||The Effects of National Culture and Safety Culture on Safety Performance in Liner Shipping – An Empirical Study of Seafarers from Taiwan, Mainland China, and Philippines
||Department of Transportation & Communication Management Science
This study empirical investigated the effects of national culture and safety culture on safety performance in the container shipping context. Abstract data was collected from seafarers working for 13 of the top 25 global container carriers. A survey questionnaire was distributed to 2,232 safarers working on board 124 container ships.
Based on a review of the studies of Hofstede (1980) and Bond et al. (1986), five dimensions of national culture were identified, namely: power distance, uncertainty avoidance, masculinity, individualism, and long-term orientation. Three safety culture dimensions were identified based on factor analysis: supervisor safety, safety policy, and safety commitment. Hypotheses were formulated to examine the relationship between national culture and safety culture, and their effects on safety performance.
The study results suggested that the national culture dimensions of power distance and individualism had negative effects on safety culture, workers’ safety behavior and organizational safety management, while long-term orientation had a positive effect. Moreover, uncertainty avoidance had a significant effect on workers’ safety behavior in the container shipping context. The study findings also indicated that the safety culture dimensions of supervisor safety and safety policy had positive effects on workers’ safety behavior and organizational safety management, whereas safety commitment had a positive effect on organizational safety management but a negative effect on workers’ safety behavior. The study’s contributions, the implications of the findings for container shipping companies, and the study’s limitations and future research suggestions were all detailed in this thesis.
TABLE OF CONTENTS iii
LIST OF TABLES v
LIST OF FIGURES viii
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Study Background and Motivation 1
1.2 Objectives of the Study 4
1.3 Scope of the Study 4
1.4 Organization of the Study 5
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW 7
2.1 The Liner Shipping Context 7
2.2 Definitions of Culture 10
2.3 National Culture 11
2.4 Safety Culture 17
2.5 Safety Performance 24
2.6 Summary 30
CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY 31
3.1 Research Framework and Hypotheses 31
3.2 Questionnaire Design 39
3.3 Sampling Technique 45
3.4 Data Analysis Methods 47
3.5 Research Steps 57
3.6 Summary 59
CHAPTER FOUR: DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS AND GENERAL FINDINGS RESULTING FROM THE QUESTIONNAIRE SURVEY 60
4.1 Response Rate and Non-Response Bias Tests 60
4.2 Respondents’ Demographic Characteristics 65
4.3 Respondents’ Agreement Level with National Culture, Safety Culture, and Safety Performance Measures 69
4.4 Exploratory Factor Analysis 72
4.5 Item - Total Correlation Analysis and Reliability Test 78
4.6 Comparisons of Respondents’ Perceptions of National Culture, Safety Culture and Safety Performance Dimensions According to Personal and Vessel Characteristics 83
4.7 Summary 89
CHAPTER FIVE: EMPIRICAL RESULTS OF ANALYSES 91
5.1 Confirmatory Factor Analysis 91
5.2 Hierarchical Regression Analysis and Hypotheses Testing 114
5.3 The Effects of National Culture and Safety Culture on Safety Performance Based on Respondents’ Nationalities 120
5.4 Summary 125
CHAPTER SIX: CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS OF THE STUDY FINDINGS 127
6.1 Conclusions and Discussion 127
6.2 Study Contributions 130
6.3 Study Implications of the Findings for Safety Management 131
6.4 Limitations and Future Research Suggestions 133
Appendix 1: A letter addressed to the Captain 159
Appendix 2: Questionnaire 160
Aaker, D.A., Bagozzi, R., 1979. Unobservable variables in structural equation models with application in industrial selling. Journal of Marketing Research 16, 147-158.
Advisory Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (ACSNI), 1993. Study Group on Human Factors, Third Report: Organising for Safety. London: HSMO.
Anderson, J.C., Gerbing, D.W., 1988. Structural equation modeling in practice: a review and recommended two-step approach. Psychological Bulletin 103(3), 411-423.
Anderson, J.C., Gerbing, D.W., Hunter, J.E., 1987. On the assessment of unidimensional measurement: internal and external consistency, and overall consistency criteria. Journal of Marketing Research 24, 432-437.
Antal, A.A., 1997. Organizational learning processes in downsizing.
Armstrong, S.J., Overton, T.S., 1977. Estimating nonresponse bias in the mail survey. Journal of Marketing Research 14(6), 396-402.
Awasthi, V.N., Chow, C.W., Wu, A., 2001. Cross-cultural differences in the behavioral consequences of imposing performance evaluation and reward systems: an experimental investigation. The International Journal of Accounting 36, 291-309.
AXS-Alphaliner, 2009. Available from:
Bacon, L.D., 1997. Using Amos for structural equation modeling in market research. SPSS white paper.
Bagozzi, R.P. Yi, Y., 1988. On the evaluation of structural equation models. Academy of Marketing Science 16(1), 74-93.
Barnett, M.L., 2005. Searching for the root causes of maritime casualties: individual competence or organizational culture? WMU Journal of Maritime Affairs 4(2), 131-145.
Basso, B., Carpegna, C., Dibitonto, C., Gaido, G., Robotto, A., Zonato, C., 2004. Reviewing the safety management system by incident investigation and performance indicators. Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries 17(3), 225-231.
Bate, P., 1992. The impact of organizational culture on approaches to organizational problem solving. In Salaman, G. (Ed.) Human Resource Strategies. London: Sage.
Bates, K.A., Amundson, S.D., Schroeder, R.G., Morris, W.T., 1995. The crucial interrelationship between manufacturing strategy and organizational culture. Management Science 41(10), 1565-1580.
Bearden, W.O., Money, R.B., Nevins, J.L., 2006. Multidimensional versus unidimensional measures in assessing national culture values: The Hofstede VSM 94 example. Journal of Business Research 59(2), 195-203.
Beck, K.H., Feldman, R.H.L., 1983. Information seeking among safety and health managers. The Journal of Psychology 115(1), 23- 31.
Beck, M., Woolfson, C., 1999. Safety culture: a concept too many? The Safety and Health Practitioner, January, 14-16.
Bellamy, L.J., Geyer, T.A.W., Wilkinson, J., 2008. Development of a functional model which integrates human factors, safety management systems and wider organizational issues. Safety Science 46(3), 461-492.
Bentler, P.M., Bonnet, D.G., 1980. Significance tests and goodness-of-fit in the analysis of covariance structures. Psychological Bulletin 88(3), 588-606.
