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系統識別號 U0026-0812200915280884
論文名稱(中文) 物理環境因子與魚類棲地喜好度之關係-多變量分析之應用
論文名稱(英文) The Relationship between Physical Environmental Variables and Fish Habitat Preferences - Application of Multivariate Analysis
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 水利及海洋工程學系碩博士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Hydraulics & Ocean Engineering
學年度 97
學期 2
出版年 98
研究生(中文) 呂映昇
研究生(英文) Ying-Sheng Lyu
電子信箱 N8696102@mail.ncku.edu.tw
學號 n8696102
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 181頁
口試委員 指導教授-孫建平
口試委員-邱郁文
口試委員-王一匡
口試委員-胡通哲
中文關鍵字 河川縱向棲地多樣性  空間層級系統  成魚  幼魚  區段溪流棲地多樣性  魚類適合度指標值 
英文關鍵字 Juveniles  Adults  Hierarchical Spatial Framework  Segment Scale Habitat Diversity  Longitudinal Habitat Diversity  Suitability Index 
學科別分類
中文摘要 了解魚類偏好之物理環境型態,為溪流棲地復育的重要一環。本研究利用PAEDs法(類似電格法),於曾文溪及高屏溪流域,進行魚類棲地喜好度之生態調查,採樣尺度為微棲地尺度(單位棲息地)。於分析過程中,以卡方獨立性檢定與多變量變異數分析(MANOVA)之統計方法,找出魚類與物理環境因子的關係,並應用於魚類適合度指標推測魚類較偏好之棲地;接著,將不同的單位棲息地結合起來,試圖把尺度擴大為區段尺度(segment scale)與溪流尺度(stream scale),並找出其與魚類於生命週期的不同階段所需求之棲地關係。魚類在生命週期的不同階段所需求之棲地與區段尺度的溪流棲地多樣性已有許多專家做了詳盡的研究,但對於成、幼魚偏好棲地空間的相對位置較少提及;空間尺度與棲地之關係亦有許多專家做了詳細的描述,但缺少與復育目標資料資做結合(如生物、植物資料等),故本研究結合生物資料,並了解成魚與幼魚所偏好的棲地是在同一個環境物理型態的區段尺度溪流裡,還是在不同環境物理型態的區段尺度溪流為本研究之目的之一,也就是說要探討成、幼魚的棲地環境是重疊(overlap)還是分離(segregation)。本研究以下兩結果顯示(1)不同魚種偏好不同之特性棲地(湍瀨、深流與深潭),故復育設計時需考量區段溪流的水力棲地多樣性;(2)台灣間爬岩鰍、高身鲴魚與明潭吻鰕虎的成魚與幼魚的棲地分別位於兩種不同物理環境型態的區段溪流,故復育設計時必須注意的是不僅需要考量區段溪流的水力棲地多樣性,溪流尺度的河川縱向棲地多樣性與棲地連結亦是必須的,除此之外,做魚類適合度指標研究時,成、幼魚應分開考量,因為其棲地需求有所不同。本研究將以下三種觀念綜合起來:(1)區段尺度的溪流棲地多樣性;(2)魚類適合度指標與(3)空間層級式系統跟棲地之關係,並利用此整合之觀念可讓復育設計帶來更實質上的幫助。
英文摘要 Understanding fish habitat preference plays an important role in river restoration. We use PAEDs method to investigate habitat preference of fish in the microhabitat scale in TsengWen River and KaoPing River. The chi square test and MANOVA analysis method are used to identify the relationship between physical variables and adult and juvenile fish habitat preferences. The habitats that fish prefer in different life stages have been intensively studied, but not many research discuss the relative habitat locations for adult and juvenile fish. The aim of this study is to understand the relative locations of adult and juvenile fish preferred habitats in the segment scale. The results show that the adult and juvenile fish of Hemimyzon formosanus and Onychostoma alticorpus separately prefer in different physical environmental factors of the reach scale. Not only the habitat diversity in segment scale but also the relative habitat locations of the adult and juvenile fish need to be paid attention in the future stream restoration design.
