||Investigating Factors Affecting Air Crew’s Safety Behavior
||Department of Transportation & Communication Management Science
Safety Management System
Upward safety communication
Aircrew plays an essential role in airlines’ safety record. The current dissertation aims at developing two models to explore the relationships among the selected organizational, group, individual aspects’ factors and aircrew’s safety behaviors. Based on the literature review and context of aircrew’s specific job characteristics, pilots’ perceptions of their airlines Safety Management System (SMS) practice, fleet managers’ morality leadership and self-efficacy are chosen as antecedents, while safety motivation is served as a mediator to link to pilots’ safety behavior. As for cabin crew, flight attendants’ perceptions of SMS practice, department managers’ benevolent leadership and core self-evaluations are the targeted indicators in the conceptual model, while upward safety communication employed as the mediator.
The results analyzed by applying Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) technique indicate that all selected antecedents have significantly and positively direct or indirect effects on aircrew’s safety behaviors. The mediating effects of pilots’ safety motivation and flight attendants’ upward safety communication have also been confirmed. The findings contribute to enhancing both safety behavior related literature and airlines human resource management in practice.
Airlines are recommended to continuously improve SMS practice, encouraging managers to perform morality and benevolent leadership, applying self-efficacy and core self-evaluations as the criteria to recruit appropriate pilot and flight attendant candidates to enhance pilots’ safety motivation and flight attendants’ upward safety communication. Aircrew’s safety behaviors are expected to be improved through the aforementioned implementations.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TABLE OF CONTENTS IV
LIST OF TABLES VIII
LIST OF FIGURES X
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 RESEARCH BACKGROUND AND MOTIVATION 1
1.2 RESEARCH OBJECTIVE 9
1.3 RESEARCH SCOPE 10
1.4 RESEARCH PROCESS 10
1.5 RESEARCH STRUCTURE 13
CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 14
2.1 THE DEFINITION OF AIR CREW 15
2.1.1 Flight Crew 16
2.1.2 Cabin Crew 17
2.2 SAFETY BEHAVIOR 18
2.3 ANTECEDENTS OF AIRCREW’S SAFETY BEHAVIOR 20
2.3.1 Organizational Aspect: Safety Management System (SMS) 21
126.96.36.199 The Definition of SMS 22
188.8.131.52 The Components of SMS 24
184.108.40.206 The Application of SMS in Taiwan 28
2.3.2 Group Aspect: Morality Leadership and Benevolent Leadership 31
220.127.116.11 Morality Leadership 36
18.104.22.168 Benevolent Leadership 38
2.3.3 Individual Aspect: Self-efficacy 40
2.3.4 Individual Aspect: Core Self-evaluations 43
2.4 FLIGHT CREW’S SAFETY MOTIVATION 47
2.5 CABIN CREW’S UPWARD SAFETY COMMUNICATION 48
2.6 SUMMARY 50
CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY 52
3.1 THE CONCEPTUAL MODELS AND HYPOTHESES 52
3.1.1 Model A: Flight Crew Safety Behavior 53
3.1.2 Model B: Cabin Crew Safety Behavior 57
3.2 RESEARCH POPULATIONS AND DATA COLLECTION 61
3.2.1 Model A: Flight Crew 61
3.2.2 Model B: Cabin Crew 62
3.3 QUESTIONNAIRE DESIGN 62
3.3.1 Measures …63
22.214.171.124 Safety Management System Practice 63
126.96.36.199 Morality Leadership and Benevolent Leadership 66
188.8.131.52 Self-efficacy 66
184.108.40.206 Core Self-evaluations 67
220.127.116.11 Safety Motivation 68
18.104.22.168 Upward Safety Motivation 69
22.214.171.124 Safety Behavior 69
126.96.36.199 Demographic Variables 70
3.4 DATA ANALYSIS METHODS 71
3.4.1 Descriptive Statistics 71
3.4.2 Reliability Analysis 71
3.4.3 Exploratory Factor Analysis 72
3.4.4 Correlation Analysis 73
3.4.5 Confirmatory Factor Analysis 73
3.4.6 Structural Equation Modeling 75