Benton G., 2005. Multicultural Crews and the Culture of Globalization. Proceedings of the International Association of Maritime Universities: Sixth Annual General Assembly and Conference. Nielsen, D. Editor. WIT Press, Southampton, UK.
Bharati, A., 1985. The self in Hindu thought and action. In Marsella, A., DeVos, G., Hsu, F.L.K. (Eds). Culture and Self. New York: Tavistock Publications.
BIMCO/ISF, 1995. The worldwide demand for and supply of seafarers, Manpower Update: Main report (The University of Warwick-Institute for Employment Research).
BIMCO/ISF, 2004. Shipping facts. http://www.marisec.org/shippingfacts/index.htm
BIMCO/ISF, 2005. Manpower Update, Summary Report, December.
Bloor, M., Thomas, M., Lane, T., 2000. Health risks in the global shipping industry: an overview. Health, Risk and Society 2(3), 329-340.
Bollenk, K.A., Long, J.S., 1993. Testing Structural Equation Models. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Bond, M.H., Hwang, K., 1986. The social psychology of Chinese people. In Bond, M.H., (Eds). The Psychology of the Chinese People. Hong Kong: Oxford University Press.
Boote, A.S., 1981. Reliability testing of Psychographic scales. Journal of Advertisement Research 21(3), 9-19.
Booth, R.T., Lee, T.R., 1995. The role of human factors and safety culture in safety management. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers 209, 393-400.
Brauer, R.L., 1994. Safety and Health for Engineers. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Brown, K.A., Willis, P.G., Prussia, G.E., 2000. Predicting safe employee behavior in the steel industry: development and test of a sociotechnical model. Journal of Operations Management 18(4), 445-465.
Cattell, R.B., 1966. The meaning and strategic use of factor analysis, in Cattell R.B. (ed.), Handbook of Multivariate Experimental Psychology, Chicago: Rand McNally.
Chang, Y.H., Yeh, C.H., 2004. A new airline safety index. Transportation Research B: Methodological 38(4), 369-383.
Chen, J.R., Yang, Y.T., 2004. A predictive risk index for safety performance in process industries. Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries 17(3), 233-242.
Cheyne, A.J., Cox, S., Oliver, A., Tomas, J.M., 1998a. Modeling safety climate in the prediction of level of safety activity. Work and Stress 12(3), 255-271.
Cheyne, A.J., Oliver, A., Tomas, J.M., Cox, S., 1998b. Safety culture: the prediction of commitment to safety in the manufacturing industry. British Journal of Management 9(s1), 3-11.
Child, J., 1981. Culture, contingency and capitalism in the cross-national study of organizations. In Cumming, L., Staw, B. (Ed.) Research in Organization Behavior (pp. 303-356). Greenwich: JAI Press.
Chow, C.W., Harrison, G.L., McKinnon, J.L., Wu, A., 1999. Cultural influences on informal information sharing in Chinese and Anglo-American organizations: An exploratory study. Accounting, Organizations and Society 24(7), 561-582.
Churchill, G.A., Iacobucci, D., 2004. Marketing Research: Methodological Foundations, 9th edition. USA: South-Western.
Clarke, S., 1998. Safety culture on the UK railway network. Work and Stress 12(3) 285-292.
Cliff, N., 1988. The eigenvalue-greater-than-one rule and the reliability of components. Psychological Bulletin 103(2), 276-279.
Coopemr, D., Philliprs, A., 1994. Validation of a safety climate measure. Paper presented at the BPS Occupational Psychology Conference, Birmingham, January 1994.
Cooper, D.R., Schindler, P.S., 2002. Business Research Methods, 8th edition. USA: McGraw Hill.
Cooper, M. D., Phillips, R. A., 2004. Exploratory analysis of the safety climate and safety behavior relationship. Journal of Safety Research 35(5), 497-512.
Cooper, M.D., 2000. Towards a model of safety culture. Safety Science 36(2), 111-136.
Cox, S, Cheyne, A., 1998. Measuring safety culture in offshore environments an offshore technology report, London: Health and Safety Executive.
Cox, S., Cox, T., 1991. The structure of employee attitudes to safety: A European example. Work and Stress 5(1), 93-106.
Cox, S., Flin, R, 1998. Safety culture: Philosopher’s stone or man of straw? Work and Stress 12(3), 189-201.
Cuny, X., Lejeune, M., 2003. Statistical modeling and risk assessment. Safety Science 41(1), 29-51.
DeDobbeleer, N., Beland, F., 1991. A safety climate measure for construction sites. Journal of Safety Research 22(2), 97-103.
Degani, A., Wiener, E.I., 1993. Cockpit checklists: concepts, design, and use. Human Factors 35(2), 345-359.
DeJoy, D., Murphy, L., Gershon, R., 1995. The influence of employee, job/task, and organizational factors on adherence to universal precautions among nurses. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics 16(1), 43-55.
DeJoy, D.M., 1994. Managing safety in the workplace: an attribution theory analysis and model. Journal of Safety Research 25(1), 3-17.
DeJoy, D.M., Schaffer, B.S., Wilson, M.G., Vandenberg, R.J., Butts, M.M., 2004. Creating safer workplace: Assessing the determinants and role of safety climate. Journal of Safety Research 35(1), 81-90.
Denison, D.R., Mishra, A.K., 1995. Toward a theory of organizational culture and effectiveness. Organization Science 6(2), 204-223.
Devanadera, N.P., Espiritu, M.N.C., 2003. The Experiences of Filipino seafarers in a mixed nationality crew. Philippine Journal on Maritime Education and Training 1(2), 40-46.
DeVellis, R.F., 2003. Scale Development: Theory and Applications. Thousand Oaks, CA.: Sage.
Diaz, D.I., Cabrera, D.D., 1997. Safety climate and attitudes as evaluation measures of organizational safety. Accident Analysis and Prevention 29(5), 643-650.
Diaz-Cabrea, D., Hernandez-Fernaud, E., Isla-Diaz, R., 2007. An evaluation of a new instrument to measure organizational safety culture values and practices. Accident Analysis and Prevention 39(6), 1202-1211.
Diener, E., Diener, M., 1995. Cross-cultural correlates of life satisfaction and self-esteem. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 68(4), 653-663.
Donald, I., Canter, D., 1993. Attitudes to safety: Psychological factors and the accident plateau. Health and Safety Information Bulletin 215, 5-12.
Droste, B.A.C., 1997. Aviation safety management in Royal Netherlands air force. Proceeding of the IASC 1997, VPS, Amsterdam.
