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系統識別號 U0026-0812200915394433
論文名稱(中文) 應用多時序遙測影像於海岸濕地監測與評估
論文名稱(英文) Coastal Wetland Monitoring and Evaluation with Multitemporal Remote Sensing Images
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 衛星資訊暨地球環境研究所
系所名稱(英) Institute of Satellite Informatics and Earth Environment
學年度 97
學期 2
出版年 98
研究生(中文) 尤姝媚
研究生(英文) Shu-mei Yu
電子信箱 l9696401@mail.ncku.edu.tw
學號 l9696401
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 154頁
口試委員 指導教授-吳銘志
指導教授-曾義星
口試委員-劉進金
口試委員-張中白
口試委員-林宗儀
中文關鍵字 地理資訊系統  變遷偵測  特徵萃取  福衛2號  濕地評價  空間自相關 
英文關鍵字 Wetland Evaluation  FORMOSAT-2  Feature Extraction  Spacial Autocorrelation  Change Detection  Geographic Information System 
學科別分類
中文摘要 「監測」與「評估」為環境保育經營管理之基礎工作。濕地為水陸交會之生態系統,具備高生產力與高固碳能力等多樣功能,其中海岸型濕地之淨生產力又較其他海洋生態系為高,故如何有效地監測與評估海岸型濕地環境益形重要。本研究以臺灣最大的濕地-「七股海岸」為研究範圍,包含曾文溪口北岸海埔地與七股溪口沙洲、潟湖之複合生態系,該區又以稀有鳥類黑面琵鷺之棲地而著名國際。
本研究旨在發展有效監測與評估濕地環境變遷之方法,冀期利用多時序衛星影像分析與地理資訊系統,進行環境變遷偵測與空間統計分析,建立以遙測技術為基礎之濕地評價指標(Wetland Evaluation Indices),應用植生與水體指數、土地覆蓋分類、邊緣偵測、變遷偵測等技術,藉此量化海岸濕地的地形、地表水文、植被於時空上之動態變化過程,進而探討造成變遷的要素。
研究結果發現,潟湖前緣之三大沙洲,由於靠外海側快速侵蝕,砂體由外向內海漂淤,導致潟湖淤淺。防風林的健康退化乃至死亡,尤其是西部堤防前端的海岸,北段因「離岸堤效應」造成侵淤不平衡,使該段林地迅速消失;七股溪河口的紅樹林則因人為清除,導致棲地縮減。研究成果顯示,七股沙洲、潟湖與植被之變遷趨向劣化。黑面琵鷺保護區內水域面積擴張,雖有利於水生生物棲息,然而尚須留意海埔地西北側之侵蝕,因為快速的土壤流失可能破壞淺水環境。本區環境變遷除了呈現顯著的季節性震盪與區域上差異外,降雨、颱風、潮汐、植生分佈、人為因子均為影響變遷之要素。
英文摘要 “Monitoring” and “Evaluation” are the two fundamental work for environmental protection and management. Wetland is an ecosystem between the water and the land with multifunctional capability such as “high primary production” and “high carbon sequestration”. The net primary production of a coastal wetland is much better than any other kinds of oceanic system; namely, as to how the monitoring and the evaluation can be done sufficiently is very much significant. The proposed study area is set at Chi-Gu Coast, the largest wetland in Taiwan. The complex ecosystems include the sandbars and lagoon at the Chi-Gu estuary, and the north tidal land at Tseng-Wen estuary. The area is known for the habitat of the endangered water bird, Black-faced Spoonbills.
The scope of work for the proposed study is to develop an effective methodology in monitoring and evaluating the environmental changes of coastal wetlands. Multi-temporal satellite mage process and Geographic Information System (GIS) are adapted to perform the measurement for environmental changes and spatial statistical analyses, such that to establish the Wetland Evaluation Indices (WEI) based on the remote sensing technique. By applying the vegetation and water indices, landcover classification, edge detection, and change detection technologies, the temporal and spatial dynamic changes for landform of the coastal wetland, surface hydrology, and vegetation coverage will therefore be numerically established in order to understand the elements of changes.
According to the results, the on shore side beach of the three sandbars surrounding the lagoon were quickly being eroded; the sand body were then transported from the open-sea side and deposited at the inner-sea side causing the siltation of the lagoon. Health level of the windbreak forests was either degrading or dying, especially for those are located along the coastal regions at the front side of the western bank. Further more, due to the effect caused by the Offshore Breakwater, uneven deposition and erosion occurred along northern portion of the coastal regions of the western bank, namely, the windbreak forest of this section were disappearing quickly. The reduced biological habitat was due to the purposely elimination of the mangroves at the Chi-Gu estuary. Changes of sandbars, lagoon, and the vegetation for Chi-Gu area tend to have been degrading. Water shed area of the sanctuary for Black-Faced Spoonbills may be expanding to benefit the habitat for aquatic biology, it is suggested to notice that the rapid erosion along the northwestern side of the tidal land, for rapid soil erosion may destroy the shallow water environment.
