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系統識別號 U0026-0812200915271505
論文名稱(中文) 網站設計效果對女性情感喚起、滿意度與行為之影響
論文名稱(英文) The Effects of Website Design on Females’ Emotional Arousal, e-Satisfaction and Behavior
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 企業管理學系碩博士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Business Administration
學年度 97
學期 2
出版年 98
研究生(中文) 林淑梅
研究生(英文) Shu-Mei Lin
電子信箱 R4889104@mail.ncku.edu.tw
學號 r4889104
學位類別 博士
語文別 英文
論文頁數 120頁
口試委員 口試委員-蔡東峻
指導教授-賴孟寬
召集委員-陳正男
指導教授-吳萬益
口試委員-陳振燧
口試委員-吳師豪
中文關鍵字 女性網路使用者  生動性  遠距臨場感  情感喚起  滿意度 
英文關鍵字 female online users  vividness  e-satisfaction  emotional arousal  perceived telepresence 
學科別分類
中文摘要   隨著全球女性網路使用者人口急遽增加,了解其女性使用者對網站的特定偏好及其對網路行銷溝通的成效已成為目前網路行銷人員的重要職責,然而女性對使用網站的意願過低(Jackson, Ervin, Gardner & Schmitt, 2001; Smith & Whitlark, 2001),恐怕將成為網路行銷人員接觸女性目標市場時的一大阻礙(Rodgers & Harris, 2003)。根據相關文獻指出,提高消費者的遠距臨場感的確對增進個人內在反應與外顯行為有相當的助益(Hoffman & Novak, 1996);而Steuer (1992)認為互動性與生動性是促進臨場感的兩大要素。由於先前研究均已經證實互動性與臨場感之間具有高度相關的關係,因此本研究擬重新檢視互動性、生動性對臨場感的影響,特別將針對生動性對臨場感所產生的效果加以驗證。此外,了解臨場感的提升是否對女性內在心理反應與外顯行為具有正面影響亦是本研究的重要目的。
  在假設檢定上,本研究選擇國內外25家化妝品網站進行實證研究以調查網站中的互動性與生動性對女性情感反應與滿意度的影響。首先,本研究從女性所知覺的互動性與生動性兩項構面中分別萃取出五項子構面,包括:回應性(responsiveness)、控制性(user’s control)、回饋性(user’s feedback)、展示豐富性(representational richness)以及音效(audio effect)。其次,根據ANOVA分析結果顯示,其中包括國際品牌Kose、Lancome和Sofnon等12家化妝品網站被女性受測者普遍認為網站設計缺乏互動性與生動性;而相較於其他13家網站而言,這些網站對女性消費者在知覺上與行為上所產生的效果最小。至於網站設計對女性瀏覽者來說,生動性的確比互動性明顯改善女性消費者的臨場感與情感反應,而其臨場感與情感反應又可以提升個人對網站的滿意度;而更重要的是,提升的滿意度會直接影響女性瀏覽者的外顯行為,包括瀏覽網站的時間、再次瀏覽網站的意願與推薦網站的意願。整體而言實證結果相當支持研究假設,要讓女性消費者對網站設計內容產生正面評價的先決條件必須是該網站呈現足以吸引女性主動瀏覽的生動活潑訊息。
  本研究相關結果提供一個整體性架構說明網站設計對女性瀏覽者相關瀏覽經驗的重要性與後續影響;相較於其他研究,本研究的重要貢獻在於萃取出化妝品網站的重要子構面因素、證實生動性對喚起女性心理反應的關鍵作用,以及正向情感在女性瀏覽經驗中的所扮演的中介角色;研究結果顯示比起互動性,生動性在提升女性所知覺的臨場感與激發更進一步的心理反應與行為上具有更為突出的效果,顯然針對女性所設計的網站應該要更強化其生動性的設計要素,以便吸引更多女性族群的參觀與瀏覽,主要原因是正向情感在瀏覽網站時會發揮顯著的中介效果影響女性的心理與行為。最後,根據研究結論提出相關策略意涵與研究限制。
英文摘要    As the rapidly growing population of global female users, understanding their preference for website design and subsequent effects on persuasion becomes a critical task to marketers. However, women‘s lower motivation for using websites (Jackson, Ervin, Gardner & Schmitt, 2001; Smith & Whitlark, 2001) may deeply frustrate marketers’ efforts to access the female segment through the websites (Rodgers & Harris, 2003). Based on the research related to online communication, enhanced perceived telepresence is of great help to favorably influence consumers’ psychological processing and subsequent behavior (Hoffman & Novak, 1996). Steuer (1992) suggests that a strong sense of telepresence is induced by interactivity and vividness. Since the association between interactivity and telepresence has been demonstrated by prior research, this study aims to reexamine the effects of interactivity and vividness on telepresence, especially the impacts of vividness on telepresence. Additionally, exploring the linkage between enhanced perceived telepresence and females’ psychological responses as well as behavior is also the major purposes of this study.
   To test the research hypotheses, twenty-five cosmetic websites were chosen as the stimuli to examine the effects of interactivity and vividness on females’ emotional arousal and e-satisfaction. Firstly, five factors of responsiveness, user’s control, user’s feedback, representational richness, and audio effect were extracted from the constructs of interactivity and vividness. Different from preceding research, these subdimensions captured from perceptions of females demonstrate the major features of cosmetic websites. The next, findings stemming from ANOVA analysis show that, 12 of the 25 websites, even including well-known brands such as Kose, Lancome, and Sofnon, etc., were perceived less interactive and vivid. Unlike the other 13 websites perceived highly interactive and/or vivid, these websites merely induced the least impacts on females’ perceptions and emotions. As for the effects of website designs on browsers’ experiences, as our prediction, the related results reveal that vividness increases females’ perceived telepresence and evokes emotion arousal more significantly than interactivity. Such effects in turn facilitate e-satisfaction and browsing behavior, including browsing time on the website, revisit intention and intention to recommend the website to other people.
