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系統識別號 U0026-0901201411045100
論文名稱(中文) 航空公司空勤組員安全行為影響因子之研究
論文名稱(英文) Investigating Factors Affecting Air Crew’s Safety Behavior
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 交通管理科學系
系所名稱(英) Department of Transportation & Communication Management Science
學年度 102
學期 1
出版年 102
研究生(中文) 陳淑娟
研究生(英文) Shu-Chuan Chen
學號 R58981027
學位類別 博士
語文別 英文
論文頁數 165頁
口試委員 指導教授-陳勁甫
召集委員-顏進儒
口試委員-張有恆
口試委員-蔡東峻
口試委員-溫傑華
口試委員-林豪傑
口試委員-鍾易詩
中文關鍵字 空勤組員  安全行為  安全管理系統  德行領導  仁慈領導  自我效能  核心自我評量  安全動機  向上安全溝通 
英文關鍵字 Aircrew  Safety behavior  Safety Management System  Morality leadership  Benevolent leadership  Self-efficacy  Core self-evaluations  Safety motivation  Upward safety communication 
學科別分類
中文摘要 空勤組員安全行為表現對航空公司的飛安紀錄影響甚鉅。因人類行為受到個體、團隊及組織之綜合影響,是以本論文建構整合組織、團隊、個人因素之模型,運用結構方程模式分析方法,探討有助提升空勤組員安全行為之可能因素。以文獻回顧及空勤組員工作特性為理論與實務基礎,針對台籍駕駛艙和客艙組員分別進行研究。機師及空服員之個人認知為實證資料來源,選擇航空公司「安全管理系統」運作現況作為組織層面前因,團隊前因則探討機隊經理德行領導與空服管理部門經理仁慈領導分別對於機師與空服員安全行為之提升作用。個人影響變項中,機師以「自我效能」、空服員以「核心自我評量」作為代表變項。此外,研究架構納入機師安全動機與空服員向上安全溝通做為兩概念模型之中介變項。
經由實證資料分析得知,安全管理系統及自我效能對於機師安全行為具有顯著正向之直接和間接效果,而機隊經理之德行領導則藉由安全動機間接正向影響機師安全行為。安全管理系統對於空服員之安全行為亦具有顯著之正向直接影響,而管理部門經理之仁慈領導除顯著影響空服員之安全參與外,另經由向上安全溝通之中介效果,間接正向影響其安全遵守行為。空服員核心自我評量正向直接影響安全遵守行為及間接影響安全參與行為。三項前因證實對於空勤組員之安全行為具有顯著影響效果,而機師安全動機和空服員向上安全溝通之中介效果亦獲得支持。
研究結果對於組織安全行為相關理論及航空業人力資源實務運作皆有所益。建議國籍航空公司用心投入安全管理系統之施行,鼓勵空勤管理單位主管奉行德行領導及仁慈領導,甄選較高自我效能之機師和核心自我評量之空服員並施以持續訓練,藉此激發機師安全動機與鼓勵空服員向上安全溝通,以期全面提升空勤組員之安全行為表現。
英文摘要 Aircrew plays an essential role in airlines’ safety record. The current dissertation aims at developing two models to explore the relationships among the selected organizational, group, individual aspects’ factors and aircrew’s safety behaviors. Based on the literature review and context of aircrew’s specific job characteristics, pilots’ perceptions of their airlines Safety Management System (SMS) practice, fleet managers’ morality leadership and self-efficacy are chosen as antecedents, while safety motivation is served as a mediator to link to pilots’ safety behavior. As for cabin crew, flight attendants’ perceptions of SMS practice, department managers’ benevolent leadership and core self-evaluations are the targeted indicators in the conceptual model, while upward safety communication employed as the mediator.
The results analyzed by applying Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) technique indicate that all selected antecedents have significantly and positively direct or indirect effects on aircrew’s safety behaviors. The mediating effects of pilots’ safety motivation and flight attendants’ upward safety communication have also been confirmed. The findings contribute to enhancing both safety behavior related literature and airlines human resource management in practice.
Airlines are recommended to continuously improve SMS practice, encouraging managers to perform morality and benevolent leadership, applying self-efficacy and core self-evaluations as the criteria to recruit appropriate pilot and flight attendant candidates to enhance pilots’ safety motivation and flight attendants’ upward safety communication. Aircrew’s safety behaviors are expected to be improved through the aforementioned implementations.
論文目次 TABLE OF CONTENTS
摘要 I
ABSTRACT II
誌謝 III
TABLE OF CONTENTS IV
LIST OF TABLES VIII
LIST OF FIGURES X