Besides the apparent seasonal deviation and spatial difference; rainfalls, typhoons, tides, distribution of vegetations, and human activities are the influential elements for the environmental changes within the study area.
論文目次 摘 要............................................................................................................................i
ABSTRACT................................................................................................................ii
誌 謝..........................................................................................................................iv
目 錄...........................................................................................................................v
表目錄........................................................................................................................ix
圖目錄........................................................................................................................xi
第一章 前 言..........................................................................................................1
1.1 濕地研究的重要性....................................................................................1
1.1.1 濕地的定義與類型.......................................................................1
1.1.2 濕地的功能...................................................................................5
1.2 研究動機....................................................................................................7
1.2.1 海岸濕地之監測與評價...............................................................7
1.2.2 長期地面調查之限制...................................................................8
1.2.3 遙測技術的發展與優勢...............................................................8
1.3 研究目的..................................................................................................10
1.4 研究流程.................................................................................................. 11
第二章 研究區域與資料......................................................................................14
2.1 研究範圍..................................................................................................14
2.2 研究區地理概況......................................................................................16
2.2.1 地形與水文.................................................................................16
2.2.2 海象與氣象.................................................................................17
2.2.3 生 物...........................................................................................19
2.3 研究相關資料..........................................................................................20
2.3.1 衛星影像與相關圖資.................................................................20
2.3.2 地形資料.....................................................................................25
2.3.3 海象與氣象資料.........................................................................26
第三章 文獻回顧..................................................................................................29
3.1 七股海岸型濕地......................................................................................29
3.2 海岸地形作用..........................................................................................30
3.3 海岸地形測繪..........................................................................................33
3.4 濕地生態學..............................................................................................36
3.5 濕地評價程序與技術..............................................................................39
第四章 研究方法與步驟......................................................................................42
4.1 研究工具..................................................................................................42
4.2 影像預處理..............................................................................................43
4.2.1 正射校正.....................................................................................44
4.2.2 多期影像相對配準.....................................................................44
4.2.3 建立遮罩.....................................................................................46
4.3 比值影像..................................................................................................47
4.3.1 植生與水體指數.........................................................................47
4.3.2 比值合成假彩色.........................................................................52
4.3.3 指數模擬色.................................................................................54
4.3.4 多時期水體與植生指數修正.....................................................57
4.4 空間統計..................................................................................................59
4.4.1 空間自相關.................................................................................59
4.4.2 運用空間自相關於遙測影像處理.............................................61
4.4.3 遙測影像之全域型空間自相關.................................................63
4.4.4 遙測影像之區域型空間自相關.................................................65
4.5 分 類........................................................................................................68
4.5.1 分類法.........................................................................................68
4.5.2 整合Local Getis-Ord Gi 於影像分類程序................................70
4.6 邊緣偵測..................................................................................................73
4.6.1 Sobel 與Laplacian of Gaussian..................................................75
4.6.2 濱線萃取.....................................................................................79
4.6.3 人造物萃取.................................................................................82
4.7 變遷偵測..................................................................................................83
4.8 野外調查..................................................................................................87
第五章 結果分析與討論......................................................................................90
5.1 變遷偵測結果..........................................................................................90
5.1.1 植生變遷.....................................................................................90
5.1.2 地形地貌變遷.............................................................................97
5.1.3 地表洪泛頻率...........................................................................102
5.1.4 土地利用變遷...........................................................................104
5.2 地理資訊系統空間分析與統計............................................................105
5.3 變遷因子分析........................................................................................ 111
5.3.1 潮 汐......................................................................................... 111
5.3.2 波 浪.........................................................................................124
5.3.3 降 雨.........................................................................................126
5.3.4 颱 風.........................................................................................129
5.3.5 人為因子...................................................................................132
5.3.6 小 結.........................................................................................133
5.4 建立濕地評價之遙測指標....................................................................134
5.5 討 論......................................................................................................136
第六章 結論與建議............................................................................................138
6.1 結 論......................................................................................................138
6.2 建 議......................................................................................................140
6.2.1 後續研究建議...........................................................................140
6.2.2 七股海岸濕地保育之建議.......................................................141
參考文獻.................................................................................................................143
附 錄.......................................................................................................................151
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