系統識別號 U0026-0812200915212324
論文名稱(中文) 福爾摩沙二號衛星數值地表模型與正射影像產品之產製與精度評估
論文名稱(英文) Generation and Accuracy Assessment of Formosat-2 products:Orthoimage and Digital Surface Model
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 衛星資訊暨地球環境研究所
系所名稱(英) Institute of Satellite Informatics and Earth Environment
學年度 97
學期 2
出版年 98
研究生(中文) 陳柏澧
研究生(英文) Po-Li Chen
電子信箱 l9696104@mail.ncku.edu.tw
學號 l9696104
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 129頁
口試委員 指導教授-劉正千
中文關鍵字 數值高程模型  數值地表模型  正射糾正  福衛二號 
英文關鍵字 Formosat-2  digital elevation model  orthorectification  digital surface model 
中文摘要 遙測影像應用於環境監測、災害評估、正射地圖製作以及土地利用管理上均具有其優勢存在。隨著影像空間解析度不斷的提升,更豐富的細節與特徵可由影像上萃取出來。衛星立體像對所產製的數值地表模型(DSM),亦廣泛的應用在高程變化的偵測上,諸如追蹤冰河消長、估算崩塌地土方體積與繪製地表地形等。我國自主的福衛二號同時具備了高空間解析度(2m)與高時間解析度(日再訪)的取像能力,感測器更能在跨軌與順軌方向自由轉動45°;自其成功發射運作後,福衛二號已可對取像範圍內的大部份地區拍攝垂直與立體影像。然而,要產製應用價值較高的福衛二號正射影像與DSM,目前仍需透過人工手動選取與匹配地面控制點(GCPs)的程序,不僅耗時且不精確。
本研究分別闡述了兩個主要課題:對近垂直拍攝的福衛二號影像進行正射糾正,以及利用福衛二號立體像對產製DSM。研究中選定了台灣三處可同時取得50公分解析度航照影像以及5m DEM的研究區,發展一套快速且精確的方法,自動萃取及匹配大量GCPs。透過此一方法,配合衛星詮釋資料中提供的內方位與外方位參數、研究區的DEM等資訊,可建立一多項式基底的一般性推掃模式,對影像進行嚴謹的正射糾正;由GCPs所解算出來的有理多項式係數也同時應用在DSM的產製上。
本研究透過獨立檢核點來評估正射影像的精度與實用性,總體的RMSE在x方向為1.73像元至2.27像元之間,y方向RMSE在0.98像元至2.05像元之間,利用本研究所發展的方法,對福衛二號單一視景影像(12km×12km)進行正射糾正可在一小時內完成。DSM的精度評估則藉由產製不同格網解析度的資料,分別與5m數值高程模型(DEM)、ASTER DEM、SRTM DEM和40m DEM等不同來源的資料以高程差異統計值及剖面分析法互相比對。以10m格網間距DSM為例,在山區地形可達RMSE為19.9m,平原地形可達RMSE為5.6m;利用本研究所發展的方法產製區域性的DSM(8km×10km大小)僅需1.5小時。顯示此方法可應用在快速且精確的產製正射影像與DSM上。
英文摘要 Remote sensing imagery is advantageous in environment monitoring, hazard assessment, orthomap generation, and land use management. As its spatial resolution is continuously enhanced, more details can be revealed and more features can be identified. Digital surface model (DSM) generated from satellite stereo image data has also been widely used in change detection of elevation, such as tracking the glacier movement, estimating the landslide volume, and mapping the surface topography. The successful operation of Formosat-2 has enabled the collection of both high-spatial-resolution (2 m) and high-temporal-resolution (daily) images. Together with its capability of pointing ±45 degrees to both along and across track directions, Formosat-2 is able to take both nadir and stereo images for any scene in its coverage area. However, to generate two of the most important products from Formosat-2 data, the orthorectified image and DSM, the general approach still relies on the manual selecting and matching the ground control points (GCPs), which is a time consuming and inaccurate process.
This research describes two procedures: orthorectifing near-nadir Formosat-2 images and generating DSMs from Formosat-2 stereo image. Three regions in Taiwan are selected as the study areas, where the orthorectified aerial photos (50 cm) and their derived DEMs (5 m) are available. We develop a fast and accurate method that is able to automatically extract and match a large amount of GCPs. By applying this method, a polynomial-based generic pushbroom model with the interior and exterior orientation parameters acquired from satellite metadata, together with the DEM of the imaging area, are used to establish a transformation model of rigorous orthorectification. The rational polynomial coefficients calculated form extracted GCPs are also used to generate DSM form Formosat-2 stereopairs
Assessment of accuracy and validation has been made via independent check points for orthorectified image. The results indicate that RMSE is 1.73 pixel to 2.27 pixel in x-direction, and 0.98 pixel to 2.05 pixel in y-direction. The required time to process one standard scene (12km×12km) is less than one hour. For DSM, a series test of various posting resolution from 5m to 40m are comparing with the 5m digital elevation model (DEM), ASTER DEM, SRTM DEM and 40m DEM, both elevation difference statistics and profile analysis were performed. In the case of 10m posting, RMSE of 19.9m in mountainous area, and 5.6m in plain area can be achieved. The required time to generate a regional DSM (8km×10km) is approximately 1.5 hours. This fast and accurate method can be used to orthorectify Formosat-2 imagery and generate DSM in a timely manner.
論文目次 摘要 i
Abstract ii
誌謝 iii
目錄 iv
圖目錄 vii
表目錄 xi
第1章 緒論 1
1.1 研究背景 1
1.2 研究目的 3
第2章 文獻回顧 4
2.1 正射糾正 4
2.1.1 多項式轉換模式 4
2.1.2 3D有理函數模式 5
2.1.3 物理感測器模式 6
2.1.4 自動控制點萃取與匹配 7
2.2 DEM產製 8
2.2.1 順軌DEM 9
2.2.2 跨軌DEM 9
2.2.3 影響DEM精度的因子 10
2.3 福衛二號DSM與正射糾正之國內外相關研究 11
第3章 研究架構 14
第4章 研究材料 16
4.1 研究區概述 16
4.2 衛星影像 22
4.3 航照影像 31
4.4 數值高程模型 31
第5章 研究方法 39
5.1 影像前處理 39
5.2 正射糾正 42
5.2.1 控制區萃取 44
5.2.2 影像匹配 46
5.2.3 感測器模式 48
5.2.4 控制區篩選與濾除 52
5.2.5 正射影像重組 55
5.3 數值高程模型產製 55
5.3.1 RPC建置 57
5.3.2 影像共軛點與核線幾何 58
5.3.3 DEM自動產製 62
第6章 研究結果與討論 64
6.1 正射糾正影像精度檢核 64
6.2 DEM精度評估 77
6.2.1 福衛二號絕對DSM—曾文水庫研究區 80
6.2.2 福衛二號絕對DSM—濁水溪研究區 91
6.2.3 福衛二號絕對DSM—高屏溪研究區 100
6.3 結論 106
第7章 應用與建議 107
7.1 自動控制區萃取與應用 107
7.2 建議 108
參考文獻 109
附錄一 115
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