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 RESEARCH BACKGROUND AND MOTIVATION 1
1.2 RESEARCH OBJECTIVE 9
1.3 RESEARCH SCOPE 10
1.4 RESEARCH PROCESS 10
1.5 RESEARCH STRUCTURE 13

CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 14
2.1 THE DEFINITION OF AIR CREW 15
2.1.1 Flight Crew 16
2.1.2 Cabin Crew 17
2.2 SAFETY BEHAVIOR 18
2.3 ANTECEDENTS OF AIRCREW’S SAFETY BEHAVIOR 20
2.3.1 Organizational Aspect: Safety Management System (SMS) 21
2.3.1.1 The Definition of SMS 22
2.3.1.2 The Components of SMS 24
2.3.1.3 The Application of SMS in Taiwan 28
2.3.2 Group Aspect: Morality Leadership and Benevolent Leadership 31
2.3.2.1 Morality Leadership 36
2.3.2.2 Benevolent Leadership 38
2.3.3 Individual Aspect: Self-efficacy 40
2.3.4 Individual Aspect: Core Self-evaluations 43
2.4 FLIGHT CREW’S SAFETY MOTIVATION 47
2.5 CABIN CREW’S UPWARD SAFETY COMMUNICATION 48
2.6 SUMMARY 50

CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY 52
3.1 THE CONCEPTUAL MODELS AND HYPOTHESES 52
3.1.1 Model A: Flight Crew Safety Behavior 53
3.1.2 Model B: Cabin Crew Safety Behavior 57
3.2 RESEARCH POPULATIONS AND DATA COLLECTION 61
3.2.1 Model A: Flight Crew 61
3.2.2 Model B: Cabin Crew 62
3.3 QUESTIONNAIRE DESIGN 62
3.3.1 Measures …63
3.3.1.1 Safety Management System Practice 63
3.3.1.2 Morality Leadership and Benevolent Leadership 66
3.3.1.3 Self-efficacy 66
3.3.1.4 Core Self-evaluations 67
3.3.1.5 Safety Motivation 68
3.3.1.6 Upward Safety Motivation 69
3.3.1.7 Safety Behavior 69
3.3.1.8 Demographic Variables 70
3.4 DATA ANALYSIS METHODS 71
3.4.1 Descriptive Statistics 71
3.4.2 Reliability Analysis 71
3.4.3 Exploratory Factor Analysis 72
3.4.4 Correlation Analysis 73
3.4.5 Confirmatory Factor Analysis 73
3.4.6 Structural Equation Modeling 75
3.4.7 Mediating Effect Test 76
3.5 SUMMARY 78

