||Negotiating Reality: Motives towards Developing Cultural Sensitivity in International Service Encounters
||Negotiating Reality: Motives towards Developing Cultural Sensitivity in International Service Encounters
||Institute of International Management
Inter-cultural service encounters
Means-end chain theory
Increasing global mobility means people from different cultures interact for service. This research explores such intercultural service encounters (ICSE) between culturally distant customers and service providers in Taiwan. Research focuses predominately on short-term residents. Underlying theoretical assumptions, though, point towards acculturation that develops cultural sensitivity over time. This suggests that if customers are motivated they will develop better understanding of ICSE and how to play their role within them. This research identifies and examines the motives that push or draw culturally distant short-, intermediate and long-term residents into learning about service in Taiwan.
Through the implementation of laddering and means-end chain theory, interviews and an open-questionnaire the researcher collects data from 79 participants. Analysis results in 1,422 motive categories that consolidate to 155 main categories. The analytical approach distinguishes between short-, intermediate and long-term respondent groups and separates them into positive and negative motives. The results are six implication matrixes and associating hierarchical value maps.
The findings for this study express a narrative for each category. Short-term respondents place a strong emphasis on motives concerning language abilities and belonging to a community, viewing service encounters as opportunities to achieve pragmatic tasks. Intermediate respondents represent the most complicated group, caught between a desire to acculturate and thoughts of leaving, they focus on achieving a sense of contentment. Long-term respondents transition to abstract motivations, focused on self-improvement with the confidence to handle themselves inside of different service encounters, perceiving service as a daily necessity with minimal gain unless they choose otherwise. These results contribute to theory about ICSEs by providing an explanation of how motivations adjust over time. While previous research suggests that people adapt to a host culture, this study identifies a motivation mechanism by which this happens.
TABLE OF CONTENTS V
LIST OF TABLES IX
LIST OF FIGURES X
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 11
1.1 Intercultural Interactions Among Global Travelers. 11
1.2 Intercultural Service Encounters. 12
1.3 Negotiating Reality. 13
1.4 Motivation Towards Adaption to Host Country Service Expectations. 14
1.5 Research Contributions. 14
CHAPTER TWO ADAPTION IN INTERCULTURAL SERVICE ENCOUNTERS 16
2.1 Culture Shocks. 16
2.1.1 Culture. 16
2.1.2 Culture Shocks. 17
2.2 The Effect of Intercultural Service Encounters on Expectations. 17
2.2.1 Model of Service Expectations. 17
2.2.2 Zone of Tolerance. 18
2.2.3 Intercultural Provider Performance Gap. 18
2.2.4 Widening of the Zone of Tolerance. 19
2.3 The Effect of Role Congruence and Cultural Sensitivity. 20
2.3.1 Inter-role Congruence. 20
2.3.2 Culture Sensitivity. 21
2.3.3 Stages of Cultural Sensitivity. 22
2.3.4 Psychological Adjustment of Cultural Sensitivity. 23
2.4 Motivation to Develop Cultural Sensitivity. 24
2.4.1 Promotion Versus Prevention Motivations. 24
2.4.2 Stress, Coping and Adjustment. 25
2.4.3 Acculturation Dimensions. 28
2.5 Impact of Cultural Sensitivity on Changing Service Expectations. 29
2.6 Research Gaps. 30
2.7 Research Objectives. 30
CHAPTER THREE RESEARCH DESIGN 32
3.1 Research Design. 32
3.2 Method. 33
3.2.1 Laddering and Means-End Chain Theory. 33
3.2.2 Hierarchical Representation of Motives: Schemas. 33
3.3 Sample. 34
3.4 Phase One: Open-Questionnaire and Interview Procedure. 38
3.5 Phase Two: MAXQDA and the Implication Matrixes. 40
3.6 Phase Three: Constructing Hierarchical Value Maps. 43