Dufort, V.M., Infante-Rivard, C., 1998. Housekeeping and safety: an epidemiological review. Safety Science 28(2), 127-138.
Dwyer, S., Richard, O.R., Chadwick, K., 2003. Gender diversity in management and firm performance: the influence of growth orientation and organizational culture. Journal of Business Research 56(12), 1009-1019.
Edkins, G.D., 1998. The INDICATE safety program: evaluation of a method to proactively improve airline safety performance. Safety Science 30(3), 275-295.
Eklöf, M., Törner, M., 2002. Perception and control of occupational injury risks in fishery-a pilot study. Work and Stress 16(1), 58-69.
Faulkner, D., 2003. Time for action on shipping safety. Lloyd’s List 6.
Ferketich, S., 1991. Focus on psychometrics: aspects of item analysis. Research in Nursing and Health 14(2), 165-168.
Fernández-Muniz, B., Montes-Peón, J.M., Vazquez-Ordás, C.J., 2007. Safety culture: Analysis of the casual relationships between its key dimensions. Journal of Safety Research 38(6), 627-641.
Flamholtz, E., Rangapriya, K.N., 2005. Differential impact of cultural elements on financial performance. European Management Journal 23(1), 50-64.
Fleming, M., 2005. Patient safety culture measurement and improvement: A ‘How To’ guide. Healthcare Quarterly 8(sp), 14-25.
Flin, R., 1998. Safety culture: identifying and measuring the common features. Paper presented at the 24th International Congress of Applied Psychology, Safety Culture Symposium, Aug. 9-14, San Francisco, CA.
Flin, R., 2007. Measuring safety culture in healthcare: a case for accurate diagnosis. Safety Science 45(6), 653-667.
Flin, R., Mearns, K., Fleming, M., Gordon, R., 1996. Risk perception and safety in the Offshore Oil and Gas Industry (OTH 94454), London: HSE.
Flin, R., Yule, S., 2004. Leadership for safety: industrial experience. Quality and Safety in Health Care 13 (Suppl. II), ii45-ii51.
Flynn, B.B., Saladin, B., 2006. Relevance of Baldrige constructs in an international context: A study of national culture. Journal of Operations Management 24(5), 583-603.
Fox, J. 1991. Regression Diagnostics. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Gaver, M.S., Mentzer, J.T., 1999. Logistics research methods: employing structural equation modeling to test for construct validity. Journal of Business Logistics 20(1), 35-58.
Gegen, D., Straub, D.W., Boudreau, M., 2000. Structural equation modeling and regression: guidelines for research practice. Communications of the AIS 1(7), 1-78.
Gerbing, D.W., Anderson, J.C., 1988. An updated paradigm for scale development incorporating unidimensionality and its assessment. Journal of Marketing Research 25(2), 186-192.
Gerbing, D.W., Anderson, J.C., 1988. Monte Carlo evaluations of goodness-of-fit indices for structural equation models. In Bollen K.A., Long J.S. (Eds), Testing Structural Equation Models, 40-65. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Gill, G.K., Shrgill, G.S., 2004. Perceptions of safety management and safety culture in the aviation industry in New Zealand. Journal of Air Transport Management 10(4), 233-239.
Glendon, A.I., Litherland, D.K., 2001. Safety climate factors, group difference and safety behavior in road construction. Safety Science 39(3), 157-188.
Glendon, A.I., Stanton, N.A., 2000. Perspective on safety culture. Safety Science 34(1-3), 193-214.
Golob, T.F., 2003. Structural equation modeling for travel behavior research. Transportation Research Part A 37(1), 1-25.
Gorsuch, R.L., 1983. Factor analysis, 2nd edition. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Goss, R., 1994. Safety in sea transport. Journal of Transport Economics and Policy 28, 99-110.
Grabowski, M., Ayyalasomayajula, P., Merrick, J., Harrald, J.R., Roberts, K., 2007. Leading indicators of safety in virtual organizations. Safety Science 45(10), 1013-1043.
Gregory, K.L., 1983. Native-View paradigms, multiple cultures, and culture conflicts in organizations. Administrative Science Quarterly 28, 359-376.
Griffin, M.A., Neal, A., 2000. Perceptions of safety at work: a framework for linking safety climate to safety performance, knowledge, and motivation. Journal of Occupation Health Psychology 5(3), 347-358.
Grote, G., Künzler, C., 1996. Safety culture and its reflections in job and organizational design: total safety management. In a Gheroghe, X., (Ed.) Integrated Regional Health and Environmental Risk Assessment and Safety Management, published in International Journal of Environment and Pollution 6, 618-631.
Gubt, D.E., Peccei, R., Thomas, A., 1994. Safety culture and safety performance: British Rail in the aftermath of the Clapham Junction disaster. Paper given to the Bolton Business School Conference on Changing Perceptions of Risk, Bolton, February 1994.
Guldenmund, F.W., 2000. The nature of safety culture: A review of theory and research. Safety Science 34(1-3), 215-257.
Hair, J., Zhang, Y.B., Tatham, R., Black, W., 1998. Multivariate Data Analysis With Reading, 5th edition. Englewood Chiffs, NJ.: Prentice Hall International.
Hale, A.R., 2000. Culture’s confusions. Safety Science 34(1-3), 1-14.
Harrington, S.J., Guimaraes, T., 2005. Corporate culture, absorptive capacity and IT success. Information and Organization 15(1), 39-63.
Harvey, J., Bolam, H., Gregory, D., 1999. How many safety cultures are there? The Safety and Health Practitioner 17(12), 9-12.
Håvold, J.I., 2003. National cultures, safety culture and risk: A study of seafarers working for Norwegian shipping companies. Alesund University College Memo.
Håvold, J.I., 2005. Safety-culture in a Norwegian shipping company. Journal of Safety Research 36(5), 441-458.
Håvold, J.I., 2007. National cultures and safety orientation: a study of seafarers working for Norwegian shipping companies. Work and Stress 21(2), 173-195.
Hayes, B.E., Perander, J., Smecko, T., Trask, J., 1998. Measuring perceptions of workplace safety: development and validation of the work safety scale. Journal of Safety Research 29(3), 145-161.
Health and Safety Commission (HSC), 1993. Third Report: Organizing for Safety. ACSNI Study Group on Human Factors. London: HMSO.
Health and Safety Executive (HSE), 1999. Development of Business Excellence Model of Safety Culture. London: HSC.
