||Safety Management and Safety Performance in Container Terminal Operations
||Department of Transportation & Communication Management Science
本研究旨在從安全管理觀點探討台灣地區貨櫃碼頭經營業高階管理者的安全領導、工頭安全管理、員工安全訓練與安全績效之關係。經由因素分析 (Exploratory factor analysis, EFA) 萃取出台灣地區貨櫃碼頭經營業者安全管理構面包括「安全激勵」、「安全政策」、「員工安全訓練」、「安全關切」與「工頭安全管理」等五項；安全績效則包括「貨損與傷亡的降低」、「安全服從」與「安全參與」等三項。透過變異數分析發現台灣地區貨櫃碼頭經營業者安全管理與安全績效的構面在行業別、公司別、職位別與員工安全訓練的次數有顯著性之差異存在。
透過驗證性因素 (Confirmatory factory analysis, CFA) 分析，在測量系統的信度 (結構信度與萃取變異) 、效度 (收斂效度與區別效度) 與配適指標 (GFI、AGFI、RMR、RMSEA…等) 均支持本研究文獻探討與專家訪談後所提出之研究結構模式。結構方程模式 (Structural Equation Modeling, SEM) 分析研究結果發現，高階管理者的安全領導會正向影響安全訓練、工頭安全管理與安全績效，而且安全訓練與工頭安全管理也會正向影響安全績效；其中安全訓練也會正向影響工頭安全管理。
最後利用階層廻歸 (Hierarchical Regression Analysis, HRA) 分析結果發現「員工安全訓練」與「工頭安全管理」部份中介 (partial mediation) 於貨櫃碼頭經營業高階管理者的安全領導與安全績效之關係。因此，本研究建議台灣地區貨櫃碼頭經營業者應積極發展其高階管理者的安全領導、工頭安全管理與員工安全訓練，以增進安全管理效能進而改善其安全績效。
This study endeavoured to examine the importance of senior managers’ safety leadership, supervisor safety management, and staff safety training in order to explain safety performance in the container terminal context. Over a thousand (1,100) questionnaires were sent to workers in the following five main terminal operators in Taiwan: Yang Ming (YM), the Evergreen group, Wan Hai Line, China Container Terminal Operations, and United Logistics International Company. The total number of usable responses was therefore 336, an overall response rate of 30.5 percent (336/1,100).
Based on factor analysis, five dimensions of safety management were identified, namely, safety motivation, staff safety training, safety policy, safety concern, and supervisor safety management. Three safety performance dimensions were identified: loss and fatality decreasing, safety compliance, and safety participation. Structural equation modelling and hierarchical regression analysis were employed to test the research hypotheses. Results indicated that senior managers’ safety leadership was positively associated with perceived safety performance, supervisor safety management, and staff safety training; supervisor safety management was positively associated with safety performance; staff safety training was positively associated with supervisor safety management, and staff safety training was positively associated with safety performance. The staff safety training partially mediated the relationship between senior managers’ safety leadership and perceived safety performance. Supervisor safety management partially mediated the relationship between senior managers’ safety leadership and safety performance. The conclusions, contributions of the study, managerial implications, limitations of the study, and directions for future research were also detailed in this study.
LIST OF TABLES xii
LIST OF FIGURES xiv
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 RESEARCH BACKGROUND AND MOTIVATION 1
1.2 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY 6
1.3 SCOPE OF THE STUDY 7
1.4 ORGANISATION OF THE STUDY 7
CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 9
2.1 CONTAINER TERMINALS 9
2.2 INTERNATIONAL CONTAINER TERMINALS IN TAIWAN 11
2.3 SAFETY MANAGEMENT 12
2.3.1 Senior Managers’ Safety Leadership 15
2.3.2 Supervisor Safety Management 22
2.3.3 Staff Safety Training 25
2.4 SAFETY PERFORMANCE 28
CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY 33
3.1 THE CONCEPTUAL MODEL 33
3.2 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES 35
3.3 SOURCES AND COLLECTION OF DATA 36
3.4 QUESTIONNAIRE DESIGN 37
3.5 MEASURES 40
3.6 NON-RESPONSE BIAS 46
3.7 ANALYTICAL STEPS 47
3.8 DATA ANALYSIS METHODS 50
3.8.1 Exploratory Factor Analysis and Principal Components Analysis 50
3.8.2 Reliability Test 52
3.8.3 Confirmatory Factor Analysis 53
3.8.4 Validity Test 57
22.214.171.124 Convergent validity 57
126.96.36.199 Discriminant validity 58
3.8.5 Structural Equation Modelling 59
3.9 SUMMARY 64
CHAPTER 4 THE EFFECTS OF SAFETY MANAGEMENT ON SAFETY PERFORMANCE 65
4.1 RESPONDENTS’ CHARACTERISTICS 66
4.2 RESPONSE RATE AND NON-RESPONSE BIAS TESTS 67
4.3 RESPONDENTS’ AGREEMENT WITH ATTRIBUTES 69
4.4 EXPLORATORY FACTOR ANALYSIS RESULTS 72
4.5 ITEM-TOTAL CORRELATION 77
4.6 STRUCTURAL EQUATION MODELLING 79
4.6.1 Confirmatory Factor Analysis 80
4.6.2 Convergent Validity and Item Reliability 84
4.6.3 Standardised Residuals and Modification Indices 85
4.6.4 Discriminant Validity 88
4.6.5 Composite Reliability and Variance Extracted Measures 90
4.6.6 Models’ Comparison 92
4.6.7 Estimation of the Structural Model 96
4.7 HYPOTHESES TESTING RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 100
4.8 HIERARCHICAL REGRESSION ANALYSIS RESULTS 103
4.9 ANALYSIS AT BOTH THE ORGANISATIONAL AND INDIVIDUAL LEVEL 110
4.10 SUMMARY 114
CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS OF THE STUDY FINDINGS 117
5.1 CONCLUSION TO THE STUDY 117
5.1.1 Crucial Safety Management and Safety Performance Attributes 118
5.1.2 Crucial Safety Management and Safety Performance Dimensions 121
5.1.3 Impacts of Senior Managers’ Safety Leadership on Supervisor Safety Management, Staff Safety Training, and Safety Performance 121
5.1.4 Impacts of Supervisor Safety Management on Safety Performance 123
5.1.5 Impacts of Staff Safety Training on Supervisor Safety Management and Safety Performance 123
5.2 CONTRIBUTIONS OF THE STUDY 124
5.3 IMPLICATIONS OF THE STUDY FINDINGS 125
5.4 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY 127
5.5 DIRECTIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH 128
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