CHAPTER FOUR MOTIVES TOWARDS AND AWAY FROM ICSE ADAPTION 46
4.1 Overview. 46
4.2 Short-term Respondents. 47
4.2.1 Positive Hierarchical Value Map. 48
4.2.2 Negative Hierarchical Value Map. 49
4.2.3 Summary for Short-term Respondents. 51
4.3 Intermediate Respondents. 51
4.3.1 Positive Hierarchical Value Map. 51
4.3.2 Negative Hierarchical Value Map. 54
4.3.3 Summary for Intermediate Respondents. 56
4.4 Long-term Respondents. 57
4.4.1 Positive Hierarchical Value Map. 58
4.4.2 Negative Hierarchical Value Map. 59
4.3.3 Summary for Long-term Respondents. 61
CHAPTER FIVE CONCLUSION 63
5.1 Research Conclusions. 63
5.2 Theoretical Contributions. 64
5.3 Limitations of This Study. 67
5.4 Practical Applications. 67
Appendix 1: Conversation Guide for Interviews 72
Appendix 2: Open Questionnaire on Motives 74
Appendix 3: Abbreviated Sociocultural Adaption Scale 76
Appendix 4: Raw Data From Positive Under Two Years 77
Appendix 5: Summary Implication Matrix for Positive Under Two Years 80
Appendix 6: Raw Data From Negative Under Two Years 81
Appendix 7: Summary Implication Matrix for Negative Under Two Years 84
Appendix 8: Raw Data From Positive Two to Five Years 85
Appendix 9: Summary Implication Matrix for Positive Two to Five Years 88
Appendix 10: Raw Data From Negative Two to Five Years 89
Appendix 11: Summary Implication Matrix for Negative Two to Five Years 92
Appendix 12: Raw Data From Positive Over Five Years 93
Appendix 13: Summary Implication Matrix for Positive Over Five Years 96
Appendix 14: Raw Data From Negative Over Five Years 97
Appendix 15: Summary Implication Matrix for Negative Over Five Years 100
Alder, & Benson. (n.d.). Flowchart Maker & Online Diagram Software. Retrieved from http://draw.io
Bagozzi, Bergami, & Leone. (2003). Hierarchical representation of motives in goal setting. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(5), 915–943.
Bagozzi, & Dabholkar. (1994). Consumer recycling goals and their effect on decisions to recycle: A means-end chain analysis. Psychology and Marketing, 11(4), 313–340.
Barna. (1994). Stumbling blocks in intercultural communication. Intercultural Communication: A reader, 6(0), 345-353.
Bennett. (1986). A developmental approach to training for intercultural sensitivity. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 10(2), 179–196.
Berry. (1997). Immigration, acculturation, and adaptation. Applied Psychology, 46(1), 5–34.
Berry, & Sam. (1997). Handbook of cross-cultural psychology: Basic processes and human development (Vol. 2), 291-319. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
Brown, & Holloway. (2008). The adjustment journey of international postgraduate students at an English university: An ethnographic study. Journal of Research in International Education, 7(2), 232–249.
Demes, & Geeraert. (2015). The highs and lows of a cultural transition: A longitudinal analysis of sojourner stress and adaptation across 50 countries. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 109(2), 316–337.
DESA, U. (2015). Trends in International Migrant Stock: Migrants by Destination and Origin. United Nations Database, POP/DB/MIG/Stock/Rev, 2015.
Elliot. (1999). Approach and avoidance motivation and achievement goals. Educational Psychologist, 34(3), 169–189.
Elliot, & Church. (1997). A hierarchical model of approach and avoidance achievement motivation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 72(1), 218.
Friedman, & Antal. (2005). Negotiating Reality A Theory of Action Approach to Intercultural Competence. Management Learning, 36(1), 69–86.
Guay, Vallerand, & Blanchard, C. (2000). On the assessment of situational intrinsic and extrinsic motivation: The Situational Motivation Scale (SIMS). Motivation and Emotion, 24(3), 175–213.
Hofstede. (1984). Cultural dimensions in management and planning. Asia Pacific Journal of Management, 1(2), 81–99.
Hofstede. (1991). Cultures and organizations: Software of the mind. New York, NY: McGraw Hill.