Health and Safety Executive (HSE), 2004. Attitude Towards Health and Safety: a Quantitative Survey of Stakeholder Opinion. London: HSC.
Health and Safety Executive (HSE), 2005. A Review of Safety Culture and Safety Climate Literature for the Development of the Safety Culture Inspection Toolkit. London: HSC.
Hee, D.D., Pickrell, B.D., Bea, R.G., Roberts, K.H., Williamson, R.B., 1999. Safety management assessment system (SMAS): a process for identifying and evaluating human and organization factors in machine system operations with field test results. Reliability Engineering and System Safety 65(2), 125-140.
Heine, S.J., Lehman, D.R., 1997. Culture, dissonance, and self-affirmation. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 23, 389-400.
Helmreich, R.L., Merrit, A.C., 1998. Culture at Work in Aviation and Medicine: National, Organizational, and Professional influences. Ashgate, Aldershot.
Herguner, G., Reeves, N.B.R., 2000. Going against the national cultural grain: a longitudinal case study of organizational culture change in Turkish higher education. Total Quality Management & Business Excellence 11(11), 45 - 56
Herrero, S.G., Saldana, M.A.M., del Compo, M.G.M., Ritzel, D.O., 2002. From the traditional concept of safety management to integrated with quality. Journal of Safety Research 33(1), 1-20.
Hetherington, C., Flin, R., Mearns, K., 2006. Safety in shipping: the human element. Journal of Safety Research 37(4), 401-411.
Hidden, A., 1989. Investigation into the Clapham Junction Railway Accident. Department of Transport, CM 820. London: HMSO.
Hoffmann, D.A., Stetzer, A., 1998. The role of safety climate and communication in accident interpretation: implications for learning from negative events. Academy Management Journal 41, 644-657.
Hofstede, G., 1980. Culture’s Consequences: International Differences I Work-related Values. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
Hofstede, G., 1983. The cultural relativity of organizational practices and theories. Journal of International Business Studies 14(2), 75-89.
Hofstede, G., 1984. The cultural relativity of the quality of life concept. Academy of Management Review 27, 389-398.
Hofstede, G., 1991. Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind. London: McGraw-Hill.
Hofstede, G., 1994. Management scientists are human. Management Science 40(1), 1-13.
Hofstede, G., 1998a. Attitudes values and organizational culture: disentangling the concepts. Organization Studies 19(3), 477-492.
Hofstede, G., 1998b. Identifying organizational subcultures: an empirical approach. Journal of Management Studies 35(1), 1-12.
Hofstede, G., 2001. Culture’s Consequences: Comparing Values, Behaviors, Institutions and Organizations across Nations (2nd ed.). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
Hofstede, G., Bram, N., Denise D.O., Geert, S., 1990. Measuring organizational cultures: a qualitative and quantitative study across twenty cases. Administrative Science Quarterly 35(2), 286-316.
Hoonakker, P., Loushine, T., Carayon, P., Kallman, J., Andrew, K.A., Michael, J., Smith, M.J., 2005. The effect of safety initiatives on safety performance: a longitudinal study. Applied Ergonomics 36(4), 461-469.
Hoppe, G., 1991. A comparative study of country elites: international differences in work related value and learning and their implications for international management training and development. Doctoral dissertation, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, CA.
Horck, J., 2004. An analysis of decision-making processes in multicultural maritime scenarios. Maritime Policy and Management 31(1), 15-29.
Horck, J., 2006. A Mixed Crew Complement: A Maritime Safety Challenge and Its Impact on Maritime Education and Training. Dissertation, Malmö Högskola, 2006.
Hu, L., Bentler, P.M., 1995. Evaluating model fit, in Hoyle, R.H. (Ed.) Structural Equation Modeling: Concepts, Issues and Applications. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Hu, L., Bentler, P.M., 1998. Fit indices in covariance structure modeling: sensitivity to under-parameterized model misspecification. Psychological Methods 3(4), 424-453.
Huang, Y.H., Ho, M., Smith, G.S., Chen, P.Y., 2006. Safety climate and self-reported injury: Assessing the mediating role of employee safety control. Accident Analysis and Prevention 38(3), 425-433.
Hurst, N.W., Young, S., Donald, I., Gibson, H., Muyselaar, A., 1996. Measures of safety management performance and attitudes to safety at major hazard sites. Journal of the Loss Prevention Process Industry 9(2), 161-172.
International Atomic Energy Agency, 2000. Operational Safety Performance Indicators for Nuclear Power Plants. IAEA-TECDOC-1141. Vienna, Austria: IAEA.
International Maritime Organization (IMO), 2001. International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping for Seafarers, 1978, as Amended in 1995 and 1997, London: IMO.
International Maritime Organization (IMO), 2004. Consolidated Text of the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea, 1974, and its Protocol of 1988: Articles, Annexes and Certificates, 4th edition. London: IMO.
International Standards Organization, 1999. Environmental Management: Environmental Performance Evaluation Guidelines. ISO 14031.
Itoh, I., Andersen, H.B., Seki, M., 2004. Track maintenance train operators’ attitudes to job, organization and management, and their correlation with accident/incident rate. Cognition Technology Work 6, 63-78.
Jackson, D.L., 2003. Revisiting the sample size and number of parameter estimates: some support for the N: q hypothesis. Structural Equation Modeling 10(1), 128-141.
Jenssen, J.I., Randøy, T., 2002. Factors that promote innovation in shipping companies. Maritime Policy and Management 29(2), 119-133.
Johnson, C., 2004. The Principles of a Total Safety Culture. Idaho National Environmental Engineering Laboratory, Department of Energy. http://tis.eh.doe.gov/vpp/artoc;es/idaho_safety_culture.htm (06/03/2004).
Johnson, S.E., 2007. The predictive validity of safety climate. Journal of Safety Research 38(5), 511-521.
Jones, S., Kirchsteiger, C., Bjerke, W., 1999. The importance of near miss reporting to further improve safety performance. Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries 12(1), 59-67.
Jonson K.M., 1982. Diagnostic analysis of safety issues. Proceedings of the First National Conference on Industrial safety, Sydney, Australia, 17-31.
Kahveci, E., Sampson, H., 2001. Findings from the shipboard based study of mixed nationality crews. Paper presented at the Seafarers International Research Centre Symposium, Cardiff.
Kanungo, S., Sadavarti, S., Srinivas, Y., 2001. Relating IT strategy and organizational culture: an empirical study of public sector units in India. Journal of Strategic Information System 10(1), 29-57.
