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系統識別號 U0026-0812200915234211
論文名稱(中文) 以基因模糊控制器實現輔助路邊停車功能
論文名稱(英文) A Genetic Fuzzy Controller for Assist Parallel Parking Function
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 電機工程學系碩博士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Electrical Engineering
學年度 97
學期 2
出版年 98
研究生(中文) 曾育中
研究生(英文) Yu-chung Tseng
電子信箱 tsengkyou@hotmail.com
學號 n2696122
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 101頁
口試委員 口試委員-連震杰
口試委員-詹寶珠
指導教授-王振興
口試委員-詹劭勳
中文關鍵字 測距模型  路邊停車  路徑追蹤 
英文關鍵字 parallel parking  path tracking  odometry model 
學科別分類
中文摘要 本論文主旨在於實現具有自動路邊停車功能之智慧型代步車。在載具操控方面,以嵌入式系統作為系統之運算及控制核心,並透過控制器區域網路(Controller Area Network, CAN)匯流排接收感測器的資訊,即時下達控制指令給前輪轉向模組與後輪速度接收和驅動模組來達到控制智慧型代步車的目的。在定位方面,則使用可變磁阻感測器(Variable Reluctance Sensor, VRS)量測載具之速度資訊,並透過測距模型(Odometry Model)估測車子相對於起始點在任意時刻的姿態來達到即時定位的目的,並且同時利用型式A和型式B兩種校正方法來降低測距法的系統誤差以提升定位之精確性。此外;我們研發一套路邊停車演算法來自動導引載具進行路邊停車之功能。首先,演算法會使用超音感測器偵測停車空間大小是否合適。其次,車子在到達倒車地點後立即規劃合適的倒車路徑,最後,我們利用路經追蹤(Path Tracking)的方法設計基因模糊控制器來控制車子平穩地在倒車路徑上行駛。並由模擬和實驗結果證明本論文提出的路邊停車演算法之可行性與有效性。
英文摘要 The main focus of this thesis is to develop a genetic fuzzy controller for guiding steering of an intelligent vehicle to assist parallel parking. In the vehicle control, an embedded system is used as the central computing and control unit for receiving the information from sensors by a controller area network (CAN) bus. Based on the received information, the embedded system sends the commands to the front wheel driving circuit to steer the orientation of the vehicle, and to the rear driving circuit to control the vehicle speed. In the vehicle localization, a variable reluctance sensor (VRS) is employed to measure the speed of the vehicle. Based on this information, an odometry model is used to estimate the attitude of the vehicle to achieve real-time localization. In order to reduce the errors caused by the model uncertainty and improve the localization accuracy, two calibration methods—Type A and Type B have been proposed in this thesis. In addition, a parallel parking algorithm has been developed for guiding steer to assist parallel parking. The algorithm first uses ultrasonic sensors to scan the size of a parking space. If the size of the parking space fits in with the pre-specified parking requirements, the algorithm will indentify an appropriate ready-to-reverse position automatically. After the vehicle reaches the position, the reverse path will be generated from the ready-to-reverse position to the target parking position by the algorithm immediately. Finally, a path tracking system implemented by a genetic fuzzy controller is designed to control the vehicle to follow the reverse path smoothly. The simulation and experimental results have successfully validated the applicability and effectiveness of the proposed approaches.
論文目次 目錄
中文摘要 i
英文摘要 ii
誌謝 iii
目錄 iv
表目錄 vii
圖目錄 viii
第一章 緒論 1-1
1.1 研究背景與動機 1-1
1.2 文獻探討 1-1
1.3 研究目的 1-2
1.4 論文架構 1-3
第二章 系統架構與硬體平台 2-1
2.1 系統架構 2-1
2.2 硬體平台 2-2
2.2.1智慧型代步車 2-2
2.2.2嵌入式系統 2-3
2.2.3電力輔助轉向系統 2-4
2.2.4轉角感測器 2-4
2.2.5微控制器PIC18F458 2-5
2.2.6超音波感測器 2-6
2.2.7全橋式電路驅動晶片-HIP4080A 2-7
2.2.8可變磁阻感測器 2-8
2.2.9超音波接收模組 2-9
2.2.10前輪轉向驅動模組 2-10
2.2.11後輪速度接收與驅動模組 2-11
2.2.12 CAN Bus 2-12
第三章 後輪定位與校正 3-1
3.1 可變磁阻感測器訊號處理 3-1
3.1.1史密特觸發器 3-2
3.1.2磁雜訊濾除電路 3-4
3.1.3車子速度之計算 3-7
3.2 測距模型 3-9
3.3 測距法誤差之校正 3-12
3.3.1測距法誤差 3-12
3.3.2後輪半徑誤差之校正-型式A 3-13
3.3.3後輪軸誤差之校正-型式B 3-15
3.4 測距法定位結果測試 3-17
第四章 路邊停車演算法 4-1
4.1 路邊停車流程 4-1
4.2 停車空間偵測演算法 4-3
4.3 倒車路徑規劃演算法 4-5
4.3.1車子運動模型分析 4-5
4.3.2預備倒車點規劃 4-8
4.3.3倒車路徑規劃 4-11
4.4 路徑追蹤演算法 4-16
4.4.1基因演算法 4-16
4.4.2模糊控制器 4-19
4.4.3路徑追蹤之基因模糊控制器 4-23
4.5 航向校正控制器 4-33
第五章 模擬與實驗結果 5-1
5.1 模擬結果 5-1
5.2 實驗結果 5-5
第六章 結論和未來展望 6-1
6.1 結論 6-1
6.2 未來展望 6-2
參考文獻 7-1
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