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系統識別號 U0026-0812200915215364
論文名稱(中文) 模擬浮子位移與功率應用於波浪發電之研究
論文名稱(英文) Numerical Simulation of Floating Body Displacement and Power on the Wave Energy System
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 水利及海洋工程學系碩博士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Hydraulics & Ocean Engineering
學年度 97
學期 2
出版年 98
研究生(中文) 陳俊嘉
研究生(英文) CHUN-CHIA CHEN
電子信箱 n8696417@mail.ncku.edu.tw
學號 N8696417
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 73頁
口試委員 口試委員-蔡清標
指導教授-蕭士俊
指導教授-許泰文
口試委員-楊瑞源
中文關鍵字 直推式造波機  阻尼係數  附加質量  規則波  波浪發電 
英文關鍵字 damping coefficient  added mass  piston-type wavemaker  wave energy  regular wave 
學科別分類
中文摘要 本文利用數值與實驗方法,模擬在規則波中的波浪發電系統。發電過程為波浪推動浮子,浮子帶動活塞,透過活塞壓縮空氣,空氣傳輸到恆壓桶,保持一定的輸出氣體至發電裝置上而產生電能。浮子運動振幅越大,甚至發生共振現象,用以壓縮更多空氣,讓發電裝置吸收更多的波浪能量。
數值的部分,透過基本解求出流速勢,推估壓力後求得外力,計算外力時得到附加質量與阻尼係數,代入水中運動方程式得知浮子位移。將浮子隨時間變化的位移代入功率方程式,初步推估浮子吸收的功率。
實驗的部分,浮子上方未加入發電裝置,將浮子固定於長300公尺、寬5公尺、深5.2公尺的水槽中。利用直推式造波機產生規則波,造波週期為2.5秒到8秒,波高為0.2公尺到1公尺,紀錄浮子位移並推算功率。
文中分別模擬飛碟形與水塔型兩種不同外型的浮子,並經過實驗與數值的比較後發現,浮子振幅大小與浮體重量與入射波週期有關。週期大時,浮子會隨著波浪起伏,而週期小時,因入射波頻率與浮子震盪頻率相同而產生共振效應。由本文研究發現,水塔型浮子於小週期時有明顯的共振現象,因而判斷此為最佳外型。
本文更進一步,在重量與週期相同的條件下,修改水塔外型的浮子,以判斷其最佳外型。模擬結果發現當水塔型沒水部分切割一半時,其運動振幅最大,因而判斷此為最佳外型設計。
英文摘要 This study aims to simulate the floating body motion on the wave energy system both numerically and experimentally. Driven by regular wave action, the floating body drives the upward piston, alternatively pressurizing the air within the chamber, leading the air into the static pressure controller. Consequently, the air will be consistently pressurized and output into the turbine-generator to generate electrical power.

To simulate the floating body motion numerically, velocity potential can be gained through fundamental solution. The pressure and force acting in the floating body can thus be obtained. Base on the force, the added mass and damping coefficient can be calculated and coupled with underwater motion equation to simulate the floating body motion. Eventually, a time-dependent floating body displacement is utilized to calculate how much power has been generated.

Experimentally, the floating body design verifies the accuracy of the simulation result. No other device is added onto the floating body in this study and it is fixed in a tank. Regular wave is generated by a piston-type wavemaker, with the period from 2.5 to 8 seconds, and waveheight from 0.2m to 1m. Under these wave conditions, the floating body motion displacement is observed to calculate the power.