Kawka, N., Kirchsteiger, C., 1999. Technical note on the contribution of sociotechnical factors to accidents notified to MARS. Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries 12(1), 53-57.
Kennedy, R., Kirwan, B., 1998. Development of a hazard and operability-based method for identifying safety management vulnerabilities in high risk systems. Safety Science 30(3), 249-274.
Kessler T.A., 1998. The cognitive appraisal of health scale: development and psychometric evaluation. Research in Nursing and Health 21(1), 73-82.
Kitayama, S., Markus, H.R., Matsumoto, H., Narasakkunkit, V., 1997. Individual and collective processes in the construction of the self: Self-enhancement in the United States and self-criticism in Japan. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 72, 1245-1267.
Koufteros, X.A., 1999. Testing a model of pull production: a paradigm for manufacturing research using structural equation modeling. Journal of Operations Management 17(4), 467-488.
Koufteros, X.A., Vonderembse, M.A., Doll, W.J., 2002. Integrated product development practices and competitive capabilities: the effects of uncertainty, equivocality, and platform strategy. Journal of Operations Management 20(4). 331-355.
Krause, T.R., 1993. Safety and quality: two sides of the same coin. Occupational Hazards, April, 47-50.
Krause, T.R., Seymour, K.J., Sloat, K.C.M., 1999. Long-term evaluation of a behavior-based method for improving safety performance: a meta-analysis of 73 interrupted time-series replications. Safety Science 32(1), 1-18.
Lambert, D.M., Harrington, T.C., 1990. Measuring nonresponse bias in customer service mail surveys. Journal of Business Logistics 11(2), 5-25.
Lau, C.M., Ngo, H.Y., 1996. One country many cultures: Organizational cultures of firms of different country origins. International Business Review 5(5), 469-486.
Lauder, W., Reynolds, W., Reilly, V., Angus, N., 2000. The development and testing of the mental health problems perception questionnaire. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing 7(3), 221-226.
Lee, C., Chen, W. J., 2005. The effects of internal marketing and organizational culture on knowledge management in the information technology industry. International Journal of Management 22(4), 661-672.
Lee, T.R., 1995. The role of attitudes in safety culture and how to change them. Paper presented at a conference on understanding risk perception, offshore management center, Robert Gordon University, Aberdeen, 2 February 1995.
Lee, W.K., 2006. Risk assessment modeling in aviation safety management. Journal of Transport Management 12(5), 267-273.
Lehtinen, E., 1995. A concept of safety indicator system for nuclear power plants. Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Research Notes 1646, 26-106.
Lehtinen, E., Wahlström, B., 2002. Safety performance measurement in the process industries. Paper presented at the Third International Conference on Performance Measurement and Management, Boston, USA, 17-19 July 2002.
Lehtinen, E., Wahlström, B., Piirto, A., 1996. Management of safety through performance indicators for operational maintenance. In: Advances in the Operational Safety of Nuclear Power Plants, IAEA-CN-61/25, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna.
Leung, K., Bond, M., 1984. The impact of cultural collectivism on reward allocation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 47, 793-804.
Li, K.X., Wonham, J., 1999. Who mans the world fleet? A follow-up to the BIMCO/ISF manpower survey. Maritime Policy and Management 26(3), 295-303.
Lindsay, F.D., 1992. Successful health and safety management. The contribution of management audit. Safety Science 15(4-6), 387-402.
Liou, J.J.H., Tzeng, G.H., Chang, H.C., 2007. Airline safety measurement using a hybrid model. Journal of Air Transport Management 13(4), 243-249.
Loginovsky, V.A., 2002. Verbal Communication Failures and Safety at Sea, Admiral Makarov State Maritime Academy.
Lok, P., Crawford, J., 2004. The effect of organizational culture and leadership style on job satisfaction and organizational commitment: a cross-national comparison. The Journal of Management Development 23(2), 321-338.
Lu, C.S., Lai, K., Cheng, T.C.E., 2007. Application of structural equation modeling to evaluate the adoption of Internet services in liner shipping. European Journal of Operational Research 180(2), 845-867.
Lu. C.S., Tsai, C.L., 2008. Seafarers’ perceptions of safety climate in the container shipping context. Proceeding of the International Association of Maritime Economists (IAME) 2008.
Lu. C.S., Tsai, C.L., 2008. The effects of safety climate on vessel accidents in the container shipping context. Accidents Analysis and Prevention 40(2), 594-601.
MARCOM Project, 1998. The impact of multicultural and multilingual crews on maritime communication, A Transport RTD Programme, Final Report 1(2), Contract No. WA-96-AM-1181.
Maritime Knowledge Centre, 2008. International Shipping and World Trade Facts and Figures.
Mars, G., 1996. Human factor failure and the Comparative structure of jobs: the implications of risk management. Journal of Management Psychology 11(3), 4-11.
Marsh, H.W., Balla, J.R., Hau, K., 1996. An evaluation of incremental fit indices: a clarification of mathematical and empirical properties, in Marcoulides, G.A., and Schumacker, R.E., (eds), Advanced Structural Equation Modeling: Issues and Techniques. Mahwah, NJ: LEA.
Marsh, H.W., Balla, J.R., McDonald, R.P., 1988. Goodness-of-fit indices in confirmatory factor analysis: the effect of sample size. Psychological Bulletin 102, 391-410.
Marsh, H.W., Hocevar, D., 1985. Application of confirmatory analysis to the study of self-concept: first and higher order factor models and their invariance across groups. Psychological Bulletin 97(3), 562-582.
Martin, J., Siehl, G., 1983. Organizational culture and counterculture: an uneasy symbiosis. Organizational Dynamics 12(2), 52-64.
McCarthy, P., Talley, W.K., 2000. Determinants of crew injuries in tow vessel accidents. Journal of the Transportation Research Forum 39, 129-139.
McCrae, R.R., 2001. Trait psychology and culture: Exploring intercultural comparisons. Journal of Personality 69(6), 819-846.
McFadden, K.L., Towell, E.R., 1999. Aviation human factors: a framework for the new millennium. Journal of Air Management 5(4), 177-184.
McSween, T.E., 2003. The Values-Based Safety Process: Improving Your Safety Culture with Behavior-Based Safety, 2nd edition. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons.
Mearns, K., Flin, R., Gordon, R., Fleming, M., 1998. Measuring safety climate on offshore installations. Work and Stress 12(3), 238-254.
Mearns, K., Flin, R., Gordon, R., Fleming, M., 2001. Human and organizational factors in offshore safety. Work and Stress 15(2), 144-160.