3.4.7 Mediating Effect Test 76
3.5 SUMMARY 78
CHAPTER 4 DATA ANALYSES AND DISCUSSION 80
4.1 FLIGHT CREW SAFETY BEHAVIOR 80
4.1.1 Demographic Characteristics of Pilot Respondents.. 80
4.1.2 Descriptive Statistics Results 83
4.1.3 Dimensionality of SMS Practice 85
4.1.4 Measurement Model 86
4.1.5 Structural Model and Hypotheses Testing 91
4.1.6 Mediating Effects of Safety Motivation 92
188.8.131.52 Mediating Effect on SMS Practice and Pilots’ Safety Behaviors 93
184.108.40.206 Mediating Effect on Fleet Manager’s Morality Leadership and Pilots’ Safety Behaviors 94
220.127.116.11 Mediating Effect on Self-efficacy and Pilots’ Safety Behaviors 95
4.1.7 Discussion 97
4.2 CABIN CREW SAFETY BEHAVIOR 99
4.2.1 Demographic Characteristics of Flight Attendant Respondents 99
4.2.2 Descriptive Statistics Results 101
4.2.3 Measurement Model 104
4.2.4 Structural Model and Hypotheses Testing 108
4.2.5 Mediating Effects of Upward Safety Communication 109
18.104.22.168 Mediating Effect on SMS Practice and Flight Attendants’ Safety Behaviors 110
22.214.171.124 Mediating Effect on Department Manager’s Benevolent Leadership and Flight Attendants’ Safety Behaviors 111
126.96.36.199 Mediating Effect on Core Self-evaluations and Flight Attendants’ Safety Behaviors 112
4.2.6 Discussion 114
4.3 COMPARISON BETWEEN THE TWO MODELS 118
CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS 123
5.1 CONCLUSIONS OF THE STUDY 123
5.2 CONTRIBUTIONS OF THE STUDY 127
5.3 IMPLICATIONS OF THE STUDY 128
5.4 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY 131
5.5 DIRECTIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH 133
APPENDIX 1 151
APPENDIX 2 154
APPENDIX 3 157
APPENDIX 4 160
CURRICULUM VITAE 163
LIST OF TABLES
Table 2.1 The Abstract of Employee Population Statics in Taiwanese Airline Industry 16
Table 2.2 The SMS Key Components / Elements /Implementation Plans/ Steps 27
Table 3.1 The Full Version of the SMS Evaluation Scale 65
Table 3.2 The Scale Items of Morality and Benevolent Leadership 66
Table 3.3 The Scale Items of Self-efficacy 67
Table 3.4 The Scale Items of Core Self-evaluations 68
Table 3.5 The Scale Items of Safety Motivation 68
Table 3.6 The Scale Items of Upward Safety Communication 69
Table 3.7 The Scale Items of Flight Crew’s Safety Behavior 70
Table 3.8 The Scale Items of Cabin Crew’s Safety Behavior 70
Table 3.9 Goodness-of-fit Indices and the Corresponding Criteria 76
Table 4.1 The Respondents Profile of Flight Crew 82
Table 4.2 Descriptive Statistics Results of Model A 84
Table 4.3 Principle Component Analysis of SMS Practice Evaluation Scale 86
Table 4.4 Convergent Validity of Model A 88
Table 4.5 Cronbach’s α Values, Inter-factor Correlations and Discriminatn Validity (Model A) 89
Table 4.6 Parameter Estimates for the Path in Full Structural Model and Competing Model (Model A) 91
Table 4.7 Direct, Indirect, and Total Effects on Safety Compliance and Safety Participation in Model A 97
Table 4.8 The Respondents Profiles of Cabin Crew 101
Table 4.9 Descriptive Statistics Results of Model B 103
Table 4.10 Convergent Validity of Model B 105
Table 4.11 Cronbach’s α Values, Inter-factor Correlations and Discriminatn Validity (Model B) 106
Table 4.12 Parameter Estimates for the Path in Full Structural Model and Competing Model (Model B) 107
Table 4.13 Direct, Indirect, and Total Effects on Safety Compliance and Safety Participation in Model B 114
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1.1 Hull Loss Accidents- Worldwide Commercial Jet Fleet 1996 - 2005 3
Figure 1.2 Research Process Flow Chart 12
Figure 3.1 Conceptual Model of Fight Crew Safety Behavior 54
Figure 3.2 Conceptual Model of Cabin Crew Safety Behavior 58
Figure 3.3 The Mediation Diagram 77
Figure 4.1 The Estimated Model of Flight Crew Safety Behavior 92
Figure 4.2 The Estimated Model of Cabin Crew Safety Behavior 109
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