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系統識別號 U0026-0812201013245300
論文名稱(中文) 台灣地區主要河川底泥及魚體中壬基酚及雙酚A環境流布研究
論文名稱(英文) The investigation on Nonylphenol and Bisphenol A in sediments and fishes of principal rivers in Taiwan.
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 環境醫學研究所
系所名稱(英) Institute of Environmental and Occupational Health
學年度 99
學期 1
出版年 99
研究生(中文) 郭怡伶
研究生(英文) Yi-Ling Kuo
學號 s7697102
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 177頁
口試委員 指導教授-李俊璋
口試委員-田倩蓉
口試委員-孫逸民
口試委員-陳士賢
中文關鍵字 壬基酚  雙酚A  河川  底泥  魚體  生物/底泥累積係數  非致癌風險 
英文關鍵字 nonylphenol  bisphenol-A  river  sediment  fish  BSAF  hazard index 
學科別分類
中文摘要 烷基酚類化合物,如壬基酚及雙酚A廣泛使用於工業、農業和家庭產品中,因兩者具有低揮發性、持久不易分解的特性,故易藉由生物濃縮及累積效應,進入食物鏈及消費者體內。壬基酚及雙酚A為已知環境荷爾蒙,可能干擾內分泌之正常運作,影響生長發育、生殖和性別分化等作用。國內過去曾針對水體中壬基酚及雙酚A之濃度進行研究,但並未進行其他環境樣本(如底泥、魚體)中壬基酚及雙酚A之含量調查,因此目前對於台灣底泥及魚體樣本中壬基酚及雙酚A的濃度及生物蓄積資料仍屬匱乏。為瞭解壬基酚及雙酚A在河川環境之流布及累積情形,本研究欲建立可以各自分析河川底泥或魚體中壬基酚及雙酚A之方法,針對台灣地區河川中底泥及魚體進行壬基酚及雙酚A濃度調查,並計算生物-底泥累積係數(Biota/Sediment Accumulation Factor,BSAF),以瞭解壬基酚及雙酚A之生物累積性。更進一步採集常見之養殖魚類、近海養殖及近海捕撈魚種,以了解養殖及野生魚體中壬基酚及雙酚A之含量,再依所偵測之魚體內壬基酚及雙酚A之含量,進而推估一般民眾食入壬基酚及雙酚A之非致癌風險。本研究以老街溪(北部地區)、濁水溪及新虎尾溪(中部地區),二仁溪及愛河(南部地區)等5條河川為目標,共採集32個中下游底泥樣本及15個魚體樣本分別進行壬基酚及雙酚A分析;關於常見之養殖魚類、近海養殖及近海捕撈魚種樣本,則參考農委會漁業署各種魚種之供應量及國民營養調查所載一般民眾常食用之魚種,於台灣地區北部(碧砂漁港)、中部(梧棲漁港)、南部(興達漁港)及東部(成功漁港)四大港口漁市所購得,選擇民眾較常食用之養殖魚類、近海養殖及近海捕撈魚種各2種。結果顯示,國內河川32個底泥樣本中壬基酚平均測值為7.1 (0.01-47.8) mg/kg dw,其中以老街溪(8.6 (0.49-28.4) mg/kg dw)及愛河(27.3 (0.87-47.8) mg/kg dw)底泥樣本中壬基酚平均測值較高,且多高於國外測值(日本,13 mg/kg dw);15個魚體樣本中壬基酚平均測值為40.25 (1.01-134.06) mg/kg ww,其中以二仁溪魚體樣本含量最高(66.50 (19.27-134.06) ug/kg ww),與國外調查測值(多低於40 ug/kg ww)比較,顯示除二仁溪、濁水溪部分魚體樣本壬基酚含量較高,其餘樣本壬基酚含量多與國外魚體測值相近或較低。32個底泥樣本中雙酚A平均測值為71.9 (1.1-491.5) g/kg dw,其中以老街溪(67.5 (41.8-105.0) g/kg dw)、二仁溪(156.9 (1.1-491.5) g/kg dw)及愛河(100.5 (15.1-179.1) g/kg dw)底泥中雙酚A平均測值較高,但較國外測值(多低於500 g/kg dw)者低;15個魚體樣本中雙酚A平均測值為2.85(0.34-25.21)g/kg ww,以二仁溪魚體樣本含量最高(9.09 (0.68-25.21) ug/kg ww),且多較國外測值(多低於15 ug/kg ww)低。
完成分析之養殖魚類、近海養殖及近海捕撈魚種魚肉組織中壬基酚平均濃度為34.791(4.098-112.151) ug/kg ww,以養殖(36.088 (4.098-112.151) ug/kg ww)及近海捕撈(40.346 (6.853-108.936) ug/kg ww)魚種較高;雙酚A平均濃度為1.152 (0.151-12.834) ug/kg ww,以近海養殖(1.437 (0.151-12.834) ug/kg ww)及近海捕撈(1.143 (0.462-2.179) ug/kg ww)魚種較高。
本研究進一步計算壬基酚及雙酚A之生物/底泥累積係數及非致癌風險,顯示不同魚種壬基酚的BSAF介於0.004-7.677,以吳郭魚之BSAF為最高;不同魚種雙酚A的 BSAF介於0.009-1.026,亦其中以吳郭魚之BSAF最高。將魚體依棲息特性區分為底棲性及浮游性魚種,顯示無論是壬基酚或雙酚A,底棲性魚種之BSAF(0.005-7.677)皆高於浮游性魚種(0.004-1.241)。養殖魚類、近海養殖及近海捕撈魚類攝食導致之壬基酚及雙酚A暴露非致癌風險以危害指標(Hazard Index,HI)進行評估,顯示養殖、近海養殖及近海捕撈壬基酚的HI介於2.74×10-3~4.11×10-3,以養殖魚種之HI較近海養殖及近海捕撈魚種高;雙酚A的HI介於9.96×10-6~1.41×10-5,以近海養殖魚之HI較養殖及近海捕撈魚種高,台灣地區無論是養殖、近海養殖及近海捕撈魚體中壬基酚或雙酚A的非致癌風險皆小於1,顯示一般民眾終其一生食入該些魚獲產品並不會對人體健康產生不良健康效應。
英文摘要 Nonylphenol (NP) and Bisphenol A (BPA) are alkylphenols, which were industrially used for the preparation of phenolic resins, polymers, heat stabilizers, antioxidants, and curing agents. NP and BPA are known environmental hormones, have the toxic effects on female and male reproductive system, interfere with the development of the offspring and act as endocrine disrupting chemicals. Up to now, only a preliminary study was conducted to investigate the levels of NP and BPA in the water (not including sediments and aqua-organism) of five rivers in Taiwan. Therefore, environmental investigation of NP and BPA in river environment (including sediments and aqua-organism) in Taiwan is needed.