Mearns, K., Whitaker, S., Flin, R., Gordon. R., O’connor, P., 2000. Benchmarking human and organizational factors in offshore safety. HSE OTO 2000 061 Report.
Mearns, K., Whitaker, S.M., Flin, R., 2001. Benchmarking safety climate in hazardous environments: A longitudinal, interorganizational approach. Risk Analysis 21(4), 771-786.
Mearns, K., Whitaker, S.M., Flin, R., 2003. Safety climate, safety management practice and safety performance in offshore environments. Safety Science 41(8), 641-680.
Merchant, K.A., Chow, C.W., Wu, A., 1995. Measurement, evaluation and reward of profit center managers: a cross-cultural field study. Accounting, Organizations and Society 20(7/8), 619-638.
Merrick, J.R.W., Grabowski, M.R., Ayyalasomayajula, P., Harrald, J.R., 2005. Understanding organizational safety using value-focused thinking. Risk Analysis 25(4).
Merritt, A., 1998. A study of Pilots in Eighteen Countries.
Merritt, A., Helmreich, R.L., 1998. Culture in the cockpit: A multi-airline study of pilot attitudes and values. In Proceedings of the Eighth International Symposium on Aviation Psychology. Columbus, OH: Ohio State University.
Ministry of Transportation and Communication (Taiwan), 2002. Statistical Abstract of Transportation and Communication.
Ministry of Transportation and Communication (Taiwan), 2004. Statistical Abstract of Transportation and Communication.
Ministry of Transportation and Communication (Taiwan), 2006. Statistical Abstract of Transportation and Communication.
Ministry of Transportation and Communication (Taiwan), 2008. The statistics of Taiwanese seafarers’ service on board in 2008. Unpublished document.
Mitroussi, K., 2003. The evolution of the safety culture of IMO: a case of organizational culture change. Disaster Prevention and Management 12(1), 16-23.
Mohamed, S., 1999. Empirical investigation of construction safety management activities and performance in Australia. Safety Science 33(3), 129-142.
Morris, M.W., Peng, K., 1994. Culture and cause: American and Chinese attributions for social and physical events. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 67, 949-971.
Nakata, C., Sivakumar, K., 1996. National culture and new product development: An integrative review. Journal of Marketing 60, 61-72.
Nakata, C., Sivakumar, K., 2001. Instituting the marketing concept in a multinational setting: the role of national culture. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science 29(3), 255-275.
Naveh, E., Navon, T.K., Stern, Z., 2005. Treatment errors in healthcare: a safety climate approach. Management Science 51(6), 948-960.
Neal, A., Griffin, M. A., 2002. Safety climate and safety behaviour. Australian Journal of Management 27(s), 66-76.
Neal, A., Griffin, M. A., Hart, P. M., 2000. The impact of organizational climate on safety climate and individual behavior. Safety Science 34(1-3), 99-109.
Neter, J., Wasserman, W., Kutner, M.H., 1990. Applied Linear Statistical Models, 3rd edition. Boston: Irwin.
Nielsen, D., 1999. Deaths at sea: a study of fatalities on board Hong Kong registered merchant ships (1986-1995). Safety Science 32(2-3), 121-141.
Nieva, V., Sorra, J., 2003. Safety culture assessment: a tool for improving patient safety in healthcare organizations. Quality and Safety in Health Care 12 (Suppl. II), ii17-ii23.
Nunnally, J.C., 1967. Psychometric Theory. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Nunnally, J.C., 1978. Psychometric Theory, 2nd edn. New York: McGraw-Hill.
O’Leary, M., Chappell, S.L., 1997. Confidential incident reporting systems create vital awareness of safety problems. ICAO Journal 51(8), 11-13.
O’Leary-Kelly, S.W., Vokurka, R.J., 1998. The empirical assessment of construct validity. Journal of Operations Management 16(4), 387-405.
O’Neil W.A., 1995. World maritime day 1995. IMO News, No.3.
O’Neil, H.E.W., 2004. Raising world maritime standards. Maritime Policy and Management 31(1), 83-86.
O’Toole, M., 2002. The relationship between employees’ perceptions of safety and organizational culture. Journal of Safety Research 33(2), 231-243.
Olive, C., O’Connor, T.M., Mannan, M.S., 2006. Relationship between safety culture and process safety. Journal of Hazardous Materials 130(1-2), 133-140.
Olive, C., O’Connor, T.M., Mannan, M.S., 2006. Relationship between safety culture and process safety. Journal of Hazardous Materials 130(1-2), 133-140.
Oliver, A., Cheyne, A., Tomas, J.M., Cox, S., 2002. The effects of organizational and individual factors on occupational accidents. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology 75(4), 473-488.
Ostrom, L., Wilhelmsen, C., Daplan, B., 1993. Assessing safety culture. Nuclear Safety 34(2), 163-172.
Pagell, M., Katz, J.P., Sheu, C., 2005. The importance of national culture in operations management research. International Journal of Operations and Production Management 25(4), 371-394.
Perrow, C., 1984. Normal accidents. Living with High-Risk Technologies. New York: Basic Books.
Pidgen, N.F., 1991. Safety culture and risk management in organizations. Journal of Cross-Culture Psychology 22(1), 129-140.
Pidgeon, N., O’Leary, M., 1995. Organizational safety culture implications for aviation practice. In: McDonald, N., Johnston, N., Fuller, R., (Eds), Application of Psychology to the Aviation System. England: Aubury.
Rao, S., 2007. Safety culture and accident analysis: A socio-management approach based on organizational safety social capital. Journal of Hazardous Materials 142(3), 710-740.
Reason, J., 1993. Human factors in aviation. Proceedings of 22nd IATA Technical Conference, Montreal.
Reason, J., 1997. Managing the Risk of Organizational Accidents. Ashgate, Aldershot, UK.
Reason, J., 1998. Achieving a safe culture: theory and practice. Work and Stress 12(3), 293-306.
Redding, G., 1990. The Sprit of Chinese Capitalism. New York: Walter de Gruyter.
Redding, G., Wong, G.Y.Y., 1986. The psychology of Chinese organizational behavior. In Bond, M.H., The Psychology of the Chinese People. Hong Kong: Oxford University Press.
Reiman, T., Oedewald, P., 2002. The assessment of organizational culture: a methodological study. VTT Research Notes 2140, Finland.
Reiman, T., Oedewald, P., 2007. Assessment of complex sociotechnical systems: theoretical issues concerning the use of organizational culture and organizational core task concepts. Safety Science 45(7), 745-768.
