing.... 48
4.2 Step 2: Hypothesis Testing.... 53
Chapter 5: DISCUSSION.... 58
5.1 Research Findings and Conclusions... 58
5.2 Theoretical Implication of Step 1.... 58
5.3 Managerial Implications of Step 1... 61
5.4 Theoretical Implications of Step 2... 62
5.5 Managerial Implications of Step 2... 64
5.6 Limitations and Future Research Directions... 66
APPENDIX I..... 86
APPENDIX II.... 93
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