ICEF Monitor. (2015). New OECD report summarises global mobility trends. Retrieved December 25, 2017, from http://monitor.icef.com/2015/11/new-oecd-report-summarises-global-mobility-trends/
Ikeguchi. (2008). Cultural Learning and Adaptation: A Closer Look at the Realities. Intercultural Communication Studies, 17(1), 285–298.
Imrie, Cadogan, & McNaughton. (2002). The service quality construct on a global stage. Managing Service Quality, 12(1), 10–18.
Kattilakoski. (2016). Evolving expectations in intercultural service encounters - Triggers and effects of cultural adjustment. Southern Taiwan University of Science and Technology.
Kealey. (1989). A study of cross-cultural effectiveness: Theoretical issues, practical applications. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 13(3), 387–428.
Kuckartz. (2007). MAXQDA: Qualitative data analysis. Berlin, Germany: VERBI Software.
Molden, Lee, & Higgins. (2008). Motivations for promotion and prevention. Handbook of Motivation Science, 169–187. New York, NY: The Guilford Press.
Oberg. (1960). Culture shock: adjustment to new cultural environments. Practical Anthropology, 7(4), 177-182.
Reynolds, & Gutman. (1988). Laddering theory, method, analysis, and interpretation. Journal of Advertising Research, 28(1), 11–31.
Saaka, Sidon, & Blake. (2004). Laddering: A “How to do it” Manual–with a note of caution. Research Reports in Consumer Behavior: How to Series. Cleaveland, OH: Cleveland State University.
Saunders, Lewis, & Thornhill. (2009). Research methods for business students. New York, NY: Pearson.
Searle, & Ward. (1990). The prediction of psychological and sociocultural adjustment during cross-cultural transitions. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 14(4), 449–464.
Sharma, Tam, & Kim. (2009). Demystifying intercultural service encounters toward a comprehensive conceptual framework. Journal of Service Research, 12(2), 227–242.
Sharma, Tam, & Kim. (2012). Intercultural service encounters (ICSE): An extended framework and empirical validation. Journal of Services Marketing, 26(7), 521–534.
Sharma, & Wu. (2015). Consumer ethnocentrism vs. intercultural competence as moderators in intercultural service encounters. Journal of Services Marketing, 29(2), 93–102.
Sizoo, Plank, Iskat, & Serrie. (2005). The effect of intercultural sensitivity on employee performance in cross‐cultural service encounters. Journal of Services Marketing, 19(4), 245–255.
Stanworth, Hsu, & Chang. (2015). Interpersonal service quality of the Chinese: Determinants and behavioral drivers. Service Business, 9(3), 515–540.
Stauss, & Baron. (2016). Retrospective:’culture shocks’ in inter-cultural service encounters? Journal of Services Marketing, 30(4), 377–383.
Stauss, & Mang. (1999). “Culture shocks” in inter-cultural service encounters? Journal of Services Marketing, 13(4/5), 329–346.
Strauss, & Corbin. (1998). The Basics of Qualitative Research. London: Sage.
Strauss, & D’Andrade. (1992). Human motives and cultural models (Vol. 1). Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press.
Ward, Bochner, & Furnham. (2001). The psychology of culture shock. London: Routledge.
Ward, & Kennedy. (1999). The measurement of sociocultural adaptation. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 23(4), 659–677.
Ward, Okura, Kennedy, & Kojima. (1998). The U-curve on trial: A longitudinal study of psychological and sociocultural adjustment during cross-cultural transition. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 22(3), 277–291.
Warden, Liu, Huang, & Lee. (2003). Service failures away from home: Benefits in intercultural service encounters. International Journal of Service Industry Management, 14(4), 436–456.
World Tourism Organization UNWTO. (2016). International tourist arrivals up 4% reach a record 1.2 billion in 2015. Retrieved December 19, 2016, from http://media.unwto.org/press-release/2016-01-18/international-tourist-arrivals-4-reach-record-12-billion-2015
Zeithaml, Berry, & Parasuraman. (1993). The nature and determinants of customer expectations of service. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 21(1), 1.