論文目次 摘要.......................................................................................................................................I
Abstract................................................................................................................................II
謝誌....................................................................................................................................III
目錄......................................................................................................................................V
圖目錄...............................................................................................................................VII
表目錄...............................................................................................................................XIII
第一章 前言.........................................................................................................................1
1.1 研究動機............................................................................................................1
1.2 論文架構............................................................................................................3
第二章 文獻回顧.................................................................................................................5
2.1 空間層級式系統與棲地之關係........................................................................5
2.2 棲地與空間尺度於棲地復育之應用..............................................................12
第三章 研究方法...............................................................................................................20
3.1 採樣地點..........................................................................................................20
3.2 空間層級系統與棲地之關係..........................................................................25
3.3 採樣方式..........................................................................................................27
3.4 物理環境因子分類..........................................................................................32
3.5 統計方法..........................................................................................................35
3.5.1 獨立性卡方檢定...................................................................................35
3.5.2 多變量變異數分析(MANOVA)...........................................................36
第四章 結果與討論...........................................................................................................43
4.1 魚類採樣結果..................................................................................................43
4.2 魚類棲地利用與物理環境因子之關係..........................................................47
4.3 空間層級系統與魚類棲地利用之關係..........................................................54
第五章 結論.......................................................................................................................65
第六章 建議.......................................................................................................................67
參考文獻.............................................................................................................................68
英文文獻.............................................................................................................................68
中文文獻.............................................................................................................................74
附錄....................................................................................................................................77
附錄1. 電魚許可公文.......................................................................................................77
附錄2. 採樣站的比較-民權大橋、12號橋、水庫一號橋與鹽水坑橋......................79
附錄3. 魚類於不同採樣站間之分佈...............................................................................86
附錄3.1 台灣間爬岩鰍於民權大橋站與12號橋站間之分佈...........................86
附錄3.2 明潭吻鰕虎於楠梓仙溪與後堀溪間之分佈.........................................87
附錄3.3 高身鲴魚於民權大橋站與12號橋站間之分佈...................................89
附錄4. 台灣間爬岩鰍成、幼魚對棲地喜好度的比較與探討.......................................90
附錄4.1 平均流速對台灣間爬岩鰍成魚與幼魚數量之影響.............................90
附錄4.2 流速變異數對台灣間爬岩鰍成魚與幼魚數量之影響.........................96
附錄4.3 平均水深對台灣間爬岩鰍成魚與幼魚數量之影響...........................100
附錄4.4 平均粒徑對台灣間爬岩鰍成魚與幼魚數量之影響...........................106
附錄5. 明潭吻鰕虎成、幼魚對棲地喜好度的比較與探討..........................................115
附錄5.1 平均流速對明潭吻鰕虎成魚與幼魚數量之影響................................115
附錄5.2 流速變異數對明潭吻鰕虎成魚與幼魚數量之影響...........................120
附錄5.3 平均水深對明潭吻鰕虎成魚與幼魚數量之影響...............................124
附錄5.4 平均粒徑對明潭吻鰕虎成魚與幼魚數量之影響...............................130
附錄6. 高身鲴魚成、幼魚對棲地喜好度的比較與探討.............................................139
附錄6.1 平均流速對高身鲴魚成魚與幼魚數量之影響...................................139
附錄6.2 流速變異數對高身鲴魚成魚與幼魚數量之影響...............................145
附錄6.3 平均水深對高身鲴魚成魚與幼魚數量之影響...................................150
附錄6.4 平均粒徑對高身鲴魚成魚與幼魚數量之影響...................................156
附錄7 魚類偏好之棲地類型........................................................................................164
附錄7.1台灣間爬岩鰍偏好之棲地類型............................................................164
附錄7.2明潭吻鰕虎偏好之棲地類型................................................................168
附錄7.3高身鲴魚偏好之棲地類型....................................................................175
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