The aims of this study are to establish the pretreatment and analytical methods for the simultaneous measurement of NP and BPA in river sediment and fish samples, and then to investigate the levels of NP and BPA in sediments and fishes from five principal rivers in Taiwan; and to calculate biota/sediment accumulation factor (BSAF) of NP and BPA for fishes. Furthermore, cultured fishes with freshwater, seawater and wild sea fishes were sampled from the northern (Bi-Sha), central (Wu-Chi), southern (Xing-Da) and eastern (Cheng-Kung) fishing harbors, and the levels of NP and BPA of all fish samples were analyzed. All the data will be integrated to assess the health risk of NP and BPA via consumption of different fishes.
32 sediment and 15 fish samples were collected from five principal rivers in Taiwan, including Love River, Lao-Jie River, Sinhuwei River, Erren River, and Jhuoshuei River. Two freshwater cultured fishes, two seawater cultured fishes and 2 wild sea fishes were selected according the supplied and consumption quantities data of fishes from Council of Agriculture. The results show that the mean (range) of NP concentration in sediments were 7.1 (0.01-47.8) mg/kg dry weight and the higher NP levels in sediments were found in the Lao-Jie River (8.6 (0.49-28.4) mg/kg dry weight) and Love River (27.3 (0.87-47.8) mg/kg dry weight). The NP levels in sediments of five principal rivers in Taiwan were higher than those of rivers in other countries (almost below 13 mg/kg dry weight). The mean (range) of NP concentration in fishes from five principal rivers were 40.25 (1.01-134.06) g/kg wet weight and the higher NP levels in fishes were found in the Erren River (66.50 (19.27-134.06) g/kg wet weight). Similar NP levels in fishes from five principal rivers were found with those of fishes from the other countries. The mean (range) of BPA concentration in sediments were 71.9 (1.1-492.0) g/kg dry weight and the higher BPA levels in sediments were found in the Lao-Jie River (67.5 (41.8-105.0) g/kg dry weight), Erren River (156.9 (1.1-491.5) g/kg dry weight), and Love River (100.5 (15.1-179.1) g/kg dry weight). The BPA levels in sediments of five principal rivers in Taiwan were lower than those of rivers in other countries (almost below 500 g/kg dry weight). The mean (range) of BPA concentration in fishes from five principal rivers were 2.85(0.34-25.21)g/kg wet weight and the higher BPA levels in fishes were found in the Erren River (9.09 (0.68~25.21) wet weight). Most of the BPA levels in fishes from five principal rivers were lower than those of rivers in other countries (almost below 15 ug/kg wet weight).
The levels of NP in freshwater cultured fishes, seawater cultured fishes and wild sea fishes were 34.791(4.098-112.151) ug/kg wet weight, the higher NP levels were found in the freshwater cultured fishes (36.088 (4.098-112.151) ug/kg wet weight) and wild sea fishes (40.346 (6.853-108.936) ug/kg wet weight). The level of BPA in freshwater cultured fishes, seawater cultured fishes and wild sea fishes were 1.152 (0.151-12.834) ug/kg wet weight, the higher BPA levels were found in the seawater cultured fishes (1.437 (0.151-12.834) ug/kg wet weight) and wild sea fishes (1.143 (0.462-2.179) ug/kg wet weight).
