進階搜尋


 
系統識別號 U0026-0812200915245814
論文名稱(中文) 在只有中性刺激作業下的老化正向效果
論文名稱(英文) The Age-Related Positivity Effect in a Neutral Stimuli Only Paradigm
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 認知科學研究所
系所名稱(英) Institute of Cognitive Science
學年度 97
學期 2
出版年 98
研究生(中文) 劉淇瑛
研究生(英文) Chi-Ying Liu
電子信箱 u7696107@mail.ncku.edu.tw
學號 u7696107
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
論文頁數 57頁
口試委員 指導教授-許清芳
口試委員-廖敏如
口試委員-鄭中平
中文關鍵字 中性  正向效果  老化 
英文關鍵字 positivity effect  neutral  aging 
學科別分類
中文摘要 人隨著年紀增長,對同樣事物的感官或反應會一成不變嗎? 思考以下問題: “裝著一半水的杯子,你認為是還有半杯水或只剩半杯水?” 老年人會跟年輕人一樣傾向認為只剩半杯水嗎? 本論文主要在研究當老年人和年輕人在遇到這類問題時,其觀點有何不同。

一般人隨著年紀的增長或是越有限的時間狀況下,傾向做出越正向或滿足自己情緒的決定,即所謂老化正向效果。 過去研究的實驗材料之情緒向度(正性或負性或中性的刺激)皆由實驗者而非受試者自己決定。 此外,受試者都被直接告知用他們的情緒去做判斷,這會使受試者去猜測實驗者的目的而產生實驗者的期望效果。 本論文使用中文中性字(抽象中性字及對比字)來塑造中性的實驗情境來檢驗老化正向效果,運用推拉的自動化評價方式(實驗三)來檢驗來自於問卷評價(實驗一)的結果是否一致。 並檢查老年人與年輕人在中性字的聯想過程有何不同(實驗二)。

本研究結果支持社會情緒選擇理論解釋老化正向效果的部份,比起年輕人,老年人傾向對中性字產生較多的正向評價,作出較多親近自己的判斷而非推離,並產生較多的正向聯想。這隱含著人們隨著年紀越大,傾向於用正向的態度去面對事情。
英文摘要 As we grow older, do we continue to perceive the same object or react to the same situation in the same manner? Consider the proverbial question: "Is the glass half empty or half full?” Do young people tend to see it as half empty, while old people see it as half full? This thesis investigates whether older and younger adults take the same point of view when confronted with such a question.

The observation that people tend to become more motivated to react in a more positive way toward events as they become older is called the age-related positivity effect. Previous studies demonstrating this effect mostly employed paradigms in which stimulus valence was determined by the experimenters instead of by the subjects. Moreover, subjects were often explicitly told to judge stimuli by their emotional valence. This could create an experimenter demand effect as subjects could guess at the purpose of the experiment. In this thesis, I conducted experiments using Chinese words (regular words and antonyms) with neutral affective connotations--this is a neutral stimuli only paradigm--and made use of approach and avoidance in the automatic evaluation paradigm to validate results obtained from rating responses. A word association experiment was also conducted to examine age differences in affective association.