Reise, S.P., Widaman K.F., Pugh, R.H., 1993. Confirmatory factor analysis and item response theory: two approaches for exploring measurement invariance. Psychological Bulletin 114(3), 552-566.
Ringov, D., Zollo, M., 2007. Corporate responsibility from a socio-institutional persoective: the impact of national culture on corporate social performance. Corporate Governance 7(4), 476-485.
Roberts, S.E., Marlow, P.B., 2002. Casualties in dry bulk shipping (1963-1996). Marine Policy 26(6), 437-450.
Roberts, S.E., Marlow, P.B., 2005. Traumatic work related mortality among seafarers employed in British merchant shipping, 1976-2002. Occupation Environment & Medicine 62(3), 172-180.
Rose, N.L., 1992. Fear of flying: economic analyses of airline safety. Journal of Economic Perspectives 6, 75-94.
Rothblum, A.M., Chervalhais, A.B., 1996. Maritime application of human factors test and evaluation. In O’Brian, T.G. and Charlton, S.G. (eds) Handbook of Human Factors Testing and Evaluation. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erbaum.
Rundmo, T., 1992. Risk perception and safety on offshore oil platform. Safety Science 15(1), 39-68.
Rundmo, T., Hale, A.R., 2003. Managers’ attitudes towards safety and accident prevention. Safety Science 41(7), 557-574.
Rundmo, T., Hestad, H., Ulleberg, P., 1998. Organisational factors, safety attitudes and workload among offshore oil personnel. Safety Science 29(2), 75-87.
Sampson, H., Zhao, M., 2003. Multilingual crews: communication and the operation of ships. World Englishes 22(1), 31-43.
Saprrow, P., Wu, P.C., 1998. Does national culture really matter? Predicting HRM preferences of Taiwanese employees. Employee Relationship 21(1), 26-56.
Saqib, N., Siddiqi, M.T., 2005. The thresholds and goals for safety performance indicators for nuclear power plants. Reliability Engineering and System Safety 87(2), 275-286.
Sawacha, E., Naoum, S., Fong, D., 1999. Factors affecting safety performance on construction sites. International Journal of Project Management 17(5), 309-315.
Schein, E.H., 1996. Three cultures of management: the key to organizational learning. Sloan Management Review/Fall, 9-20.
Schein, E.H., 2004. Organizational Culture and Leadership, 3rd edition. USA: John Wiley & Sons.
Segars, A., 1997. Assessing the unidimensionality of measurement: a paradigm and illustration within the context of information systems research. Omega-International Journal of Management Science 25(1), 107-121.
Sekaran, U., 2003. Research Methods for Business: a Skill Buliding Approach, 4th edition. USA: John Wiley & Sons.
Seo, D.H., 2005. An explicative model of unsafe work behavior. Safety Science 43(3), 187-211.
Shah, R., Goldstein, S.M., 2006. Use of structural equation modeling in operations management research: looking back and forward. Journal of Operations Management 24(2), 148-169.
Shahid, Y.A., Gunasekaran, F., Maxondo, T., 1999, Relationships between generic strategies, competitive advantage and organizational performance: an empirical analysis. Technovation 19(8), 507-518.
Sharma, S., 1996. Applied Multivariate Techniques. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. USA.
Sherman, P.J., Helmreich, R.L. Merritt, A.C., 1997. National culture and flight deck automation: results of a multination survey. International Journal of Aviation Psychology 7(4), 311-329.
Sherry, P., 1992. Peer involvement and behavioral safety: a case study. Paper at the Annual Meeting of the American Association of Railroads, Safety Conference, 8 June, Little Rock, AR.
Shweder, R.A., Bourne, E.J., 1982. Does the concept of person vary cross-culturally? In Marsella, A.J. and White, G.M. (Eds.), Cultural Conceptions of Mental Health and Therapy. London: Reidel.
Silva, S., Lima, M.L., Baptista, C., 2004. OSCI: an organizational and safety climate inventory. Safety Science 42(3), 205-220.
Siu, O.L., David R., Phillips, D.R., Leung, T.W., 2004. Safety climate and safety performance among construction workers in Hong Kong: the role of psychological strains as mediators. Accident Analysis and Prevention 36(3), 359-366.
Siu, O.L., Phillips, D.R., Leung, T.W, 2003. Age difference in safety attitudes and safety performance in Hong Kong construction workers. Journal of Safety Research 34(2), 199-205.
Smith, P.B., 2004. Nations, cultures, and individuals: new perspectives and old dilemmas. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 35(1), 6-12.
Smith, P.B., Dugan, S., Trompenaars, F., 1996. National culture and the values of organizational employees: a dimensional analysis across 43 nations. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 27(2), 231-264.
Sørensen, J.B., 2002. The strength of corporate culture and the reliability of firm performance. Administrative Science Quarterly 47, 70-91.
Sorensen, J.N., 2002. Safety culture: a survey of the state-of-the-art. Reliability Engineering and System Safety 76(2), 189-204.
Spector, P.E., Cooper, C.L., Sparks, K., 2001. An international study of the psychometric properties of the Hofstede value survey module 1994: a comparison of individual and country/province level results. Applied Psychology: An International Review 50(2), 269-281.
Staeheli, B., 2003. Cross-cultural Management within Switzerland: An in Depth Study of a Swiss Financial Services Company.
Staff, 1998. Human error causes most sea accidents. Journal of Commerce 5A.
Steenkamp, J.B.E.M., 2001. The role of national culture in international marketing research. International Marketing Review 18(1), 30-44.
Steiger, J.H., 1990. Structural model evaluation and modification: an interval estimation approach. Multivariate Behavioral Research 25(2), 173-180.
Suh, E., Diener, E., Oishi, S., Triandis, H.C., 1998. The shifting basis of life satisfaction judgments across cultures: emotions versus norms. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 74, 482-493.
Tabachnick, B.G., Fidell, L.S., 2000. Using Multivariate Statistics. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Talley, W.K., 1999. The safety of sea transport: determinants of crew injuries. Apllied Economics 31(11), 1365-1372.
Talley, W.K., Jin, D., Kite-Powell, H., 2005. Determinants of crew injuries in vessel accidents. Maritime Policy and Management 32(3), 263-278.
Tanaka, J.S., 1993. Multifaceted conceptions of fit in structure equation models. In Bollen K.A., Long J.S. (Eds), Testing Structural Equation Models, 136-162. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Tata, J., Prasad, S., 1998. Cultural and structural constraints on total management implementation. Total Quality Management 9(8), 703-710.