   The empirical results provide a comprehensive overview for us to understand the importance of website design to females’ browsing experiences as well as influences on females’ responses. Overall, the major contributions of this study include identifying critical features of website design, demonstrating predominant effects of vividness on females’ psychological responses, and verifying mediating role of emotional arousal in virtual experiences. Compared to interactivity, vividness has superior ability in increasing perceived telepresence and triggering subsequent processing and behavior. Besides, during the virtual experience, positive affect play an influential role in mediating the effects of website design on females. Further implications and limitations stemming from the results are accordingly discussed for strategic planning and future empirical research.
論文目次 TABLE OF CONTENTS
ABSTRACT ..................................................................................................................i
CHINESE ABSTRACT ....................................................................................................... iii
TABLE OF CONTENTS ........................................................................................................ I
LIST OF TABLES ......................................................................................................... III
LIST OF FIGURES .......................................................................................................... V
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................. 1
1.1 Research Background and Motivation ................................................................................... 1
1.2 Research Objectives .................................................................................................. 4
CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW ............................................................................................ 9
2.1 Vividness and media richness.......................................................................................... 9
2.2 The effect of vividness on perceived telepresence and emotion arousal ............................................... 14
2.3 The mediating effects of perceived telepresence and emotional arousal ............................................... 21
2.4 The interrelationships between e-satisfaction and behaviors ......................................................... 25
CHAPTER THREE RESEARCH METHOD ........................................................................................... 27
3.1 Measurement and validation of measures .............................................................................. 27
3.1.1 Construct measurement ............................................................................................. 27
3.1.2 Descriptive analysis for measures ................................................................................. 31
3.1.3 Validation of measurement ......................................................................................... 35
3.2 Stimulus material and procedure ..................................................................................... 42
3.2.1 Product category and sample website ............................................................................... 42
3.2.2 Procedure ......................................................................................................... 44
3.3 Subjects ............................................................................................................ 48
CHAPTER FOUR RESEARCH RESULTS ........................................................................................... 51
4.1 Analysis for cosmetic websites ...................................................................................... 51
4.2 Effects of website design ........................................................................................... 55
4.2.1 Categories of website design ...................................................................................... 55
4.2.2 The influences of website design on females ....................................................................... 57
4.2.3 Comparison of interactivity and vividness across different website design ......................................... 60
4.3 The interrelationships among research variables ..................................................................... 63
4.4 The effects of vividness on females’ psychological responses ....................................................... 66
4.5 The influences of vividness and interactivity on psychological responses ............................................ 70
4.6 SEM analysis for validation of hypotheses ........................................................................... 72
CHAPTER FIVE CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS ................................................................................ 84
5.1 Discussion and conclusions .......................................................................................... 84
5.2 Implications and suggestions ........................................................................................ 92
REFERENCE ............................................................................................................... 94
APPENDIX ............................................................................................................... 108
Appendix 1. Definitions and Dimensions of Interactivity ................................................................ 109
Appendix 2. Summary of Experimental Treatments about Interactivity and Vividness ....................................... 111
Appendix 3. Questionnaire Instrument (Chinese) ......................................................................... 114

LIST OF TABLES
Table 3.1 Measures of research constructs ............................................................................... 30
Table 3.2 Descriptive analysis for measures ............................................................................. 33
Table 3.3 EFA factor loadings and reliabilities of constructs ........................................................... 37
Table 3.4 Results of CFA and construct reliability ...................................................................... 40
Table 3.5 Summary of Cosmetic websites .................................................................................. 43
Table 3.6 Website stimuli in the paired instruments ..................................................................... 45
Table 3.7 Analysis for order effect of the measures ..................................................................... 46
Table 3.8 Characteristics of female participants ........................................................................ 49
Table 3.9 Personal information of female participants ................................................................... 50
Table 4.1 Descriptive analysis for females’ responses on the sample websites ........................................... 53
Table 4.2 ANOVA analysis for perceived telepresence, emotion arousal and e-satisfaction ................................. 58
Table 4.3 ANOVA analysis for responsiveness, user’s control, user’s feedback,
audio effect and representational richness .............................................................................. 61
Table 4.4 Correlations matrix for research variables .................................................................... 65
Table 4.5 The influences of interactivity and vividness on females’ perceived telepresence ............................. 68
Table 4.6 The influences of interactivity and vividness on females’ emotional arousal .................................. 69
Table 4.7 The influences of factors underlying interactivity and vividness on females’ responses ....................... 71
Table 4.8 Summary of SEM results......................................................................................... 74
Table 4.9 Total effects, direct effects and indirect effects of competing model ......................................... 82
Table 4.10 Hypotheses and the results of empirical tests ................................................................ 83

LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 2.1 Research framework of this study.............................................................................. 26
Figure 4.1 Four categories of the sample websites ....................................................................... 56
Figure 4.2 Comparison of perceived telepresence, emotional arousal,
and e-satisfaction among four categories of the websites ................................................................ 59
Figure 4.3 Comparison of responsiveness, user’s control, user’s feedback, audio effect and representational
richness among four categories of the websites .......................................................................... 62
Figure 4.4 Graphical presentation of base model ......................................................................... 75
Figure 4.5 Graphical presentation of competing model .................................................................... 80
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