To verify the numerical simulation with experiment result, two different prototypes are tested, including circular cylinder-like and disk-like shape. The result indicates that motion of floating body relates to its weight and the period of incident wave. With the long incident wave period, the floating body is moved with the wave while the resonance is caused in the short periods. Based on our results, the resonance of the floating body with circular-like shape is more prominent than that with disk-like shape in short wave periods, Therefore, the circular-like shape floating body is used for further optimal design. With the same weight of floating body and incident wave condition, the shape of floating body is varied to determine the optimal design. It is found that the maximum amplitude of floating body is achieved as the submerged portion is cut into a half.
論文目次 中文摘要 .................................................................................................................. I
ABSTRACT ............................................................................................................. II
誌謝 ........................................................................................................................ III
目錄 ........................................................................................................................ IV
表目錄 .................................................................................................................... VI
圖目錄 .................................................................................................................. VII
符號說明 ............................................................................................................... IX
第一章 緒論 .......................................................................................................... 1
1-1 研究動機與目的 ............................................................................................ 1
1-2 文獻回顧 ........................................................................................................ 4
1-3 研究方法 ........................................................................................................ 8
第二章 基本理論 ................................................................................................ 10
2-1 參考座標系 ................................................................................................... 10
2-2 基本假設與控制方程 ................................................................................... 12
2-3 邊界條件 ....................................................................................................... 14
2-4 流速勢 ........................................................................................................... 16
2-5 源點分佈法與二維格林函數 ....................................................................... 19
2-6 波之激盪力、輻射力、流體動力 ............................................................... 26
2-7 浮子運動 ....................................................................................................... 29
第三章 實驗佈置與方法 .................................................................................... 32
3-1 實驗目的 ....................................................................................................... 32
3-2 浮子外型 ....................................................................................................... 32
3-3 水槽與造波機 ............................................................................................... 33
3-4 台車 ............................................................................................................... 33
3-5 波高計 ........................................................................................................... 34
3-6 位移計 ........................................................................................................... 35
3-7 實驗斷面水槽配置規劃 ............................................................................... 35
3-8 實驗流程 ....................................................................................................... 37
3-9 浮子作功 ....................................................................................................... 38
第四章 結果與討論 ............................................................................................. 40
4-1 數值模式流程 ................................................................................................ 40
4-2 模擬浮子之外型 ............................................................................................ 43
4-3 波浪理論適用範圍 ........................................................................................ 45
4-4 實驗與模式之浮子位移 ................................................................................ 50
4-5 實驗與模式之功率 ........................................................................................ 54
4-6 預測最佳外型例子 ........................................................................................ 61
第五章 結論與建議 .............................................................................................. 64
5-1 結論 ................................................................................................................ 64
5-2 建議 ................................................................................................................ 67
參考文獻 ................................................................................................................ 68
附錄 ........................................................................................................................ 70

表目錄
表1 有載重飛碟型浮子實驗數據 .................................................................... 70
表2 無載重飛碟型浮子實驗數據 .................................................................... 70
表3 有載重水塔型浮子實驗數據 .................................................................... 71
表4 無載重水塔型浮子實驗數據 .................................................................... 72

圖目錄
圖1.1 波浪能量預估模式 (摘自物理雙月刊,參考文獻1) ............................. 2
圖1.2 水工所波浪發電系統 (圖片由立上公司提供) ....................................... 3
圖1.3 六個自由度之運動 ................................................................................... 9
圖2.1 參考座標系 .............................................................................................. 11
圖2.2 浮子表面之源點 ..................................................................................... 19
圖2.3 源點的鏡射點 ......................................................................................... 20
圖2.4 流域之邊界 ............................................................................................. 21
圖3.1 飛碟型浮子 ............................................................................................. 33
圖3.2 水塔型浮子 ............................................................................................. 33
圖3.3 大型斷面詴驗水槽 ................................................................................. 33
圖3.4 造波機 ..................................................................................................... 33
圖3.5 台車 ......................................................................................................... 34
圖3.6 電容式波高計 ......................................................................................... 35
圖3.7 電阻式位移計 ......................................................................................... 35
圖3.8 實驗儀器相關配置圖 ............................................................................. 36
圖3.9 實驗流程圖 ............................................................................................. 37
圖4.1 模式流程圖 ............................................................................................. 40
圖4.2 截片 ......................................................................................................... 41
圖4.3 截點 ......................................................................................................... 41
圖4.4 飛碟型有載重浮子 ................................................................................. 43
圖4.5 飛碟型無載重浮子 ................................................................................. 43
圖4.6 水塔型有載重浮子 ................................................................................. 44
圖4.7 水塔型無載重浮子 ................................................................................. 44
圖4.8 飛碟型造波條件 ..................................................................................... 45
圖4.9 水塔型造波條件 ..................................................................................... 46
圖4.10 非線性小的浮子位移 ........................................................................... 48
圖4.11 非線性中等的浮子位移 ....................................................................... 49
圖4.12 非線性強的浮子位移 ........................................................................... 49
圖4.13 有載重飛碟形(波長與浮子寬) ............................................................ 51
圖4.14 無載重飛碟型(波長與浮子寬) ............................................................ 51
圖4.15 有載重水塔型(波長與浮子寬) ............................................................ 53
圖4.16 無載重水塔型(波長與浮子寬) ............................................................ 53
圖4.17 有載重飛碟型實驗功率 ....................................................................... 57
圖4.18 有載重飛碟型模式功率 ....................................................................... 57
圖4.19 無載重飛碟型實驗功率 ....................................................................... 58
圖4.20 無載重飛碟型模式功率 ....................................................................... 58
圖4.21 有載重水塔型實驗功率 ....................................................................... 59
圖4.22 有載重水塔型模式功率 ....................................................................... 59
圖4.23 無載重水塔型實驗功率 ....................................................................... 60
圖4.24 無載重水塔型模式功率 ....................................................................... 60
圖4.25 修改水塔型浮子 ................................................................................... 61
圖4.26 俯視與側視圖 ....................................................................................... 62
圖4.27 修改水塔型(波長除浮子寬) ................................................................ 63
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4.戴仰山, 船舶波浪載荷, 國防工業出版社 , 2007.
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