The BSAF of NP in different fishes was ranged from 0.004 to 7.677 and the higher BSAF were found in Tilapia zillii. The BSAF of BPA in different fishes was ranged from 0.009 to 1.026 and the higher BSAF were also found in Tilapia zillii. Higher BSAF of NP and BPA were found in the benthic fish (0.005-7.677) than plankton fish (0.004-1.241). The estimated hazard index (HI) of NP for different fishes was ranged from 2.74×10-3 to 4.11×10-3 and the higher HI were found in freshwater cultured fishes. The estimated hazard index (HI) of BPA for different fishes was ranged from 9.96×10-6 to 1.41×10-5 and the higher HI were found in seawater cultured fishes. These results suggested that consumption of freshwater cultured fishes, seawater cultured fishes, and wild sea fishes have relativelylow risk to human health.
論文目次 目錄
摘要 I
ABSTRACT III
誌謝 VI
目錄 VIII
表目錄 XI
圖目錄 XIII
第一章 緒論 1
1.1研究緣起 1
1.2研究目的 3
第二章 文獻回顧 4
2-1壬基酚之物理化學特性 4
2-2壬基酚之製造及使用情形 4
2-3環境中壬基酚之流布情形 5
2-3-1環境介質中濃度的分布情形 6
2-3-2自然環境中的降解與半衰期 7
2-3-3生物濃縮及生物可利用性 8
2-4壬基酚之毒性影響 10
2-4-1動物毒性 10
2-4-2人類流行病學及暴露評估資料 12
2-5雙酚A之物理化學特性 13
2-6雙酚A之製造及使用情形 14
2-7環境中雙酚A之流布情形 15
2-7-1環境介質中濃度的分布情形 15
2-7-2自然環境中的降解與半衰期 16
2-7-3生物濃縮及生物可利用性 18
2-8雙酚A之毒性影響 19
2-8-1動物毒性 19
2-8-2人類流行病學及暴露評估資料 20
2-9環境介質中壬基酚及雙酚A之分析方法 22
第三章 材料與方法 27
3-1研究架構 27
3-2使用材料與儀器設備 27
3-2-1實驗藥品 27
3-2-2實驗材料與設備 28
3-3分析方法建立與測試方式 28
3-4研究對象選取 30
3-5採樣策略 31
3-5-1採樣地點規劃 31
3-5-2樣本數規劃 32
3-5-3樣本採集、運送及保存 33
3-6樣品前處理及分析方法 35
3-6-1底泥樣品前處理 35
3-6-2魚體樣品前處理 37
3-6-3樣本測脂方法 38
3-6-4分析儀器及操作條件 39
3-7品質保證及品質管制(QA/QC) 40
3-7-1檢量線建立 40
3-7-2查核樣品分析 41
3-7-3方法偵測極限 42
3-8生物底泥累積係數(BSAF)計算方法 43
3-9危害指標(HAZARD INDEX)推估方法 45
第四章 結果與討論 47
4-1分析方法建立 47
4.1.1底泥樣本分析方法測試 47
4.1.2魚體樣本分析方法測試 48
4.1.3底泥及魚體樣本前處理方法與國外比較之優缺點 52
4-2樣本基本資料整理 53
4-2-1河川環境採樣資料彙整 53
4-2-2常見之養殖、近海養殖及近海捕撈魚類採樣資料彙整 54
4-3河川底泥及魚體樣本中壬基酚濃度值分布與BSAF 54
4-3-1 河川底泥中壬基酚濃度分布情形 54
4-3-2 河川魚體中壬基酚濃度分布情形 57
4-3-3 河川底泥及魚體中壬基酚濃度與國外數據進行比較 58
4-3-4 壬基酚之BSAF分析 59
4-3-5 本研究之壬基酚BSAF與其他研究之BSAF及BCF進行比較 60
4-4河川底泥及魚體樣本中雙酚A濃度值分布與BSAF 61
4-4-1 河川底泥中雙酚A濃度分布情形 61
4-4-2 河川魚體中雙酚A濃度分布情形 64
4-4-3 河川底泥及魚體中雙酚A濃度與國外數據進行比較 66
4-4-4 雙酚A之BSAF分析 66
4-4-5 本研究之雙酚A BSAF與其他研究之BSAF及BCF進行比較 67
4-5養殖、近海養殖及近海捕撈魚體樣本中壬基酚濃度值分布 68
4-5-1消費性魚種以採買漁港分類探討壬基酚含量 68
4-5-2消費性魚種以捕撈方式分類探討壬基酚含量 70
4-5-3養殖、近海養殖及近海捕撈魚體樣本壬基酚濃度與其他文獻比較 70
4-6養殖、近海養殖及近海捕撈魚體樣本中雙酚A濃度值分布 71
4-6-1消費性魚種以採買漁港分類探討雙酚A含量 71
4-6-2消費性魚種以捕撈方式分類探討雙酚A含量 73
4-6-3養殖、近海養殖及近海捕撈魚體樣本雙酚A濃度與其他文獻比較 73
4-7一般民眾食入壬基酚及雙酚A 之風險評估 74
第五章 結論與建議 75
5-1 結論 75
5-2 建議 78
參考文獻 79

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