CHAPTER 4 DATA ANALYSES AND DISCUSSION 80
4.1 FLIGHT CREW SAFETY BEHAVIOR 80
4.1.1 Demographic Characteristics of Pilot Respondents.. 80
4.1.2 Descriptive Statistics Results 83
4.1.3 Dimensionality of SMS Practice 85
4.1.4 Measurement Model 86
4.1.5 Structural Model and Hypotheses Testing 91
4.1.6 Mediating Effects of Safety Motivation 92
4.1.6.1 Mediating Effect on SMS Practice and Pilots’ Safety Behaviors 93
4.1.6.2 Mediating Effect on Fleet Manager’s Morality Leadership and Pilots’ Safety Behaviors 94
4.1.6.3 Mediating Effect on Self-efficacy and Pilots’ Safety Behaviors 95
4.1.7 Discussion 97
4.2 CABIN CREW SAFETY BEHAVIOR 99
4.2.1 Demographic Characteristics of Flight Attendant Respondents 99
4.2.2 Descriptive Statistics Results 101
4.2.3 Measurement Model 104
4.2.4 Structural Model and Hypotheses Testing 108
4.2.5 Mediating Effects of Upward Safety Communication 109
4.2.5.1 Mediating Effect on SMS Practice and Flight Attendants’ Safety Behaviors 110
4.2.5.2 Mediating Effect on Department Manager’s Benevolent Leadership and Flight Attendants’ Safety Behaviors 111
4.2.5.3 Mediating Effect on Core Self-evaluations and Flight Attendants’ Safety Behaviors 112
4.2.6 Discussion 114
4.3 COMPARISON BETWEEN THE TWO MODELS 118

CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS 123
5.1 CONCLUSIONS OF THE STUDY 123
5.2 CONTRIBUTIONS OF THE STUDY 127
5.3 IMPLICATIONS OF THE STUDY 128
5.4 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY 131
5.5 DIRECTIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH 133

REFERENCES 135
APPENDIX 1 151
APPENDIX 2 154
APPENDIX 3 157
APPENDIX 4 160
CURRICULUM VITAE 163



LIST OF TABLES
Table 2.1 The Abstract of Employee Population Statics in Taiwanese Airline Industry 16
Table 2.2 The SMS Key Components / Elements /Implementation Plans/ Steps 27
Table 3.1 The Full Version of the SMS Evaluation Scale 65
Table 3.2 The Scale Items of Morality and Benevolent Leadership 66
Table 3.3 The Scale Items of Self-efficacy 67
Table 3.4 The Scale Items of Core Self-evaluations 68
Table 3.5 The Scale Items of Safety Motivation 68
Table 3.6 The Scale Items of Upward Safety Communication 69
Table 3.7 The Scale Items of Flight Crew’s Safety Behavior 70
Table 3.8 The Scale Items of Cabin Crew’s Safety Behavior 70
Table 3.9 Goodness-of-fit Indices and the Corresponding Criteria 76
Table 4.1 The Respondents Profile of Flight Crew 82
Table 4.2 Descriptive Statistics Results of Model A 84
Table 4.3 Principle Component Analysis of SMS Practice Evaluation Scale 86
Table 4.4 Convergent Validity of Model A 88
Table 4.5 Cronbach’s α Values, Inter-factor Correlations and Discriminatn Validity (Model A) 89
Table 4.6 Parameter Estimates for the Path in Full Structural Model and Competing Model (Model A) 91
Table 4.7 Direct, Indirect, and Total Effects on Safety Compliance and Safety Participation in Model A 97
Table 4.8 The Respondents Profiles of Cabin Crew 101
Table 4.9 Descriptive Statistics Results of Model B 103
Table 4.10 Convergent Validity of Model B 105
Table 4.11 Cronbach’s α Values, Inter-factor Correlations and Discriminatn Validity (Model B) 106
Table 4.12 Parameter Estimates for the Path in Full Structural Model and Competing Model (Model B) 107
Table 4.13 Direct, Indirect, and Total Effects on Safety Compliance and Safety Participation in Model B 114



LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1.1 Hull Loss Accidents- Worldwide Commercial Jet Fleet 1996 - 2005 3
Figure 1.2 Research Process Flow Chart 12
Figure 3.1 Conceptual Model of Fight Crew Safety Behavior 54
Figure 3.2 Conceptual Model of Cabin Crew Safety Behavior 58
Figure 3.3 The Mediation Diagram 77
Figure 4.1 The Estimated Model of Flight Crew Safety Behavior 92
Figure 4.2 The Estimated Model of Cabin Crew Safety Behavior 109
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