Tayeb, M.H., 1988. Organizations and National Culture: A Comparative Analysis. London: Sage Publication.
Theotokas, I., Progoulaki, M., 2007. Cultural diversity, manning strategies and management practices in Greek shipping. Maritime Policy and Management 34(4), 383-403.
Thompson, N., Stradling, S., Murphy, M., O’Neill, P., 1996. Stress and organizational culture. British Journal of Social Work 26(5), 647-665.
Tomás, J.M., Melia, J.L., Oliver, A., 1999. A cross-validation of a structural equation model of accidents: organizational and psychological variables as predictors of work safety. Work and Stress 13(1), 49-58.
Tomás, J.M., Oliver, A., 1995. The perceived effect of safety climate on occupational accidents. Paper presented at the work and well-being: An Agenda for Europe Conference, Nottingham, 7-9 December.
Trafimow, D., Triandis, H.C., Goto, S., 1991. Some tests of the distinction between the private and collectivitve self. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 60, 649-655.
Triandis, H.C., 1989. The self and social behavior in different cultural contexts. Psychology Review 96(3), 506-520.
Triandis, H.C., 1995. Individualism and collectivism. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Triandis, H.C., 1999. Cross-cultural psychology. Asian Journal of Social Psychology 2(1), 127-143.
Triandis, H.C., 2000. Cultural syndromes and subjective well-being. In Diener, E. and Suh, E.M. (Eds.), Culture and Subjective Well-being. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
Triandis, H.C., Bontempo, R., Villareal, M.J., Asai, M., Lucca, N., 1988. Individualism and collectivism: Cross-cultural perspectives on self-in-group relationships. Journal of Personal Sociality Psychology 54, 323-338.
Trost, S.G., Sallis, J.F., Pate, R.R., Freedson, P.S., Taylor, W.C., Dowda, M., 2003. Evaluating a model of parental influence on youth physical activity. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 25(4), 277-282.
Tse, D.K., Lee, K.H., Vertinsky, I., Wehrung, D.A., 1988. Does culture matter? A cross-cultural study of executives’ choices, decisiveness, and risk adjustment in international marketing. Journal of Marketing 52, 81-95.
UK P & I Club, 2004. Loss Prevention Claims Statistics, ukpandi/infoppol.nsf.
UK P & I Club, 2005. Annual Report 2004,
United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), 2007. Review of Maritime Transport 2006.
United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), 2008. Review of Maritime Transport 2007.
United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), 2009. Review of Maritime Transport 2008.
Van de Venn, A.H., Ferry, D.I., 1980. Measuring and Assessing Organizations. New York: Wiley.
Van Muijen, J.J., Koopman, P.L., 1994. The influence of national culture on organizational culture: a comparative study between 10 countries. European Work and Organizational Psychologist 4(4), 367-380.
Van Muijen, J.J., Koopman, P.L., De Witte, K., De Cock, G., Susanj, Z., Lemoine, C., Bourantas, D., Papalevandris, N., Branyicski, I, Spaltro, E., Jesuino, J., Das Neves, J.G., Pitariu, H., Konrad, E., Peiró, J., Romá, V.G., Turnipseed, D., 1999. Organizational culture: the focus questionnaire. European Work and Organizational Psychology 8(4), 551-568.
Van Oudenhoven, J.P., 2001. Do organizations reflect national cultures? A 10-nation study. International Journal of Intercultural Relations 25(1), 89-107.
Van Steen, J., 1996. Safety Performance Management. Warwickshire, United Kingdom: European Process Safety Center.
Veenhoven, R., 1999. Quality-of-life in an individualistic society: a comparison of 43 nations in the early 1990’s. Social Indicators Research 48(2), 157-186.
Very, P., Calori, R., Lubatkin, M., 1993. A cross-national assessment of acculturative stress in recent European mergers. International Studies of Management and Organization 26(1), 59-86.
Vredenburgh, A., 2002. Organizational safety: Which management practices are most effective in reducing employee injury rates? Journal of Safety Research 33(2), 259-276.
Wallach, E.J., 1983. Individuals and organizations: the cultural match. Training and Development Journal, February 1983, 29-36.
Wang, J., 2001. The current status and future aspects in formal ship safety assessment. Safety Science 38(1), 19-30.
Weick, K.E., 1987. Organizational culture as a source of high reliability. California Management Review 29(2), 112- 127.
Wentz, C.A., 1998. Safety, Health and Environment Protection. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Wert, J., 1986. Safety culture at nuclear plants. An Unpublished Essay, as cited in O’Hara, P. (2003). ‘Nuclear Safety Culture: An Organisational Development Model’. At http://nucelarsafetyculture.freeyellow.com
Wigglesworch, E.C., 1978. The fault doctrine and injury control. Journal of Trauma, 18(12), 789-794.
Wilbert, B., 2001. The relevance of safety culture for nuclear power operations. In: Wilbert, B. and Itoigawa, N. (Eds.), Safety Culture in Nuclear Power Operations.
Williamson, A.M., Feyer, A.M., Cairns, D., Biancotti, D., 1997. The development of a measure of safety climate: The role of safety perceptions and attitudes. Safety Science 25(1-3), 121-140.
Wooldridge, J.M., 2003. Introductory Economtrics: A Modern Approach, 2nd edition. Mason, Ohio: South-Western.
Yang, C.C., 2008. The Effects of Logistics Service Capabilities and Innovation Capabilities on Firm Performance in Taiwanese Liner Shipping Firms. Ph.D Dissertation, Department of Transportation and Communication Management Science, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan.
Young, S., Donald, I., Chalk, J., 1997. Safety teams: using team work to improve organizational performance. Occupational Psychologist 31, 5-10.
Zimolong, B., Elke, G., 2006. Occupational health and safety management. In: Salvendy, G. (Ed.), Handbook of Human Factors & Ergonomics. New York: Wiley.
Zohar, D., 1980. Safety climate in industrial organizations: theoretical and applied implications. Journal of Applied Psychology 65(1), 96-102.
Zohar, D., 2002. The effects of leadership dimensions, safety climate, and assigned priorities on minor injuries in work groups. Journal of Organizational Behavior 23(1), 75-92.
Zohar, D., 2003. Safety climate: conceptual and measurement issues. In: Quick, J., Tetrick, L. (Eds.), Handbook of Occupational Health Psychology. American Psychological Association, Washington, DC, 123-142.