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系統識別號 U0026-0812200915370115
論文名稱(中文) 以事件誘發腦波電位探究中文分類詞與名詞之搭配關係
論文名稱(英文) Processing of Chinese Classifier-Noun Agreement: An Event-Related Potential Study
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 認知科學研究所
系所名稱(英) Institute of Cognitive Science
學年度 97
學期 2
出版年 98
研究生(中文) 蔡淑華
研究生(英文) Shu-hua Tsai
學號 u7695101
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
論文頁數 119頁
口試委員 召集委員-麥傑
口試委員-李佳潁
指導教授-陳振宇
中文關鍵字 中文分類詞  N400  P600  一致性 
英文關鍵字 Chinese classifier  agreement  P600  N400 
學科別分類
中文摘要 由於大部份的中文分類詞與其搭配的名詞間有著透明的語意關係,所以有些語言學家認為中文分類詞和名詞之間的搭配關係是語意的,更有學者相信對於說中文的人,分類詞也許扮演著如類別詞的角色,影響他們的分類表現;然而,語意一致性的法則並無法解釋所有的分類詞和名詞的關係,因此另有學者主張分類詞和其搭配名詞間的關係是武斷的,受到文法規範的。本研究利用事件誘發腦波電位的方法,企圖釐清中文分類詞及其搭配名詞的關係,並檢測這個關係在中文短語及句子中是否不同。
在實驗一中,有22位中文母語的受試者成功完成3個中文詞判斷作業:類別詞搭配判斷作業 (如:動物-字典)、分類詞搭配判斷作業 (如:一襲-字典)、語法搭配判斷作業(如:相當-字典)。腦波分析顯示這三個作業中,不搭配的前後兩個中文詞皆誘發N400,而在語法判斷作業中,前額葉區在500-800毫秒另發現有持續性的負電波。這個結果支持分類詞和名詞間的語意一致性的關係。
實驗二利用實驗一裡分類詞作業的刺激材料形成含有關係子句的複雜句,並記錄30位中文為母語的受試者閱讀句子時的腦波電位變化。所有的實驗句子依據分類詞與搭配的名詞間距離的遠近及一致性的狀況分成三大類,1) 近距離一致性,2)遠距離一致性,3)完全不一致的句子。在近距離一致性的句子裡,分類詞與緊接在後的名詞搭配但與遠距的名詞不搭配;長距離一致性的句子則相反。在完全不一致的句子中,分類詞與緊接在後的名詞及遠距離的名詞皆不一致,是錯誤的句子。腦波分析結果顯示,受試者在讀到近距離的名詞時,1)和2)兩種情況在250到 450毫秒間前額葉有明顯的負電位走向波,這應是反映受試者將句子前端的錯誤分類詞和名詞的搭配視為一個關係子句的線索,將它保留在記憶中,並預期這個衝突可以稍後獲得解決,如此決定造成其工作記憶負荷加重,因而產生了250-450 毫秒的前額業負向波。而在讀到句子後端的目標名詞時,在1)與3)的情況下,受試者腦波出現有相對性較大的N400,支持實驗一的發現,顯示分類詞和名詞不論在句子或是短語的情境,不論其間的距離遠近,皆依賴語意的關係鏈結。再者,同樣的名詞位置在2)和3)的情境中發現有P600,證實受試者在此時企圖解決句子前端的名詞和分類詞的衝突關係並整合出一個合法沒有錯誤的句子。
英文摘要 The transparent semantic relationship in most of the numeral classifier-noun phrases led some linguists to the belief that classifier-noun agreement was semantic in nature, and some even raised the possibility of Chinese native speakers’ using classifiers as taxonomic category labels in classifying world objects. However, since classifier-noun agreement was not always explicable based on semantics, a pure semantic view was questioned. In the study, classifier-noun agreement was examined in word pairs and sentences by using the event-related potential (ERP) technique. In Experiment 1, the electroencephalogram was recorded while 22 Chinese native speakers read word pairs in which taxonomic category, classifier, or word category relationship was manipulated. Disagreement in word pairs formed by a category label-noun (e.g., animal-dictionary ‘動物-字典’), a classifier-noun (e.g., a-xiCL_clothing-like – dictionary’一襲-字典’ ), an intensifier-noun (e.g., quite-dictionary’相當-字典’) produced an N400 effect (250 ms-450 ms) with the intensifier-noun disagreement showing an additional sustained negativity in the frontal lobe (500 ms-800 ms). These ERP effects supported the idea that classifier-noun agreement was semantic in nature, similar to taxonomic category processing but different from grammatical agreement between the intensifier and the noun, especially in the later phase of processing. In Experiment 2, exactly the same classifier-noun pairs, both acceptable and anomalous, were set in sentences with embedded object-gapped relative clauses, thus creating a long-distance dependency of the classifier-noun agreement. The classifier-noun relation was manipulated in such a way that in one condition the classifier matched its adjacent noun but not the second noun in the distance (Match-Short), in another the classifier matched its head noun in the distance but not the adjacent noun (Match-Long), and in the third condition the classifier clashed with both the adjacent noun and the distant head noun (Mismatch). Thirty native Chinese speakers joined the experiment. A frontal negativity with a central focus was found corresponding to the mismatches between the classifier and the adjacent noun (Match-Long and Mismatch conditions), reflecting the attention and working memory load arising from readers’ keeping the classifier abreast while at the same time searching for a proper head noun to go with it. A relatively increased N400 component at the central lobe was observed when the critical long-distance head noun mismatched with the given classifier (Match-Short and Mismatch conditions). This implicated that classifier-noun agreement was semantic in nature, even when it occurred in complex sentences with object-gapped relative clauses. An additional P600 component was found at the long-distance head noun position in both Match-Long and Mismatch conditions, revealing readers’ efforts to integrate the classifier with the long-distance head noun even when the noun mismatched with the classifier. Also, P600 was as a clear indicator for sentence integration in the study. The overall results showed that regardless of the context, in which a classifier occurred, the processing of classifier-noun agreement was semantic in nature and the violation of the agreement served as a precursor of a relative clause.
論文目次 Table of Contents
Chinese Abstract i
English Abstract iii
Acknowledgements v
Table of Contents vi
Tables viii
Figures x
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
Chapter 2 Literature Review 6
Behavioral Studies on Agreement 6
ERP Components and Language 11
ERP Studies of Agreement: Gender Agreement vs. Classifier-Noun Agreement 13
ERP Studies of Japanese Classifier-Noun Agreement 15
Research Questions and Hypotheses 16
Chapter 3 Experiment 1 18
Purpose 18
Method 18
Results 25
Discussion 34
Chapter 4 Experiment 2 41
Purpose 41
Method 41
Results 46
Discussion 54
Chapter 5 General Discussion and Conclusion 60
General Discussion 60
Limitation of the Study 65
Conclusion 66
References 67
Appendix I 80
Appendix II 82
Appendix III 91
Appendix V 106
Appendix VI 110
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