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系統識別號 U0026-0812200915351271
論文名稱(中文) 雙足步行機器人系統之研製
論文名稱(英文) Design and Implementation of A Biped Walking Robot System
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 工程科學系碩博士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Engineering Science
學年度 97
學期 2
出版年 98
研究生(中文) 李崇瑋
研究生(英文) Chung-Wei Lee
學號 N9696431
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 85頁
口試委員 指導教授-周榮華
口試委員-吳村木
口試委員-王榮泰
口試委員-王宗一
中文關鍵字 系統研製  步行動作規劃與控制  被動式關節  雙足機器人 
英文關鍵字 system design and implementation  passive joint  biped robot  walking action planning and control 
學科別分類
中文摘要 本論文的研究目的是研製雙足步行機器人系統,以模仿人類行走的方式,在未使用感測器及減少馬達的數量下,仍能夠具備行走功能。
為了使機器人系統具備多功能開發應用,以電腦為主控端,而機器人本體則由兩個單晶片(PIC16F877和PIC16F873)控制,電腦則透過RS-232對單晶片進行控制,以使電腦能即時控制機器人行動。
本論文提出具被動式關節的兩種設計型式的雙足機器人,並實作出此兩種機構設計型式的雙足機器人進行測試與評估。本論文中所提出的兩種機構設計型式主要是改變雙腳的關節及馬達的配置位置,而有著不同的行走方式。型式一之左右平衡動作馬達在腰部,型式二之左右平衡動作馬達在腳踝。在機器人控制方法上,使用D-H 修正標記法來進行運動學模型的建立,並以此模型演算出重心位置以及關節即時負載,再配合馬達實驗的結果和基本動力學的演算來進行步行動作規劃。使用本文所提出的步行動作規劃與控制方法,實作出的兩種型式雙足機器人均能夠在具備短程行走的功能下減少馬達的使用。在應用上由於減少馬達的使用與未使用感測器,將可節省能量與降低成本。
英文摘要 The purpose of this thesis is to develop a biped walking robot system which walks like human so that without using sensors and reducing the number of motors it still possesses the walking function.
In order to design the robot system for multiple applications, a computer is used for controlling the actions of the robot through the control chips PIC16F877A and PIC16F873A. The computer communicates with the control chip by RS-232 serial communication port so that the robot can be controlled in-time.
In this thesis, two types of design robot walking with passive joints are presented. The biped robots implemented with two mechanism designs are tested and evaluated. The robots have different locations of joints and motors, thus have different ways of walking. TYPE I with lateral hip motors, TYPE II with lateral ankle motors. To control the robot, the modified D-H notation is applied to construct the kinematic model of the robot. Then, the model is used for computing the center of gravity and in-time loading of the joint. With the results obtained from the motor test data and the dynamic analysis, the walking actions are successfully planned. Using the proposed walking action planning and control methods, it demonstrated that two types of the developed robots can reduce the number of motors and can walk satisfactorily in a short distance. In the aspect of application, the energy can be saved and the cost will be down due to the use of less motor and without using any sensor.
論文目次 目錄
中文摘要 I
Abstract II
誌謝 III
目錄 IV
表目錄 VI
圖目錄 VII
第一章 緒論 1
1.1前言 1
1.2研究目的 1
1.3文獻回顧 2
1.4研究範疇與方法 5
1.5論文架構 6
第二章 系統架構與軟硬體設備 8
2.1整體系統概念 8
2.2硬體與功能 9
2.2.1伺服馬達 9
2.2.2馬達驅動相關電路 11
2.2.3 RS-232通訊 12
2.2.4轉動角度感測器 12
2.2.5馬達轉速實驗硬體 13
2.3控制晶片與軟體架構 13
2.3.1 PIC16F877A簡介 15
2.3.2 PIC16F873A簡介 15
2.3.3通訊協定與程式 17
第三章 雙足機器人機構設計 20
3.1機器人的主動式關節與被動式關節 20
3.2型式一雙足機器人 21
3.2.1關節與馬達配置 22
3.2.2被動式關節設計 24
3.3.3初步步行規劃概念 25
3.3型式二雙足機器人 30
3.3.1關節與馬達配置 31
3.3.2被動式關節設計 33
3.3.3初步步行規劃概念 33
第四章 座標系統建立與模型分析 38
4.1座標系分析 38
4.2建立機器人座標系 40
4.3重心位置計算 42
4.4關節即時負載計算 44
第五章 機器人步行規劃 47
5.1馬達轉速實驗 48
5.2雙足機器人步行規劃 52
5.2.1步行規劃分析 53
5.2.2形式一機器人之動力學演算 53
5.2.3形式二機器人之動力學演算 55
5.2.4馬達動作規劃 57
5.2.5馬達速度分配 57
第六章 實驗結果與討論 59
6.1型式一雙足機器人步行實驗 59
6.1.1腳底滯空時間實驗 59
6.1.2直線行走實驗 61
6.1.3實驗結果 64
6.2型式二雙足機器人步行實驗 65
6.2.1腳底滯空時間實驗 65
6.2.2直線行走實驗 67
6.2.3實驗結果 71
6.3結果與討論 65
第七章 結論與建議 73
7.1結論 73
7.2建議 74

参考文獻 75

附錄A.TYPE I 機器人尺寸圖 77
附錄B.TYPE II 機器人尺寸圖 81
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