||DDA Simulation and Trap-door Modeling for Underground Excavation Induced Subsidence and Landslide
||Department of Civil Engineering
||Trong Nhan Do
Discontinuous Deformation Analysis (DDA)
physical trap-door model
Complicated behaviors of rock mass during underground excavations, namely mining and tunnel, have been a challenging topic to many researchers due to the complicated behaviors. Geometry and mechanical properties of joints in a rock mass significantly affect surface subsidence and stress distribution around the underground excavations. The physical trap-door models are applied to validate the correctness of using DDA to simulate the tunnels in blocky rock mass. Then, a actual case study is investigated by DDA to show the applicability of using DDA to solve practical problems.
In the trap-door model, a rocky block mass is presented by precise-dimension aluminum blocks and aluminum rods. Different shapes of aluminum blocks are used to form different kinds of rock geometry. To simulate the excavation process, the trap door is lowered with assigned distances, and the surface subsidence and the stress distribution are determined by a high-accuracy laser displacement sensor and stress measurement devices, respectively.
There are two numerical simulation approaches for rock mechanics, namely continuous and discontinuous simulations. Finite Element Method (FEM) can be a representative method for continuous simulation, which is limited to the simulation of discontinuous environments with large displacements. Discontinuous Deformation Analysis (DDA), a discrete element method, is a numerical simulation method developed by Dr. Shi 1989. This method simulates the behavior of jointed rock mass with large displacement and has achieved many advancements. Therefore, DDA is applied to simulate the underground structures in the trap-door tests. By using the results from the trap-door model to verify the correctness of those from DDA simulations, DDA is a very useful tool for the prediction of surface subsidence and stress distribution in the future underground constructions.
Therefore, the failure process of a mining-induced landslide at Nattai North, Australia is numerically simulated by DDA. Results obtained using Discontinuous Deformation Analysis (DDA) matched the conceptual failure process suggested by local geologists and the observed maximum run-out distance. The maximum velocity of the sliding rocks exceeded 40 m/s. Computational results showed that the slope with inward sub-horizontal bedding planes and sub-vertical discontinuities remained stable if the mining-induced high principle stresses did not fracture the rocks near the slope toe. Failure of the rocks near the toe of the slope was a key causal factor in the subsequent landslide. The research presents the first numerical simulation of the post-failure behavior of the mining-induced landslide at the Nattai North site. It also represents the first DDA simulation to clarify the chain reaction of a mining-induced landslide and demonstrate its applicability in such investigations.
In addition, the block size is one of the key characteristics affecting the mechanical behaviors of a rock mass during mining extraction. DDA is used to demonstrate that position with the same case study above, a mining-induced landslide in Nattai North of Australia. The effect of the block size on the stability of a slope is investigated. The study emphasizes the effect of four cases of block size on the movement of the escarpment, stress distribution around the mining, and the failure mode of the landslide. The results show that mining operations in both four cases of block size initiated the largest contemporary landslide and mass movement known in Australia. The size effect was proved to be a significant effect on the surface subsidence, arching effect as well as the landslide mode. Different block sizes produce an apparently different arching effect, which causes the difference in the landslide mode.
LIST OF TABLES VIII
LIST OF FIGURES IX
LIST OF NOMENCLATURE XV
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Research background and objectives 1
1.2 Methods for investigation of tunneling-induced ground deformation 4
1.3 Flow chart of the research 6
CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 9
2.1 Discontinuum approaches 9
2.2 Physical trap-door model 22
2.3 Mechanical behaviors of rock mass during tunneling 27
CHAPTER 3 THEORY OF DDA 34
CHAPTER 4 PHYSICAL TRAP-DOOR MODEL 47
4.1 Physical trap-door model 47
4.1 Earth pressure signal 61
CHAPTER 5 SINGLE TUNNEL 66
5.1 The physical trap-door model 66
5.2 DDA simulation 70
5.3 Results 76
5.4 Discussions 93
CHAPTER 6 TWIN TUNNELS 96
6.1 The physical trap-door model 96
6.2 DDA simulation 102
6.3 Results and discussions 105
CHAPTER 7 MINING-INDUCED LANDSLIDE CASE STUDY 123
7.1 Introduction 123
7.2 Landslide case study: Nattai North at Australia 126
7.3 Small scale model of the study site 130
7.4 Full-scale model of Nattai North landslide with DDA simulation 137
7.5 Effect of the block size in Nattai North landslide with DDA simulation 173
CHAPTER 8 CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE STUDIES 195
8.1 Conclusions 195
8.2 Future studies 196
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