Findings of this thesis work provide further empirical evidence supporting the theory of socioemotional selectivity in its account of the age-related positivity effect. In comparison with younger adults, older adults were more likely to regard neutral words as positive, bring them closer instead of pushing them further away, and produce positive affective association. The implication is that we orient toward looking on the bright side of things as we age.
論文目次 Abstract i
Abstract (Chinese Translation) iii
Acknowledgement v
Table of Contents vii
List of Tables x
List of Figures xi
List of Appendixes xii
Introduction 1
Literature Review 5
Dual information process between age groups 5
The socioemotional selectivity theory 6
Age-related positivity effect 7
Automatic evaluation and approach-avoidance actions 10
Study Own 12
1.1 Objectives 12
1.2 Method 12
1.3 Data Analysis 14
1.4 Results 16
1.5 Discussion 19
Study Two 20
2.1 Objectives 20
2.2 Method 20
2.3 Data Analysis 21
2.4 Results 23
2.5 Discussion 25
Study Three 28
3.1 Objectives 28
3.2 Method 29
3.3 Data Analysis 32
3.4 Results 36
3.5 Discussion 38
General Discussion 39
References 42
Appendixes 47
參考文獻 Bargh, J.A., Chaiken, S., Raymond, P., & Hymes, C. (1996) The automatic evaluation attitude activation with a pronunciation task. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 32, 104-128.
Blanchette, I., & Richards, A. (2004). Reasoning about emotional and neutral materials: Is logic affected by emotion? Psychological Science, 15(11), 745-752.
Blom, G. (1958). Statistical estimates and transformed beta variables. John Wiley and Sons, New York.
Carstensen, L.L. (2007). The influence of a sense of time on human development. Science, 312(30), 1913-1915.
Carstensen, L.L., & Mikels, J.A. (2005). At the intersection of emotion and cognition: aging and the positivity effect. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 14(3), 117-121.
Charles, S.T., Mather, M., & Carstensen, L.L. (2003). Aging and emotional memory: The forgettable nature of negative images for older adults. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 132(2), 310-324.
Charles, S.T., Reynolds, C.A. & Gatz, M. (2001). Age-related differences and change in positive and negative affect over 23 years. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 80(1), 136-151.
Chen, M., & Bargh, J.A. (1999). Consequences of automatic evaluation: immediate behavioral predispositions to approach or avoid the stimulus. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 25(2), 215-223.
Duckworth, K.L., Bargh, J.A., Garcia, M., & Chaiken, S. (2002). The automatic evaluation of novel stimuli. Psychological Science, 13(6), 513 - 519.
Gross, J.J., Carstensen, L.L., Tsai, J., Skorpen, C.G.., & Hsu, Y.C. (1997). Emotion and aging: Experience, expression, and control. Psychology and Aging, 12(4), 590-599.
Grühn, D., Scheibe, S., & Baltes, P.B. (2007). Reduced negativity effect in older adults' memory for emotional pictures: The heterogeneity-homogeneity list paradigm. Psychology and Aging, 22(3), 644-649.
Hanley, J.A., Negassa, A., Edwardes, M.D., & Forrester, J. (2003). Statistical analysis of correlated data using generalized estimating equations: An orientation. American Journal of Epidemiology, 157, 364-375.
Jacques, P.L., & Levine, B. (2007). Ageing and autobiographical memory for emotional and neutral events. Memory, 15(2), 129-144.
Josephs, R.A., Markus, H.R., & Tafarodi, W. (1992). Gender and self-esteem. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 63(3), 391-402.
Kahneman, D., & Tversky, A. (1979). Prospect theory: An analysis of decision under risk. Econometrica, 47(2), 263–291.
Kennedy, Q., & Mather, M. (2004). Role of motivation in the age-related positivity effect in autobiographical memory. Psychological Science, Vol. 15 (3), 208-214.
Kennedy, Q., & Mather, M. (In press). Aging, affect and decision making. Do Emotions Help or Hurt Decision Making? A hedgefoxian perspective, 245-266.
Kensinger, E.A., Piguet, O., & Krendl, A.C. (2005). Memory for contextual details: effects of emotion and aging. Psychology and Aging, 20(2), 241-250.
Kim, S., Healey, M.K., Goldstein, D., Hasher, L., & Wiprzycka, U.J. (2008). Age differences in choice satisfaction: A positivity effect in decision making. Psychology and aging, 23(1), 33-38.
Lau, S., (1989). Sex role orientation and domains of self-esteem. Sex Roles, 21(5-6), 415-422.
Lee, Y.-S., & Lee, H.-M., (2007). Emotionality ratings and free-association norms of 267 common two-character Chinese words. Unpublished manuscript.
Liang, K.Y. and Zeger, S.L. (1986), “Longitudinal data analysis using generalized linear models,” Biometrika, 73, 13–22.
Löckenhoff, C.E., & Carstensen, L.L. (2007) Aging, emotion, and health-related decision strategies: Motivational manipulations can reduce age differences. Psychology and Aging, 22(1), 134-146.
Markman, A.B., & Brendl, C.M. (2005). Constraining theories of embodied cognition. Psychological Science. 16(1), 6-10.
Mather, M., & Carstensen, L.L. (2003). Aging and attentional biases for emotional faces. Psychological Science, 14(5), 409-415.
Mather, M., & Carstensen, L.L. (2005). Aging and motivated cognition: The positivity effect in attention and memory. TRENDS in Cognitive Sciences, 9(10), 496-502.
Mather, M., Shafir, E., & Johnson, M.K. (2000). Misremembrance of options past: Source monitoring and choice. Psychological Science. 11(2), 132-138.
Maxwell, J.S., & Davidson R.J. (2007). Emotion as motion. Psychological Science, 18(12), 1113-1119.
Meier, B.P., & Robinson, M.D. (2004). Why the sunny side is up: Associations between affect and vertical position. Psychological Science. 15(4), 243-247.
Peters, E., Hess, T.M., Vastfjall, D., & Auman, C. (2007). Adult age differences in dual information processes: Implications for the role of affective and deliberative processes in older adults' decision making. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 2(1), 1-23.
Sheu, C.-F. (2000). Regression analysis of correlated binary outcomes. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers, 32(2), 269-273.
Thomas, R., C., Kim, S., Goldstein, D., Hasher, L., Wong, K., & Ghai, A. (2007). Do you see what I see? The impact of age differences in time perspective on visual attention. Psychological Sciences, 62B(5), 247-252.
Walker, W.R., Skowronski, J.J., & Thompson, C. P. (2003). Life is pleasant ? Memory helps to keep it that way!? Review of General Psychology, 7(2), 203-210.
Wood, S., Busemeyer, J., Koling, A., Cox, C.R., & Davis, H. (2005). Older adults as adaptive decision makers: evidence from the iowa gambling task. Psychology and Aging, 20(2), 220-225.
Yang, L., & Hasher, L. (In press). Positivity bias and aging. Journal of Gerontology.
論文全文使用權限
  • 同意授權校內瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,於2009-07-29起公開。
  • 同意授權校外瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,於2009-07-29起公開。


  • 如您有疑問,請聯絡圖書館
    聯絡電話:(06)2757575#65773
    聯絡E-mail:etds@email.ncku.edu.tw