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系統識別號 U0026-0812200915322440
論文名稱(中文) 中央執行功能與類別學習的個別差異現象
論文名稱(英文) Executive Functions and Category Learning: Individual Differences Based Study
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 認知科學研究所
系所名稱(英) Institute of Cognitive Science
學年度 97
學期 2
出版年 98
研究生(中文) 蘇曜祥
研究生(英文) Yao-Siang Su
電子信箱 u7696401@mail.ncku.edu.tw
學號 u7696401
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 126頁
口試委員 指導教授-楊立行
召集委員-陳學志
口試委員-邱發忠
中文關鍵字 中央執行功能  類別學習  工作記憶容量 
英文關鍵字 executive function  working memory capacity  category learning 
學科別分類
中文摘要 DeCaro、Thomas與Beilock (2008) 發現工作記憶容量與類別學習的個別差異現象有關,另有研究指出中央執行功能為工作記憶容量的關鍵差異來源,並且中央執行功能可以劃分為數種基本執行功能。因此,本研究嘗試以中央執行功能作業代替傳統工作記憶容量作業,預期能更為精確的測量出工作記憶容量的關鍵來源,透過利用DeCaro等人類別學習作業的實驗派典為基礎,改良其可能缺點後,重新檢驗工作記憶容量與個體類別學習表現的關係。實驗一與實驗二的中央執行功能作業包含數字加減作業、數文配對作業、持續追蹤作業、音頻監控作業、文字記憶作業、反向掃視作業與停止信號作業。類別學習作業操弄分類規則可口語化程度與刺激材料的心理可分割性,實驗一與實驗二的類別學習作業皆包含分類規則可口語化及不可口語化兩種類別結構,實驗一的刺激材料為心理可分割形式,實驗二為心理不可分割形式。實驗一與實驗二在中央執行功能的測量結果皆抽取出與傳統工作記憶內涵相似的更新能力。實驗一發現在刺激材料心理可分割的情況下,更新能力(或稱工作記憶容量)與受試者在各個單一類別結構的學習表現無關,但與受試者在不同類別結構的區段之間轉換成本有負向關係,而在相同類別結構的區段之間,由於受到天花板效應影響,更新能力與區段之間轉換成本關係尚不明確。實驗二發現在刺激材料心理不可分割的情況下,更新能力仍與受試者在各個單一類別結構的學習表現無關,且更新能力與受試者在相同類別結構或不同類別結構的區段之間的轉換成本也沒有明確關係。
英文摘要 DeCaro, Thomas, and Beilock (2008) shows the relationship between working memory capacity (WMC) and individual differences in category learning. Some studies proposed the executive function might be the key source of variation of WMC and could be divided into several basic executive functions. The goal of this study is to reexamine the relationship between WMC and category learning performance by replacing working memory span task with executive function task and improve the defects of DeCaro et al’s experimental design. We anticipate it can measure the key component of WMC. The executive function tasks and category learning task has been used in both Experiment 1 (Exp 1) and Experiment 2 (Exp 2). Executive function tasks include: plus-minus task, number-letter task, keep track task, tone monitoring task, letter memory task, antisaccade task, and stop-signal task. The difference between category learning task in Exp 1 and Exp 2 is the stimulus can be psychological separable (Exp 1) or not (Exp 2). Exp 1 and Exp 2 found that it can be extracted two several latent variables of executive function. But the updating (the construct resembles WMC) of Exp 1 has no significant relationship between subject’s learning performance in any single category structure. Nevertheless, updating has the negative relationship with the transfer cost which is between blocks of different category structure. Due to ceil effect, the relationship between updating and the blocks between same category structure is not clear. The updating of Exp 2 has no significant relationship between subject’s learning performance in any single category structure and the relationship of updating and the transfer cost between blocks of different / same category structure are not clear.
論文目次 目錄 I
表目錄 IV
圖目錄 V
緒論 1
範例理論 2
原形理論 3
規則理論 3
多元學習系統 3
工作記憶理論 12
執行功能理論 15
執行功能的測量 22
類別學習與工作記憶 24
類別學習與執行功能的檢驗 27
實驗一 35
研究方法 36
受試者 36
儀器與刺激材料 36
實驗程序 46
結果與討論 46
執行功能 47
類別學習 53
執行功能與類別學習 59
實驗二 71
研究方法 72
受試者 72
儀器與刺激材料 72
實驗程序 73
結果與討論 73
執行功能 73
類別學習 77
執行功能與類別學習 86
綜合討論 94
未來研究方向 101
結論 101
參考文獻 103
中文部分 103
英文部分 103
附錄一 111
GOOGLE SETS運作方法 111
附錄二 112
持續追蹤作業刺激字列表 112
停止信號作業刺激字列表 112
附錄三 113
數字加減作業指導語 113
第一階段 113
第二階段 113
第三階段 114
數文配對作業指導語 115
第一階段 115
第二階段 115
第三階段 116
持續追蹤作業指導語 117
音頻監控作業指導語 118
文字記憶作業指導語 119
反向掃視作業指導語 120
反應建立階段 120
反向掃視階段 121
停止信號作業指導語 122
第一階段 122
第二階段 122
類別學習作業指導語 123
刺激材料心理可分割 123
刺激材料心理不可分割 125
參考文獻 中文部分
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陳如珍 (2007)。工作記憶與分類學習中知識分化的現象。國立中正大學,嘉義。
蔡涵如 (2008)。工作記憶與類別學習中的知識分化現象。國立成功大學,台南市。

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