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系統識別號 U0026-0812200915212019
論文名稱(中文) 應用地電阻影像法探測墩基深度之初步研究
論文名稱(英文) The Evaluation of Pier Depth Using ERT Method
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 土木工程學系碩博士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Civil Engineering
學年度 97
學期 2
出版年 98
研究生(中文) 陳昱源
研究生(英文) Yu-Yuan Chen
電子信箱 n6696120@mail.ncku.edu.tw
學號 n6696120
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 101頁
口試委員 口試委員-陳景文
口試委員-宋見春
口試委員-謝旭昇
指導教授-倪勝火
中文關鍵字 非破壞性檢測  地電阻影像法  音波回音法  視電阻率 
英文關鍵字 sonic echo method  apparent resistivity  electrical resistivity tomography  nondestructive test 
學科別分類
中文摘要 本研究的目的為應用地電阻影像法評估墩基深度之可行性,由於常用於基墩檢測的力學非破壞性檢測方法,易受到基礎本身的結構和承載土層的干擾,而地電阻影像法主要透過電流在地層中的流動,量測電位,測得視電阻率,再反算獲得真實地層的電阻率剖面圖,依電阻率的差異來判斷墩基的深度。
使用三種電極排列方法為Wenner、Schlumberger和Dipole-Dipole排列方法進行下淡水溪鐵橋第21號墩基的探測,由Wenner排列方式的地電阻影像圖,圖中顯示墩基所在位置會有類似長方形的高電阻率區域的存在,而其於兩種電極排列方法則沒有明顯的基墩存在,並以Wenner排列方法進行五根墩基深度的量測,探測出此五根墩基第三層的平均長度為3.5公尺,再以音波回音法為輔助方法,驗證地電阻影像法探測的結果,探測出第三層的平均長度為3.79公尺,此兩種方法的結果相近,增加地電阻影像法探測基墩深度的可靠性。
英文摘要 The purpose of this study is to use electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) to evaluate of the pier depth. Non-destructive test method is generally used in examination of foundation depth. The method is limited to be used by foundation structure and the soil bearing layer. The ERT method uses electric current to penetrate into soil to obtain the electric potential, apparent resistivity and earth resistivity tomography. This study tries to use the ERT method to determine the depth of pier with the difference of earth resistivity.
Three electrode arrays are used in this study to evaluate the pier depth of Xia-Dan-Shui-Xi bridge. They are Wenner, Schlumberger and the dipole-dipole array. The earth resistance tomography shows high resistivity rectangular region in the position of pillar base in the result of the Wenner array. However, there are not found the obvious phenomenon of existence of foundation piers in the Schlumberger and the dipole-dipole array. Five piers are tested using the Wenner array. The results show that the average depth is 3.5 meters. The result is checked by using sonic echo method, and found the depth is about 3.79 meters. Both results are similar, which will verify the reliability in the evaluation of the pier depth with using the ERT.
論文目次 目錄
摘要 I
Abstract II
誌謝 III
目錄 IV
表目錄 VIII
圖目錄 IX
符號說明 XV

第一章 緒論 1
1.1研究動機 1
1.2研究目的與方法 2
1.3研究內容 2
第二章 相關文獻回顧 3
2.1 起源 3
2.2 電流在土層的流動 3
2.2 模型和反算法的發展 4
2.3 現地的應用 5
第三章 相關理論 7
3.1歐姆定律(Ohm’s Law) 7
3.2 地電阻的量測 8
3.2.1 單點電極 8
3.2.2 雙點電極 9
3.3 地質材料之電阻率特性 10
3.4 均質土層中電流流線與電流密度 11
3.4.1 電流流線 11
3.4.2 電流密度 13
3.5 非均質土層 14
3.5.1 電流折射現象 14
3.5.2 非均質電流流線 15
3.6 地電阻的量測法 17
3.6.1 施測的流程 17
3.6.2 各種電極排列方法的測深參數 19
3.6.3各種電極排列 20
3.6.4 現地電極施測原理 22
3.7 反算原理 24
3.7.1 正算模型-2D Forward modeling 26
3.7.2 正算模擬處理二維的控制方程式 26
3.7.3 反算方法-2D inversed model 27
3.7.4 各種反算法 28
3.8波傳原理 30
第四章 墩基現地試驗 37
4.1 前言 37
4.2現地情況與檢測設備 37
4.2.1試驗地點 37
4.2.2 地電阻儀器與後處理反算軟體 40
4.2.3 音波回音法設備介紹 43
4.3試驗方法與步驟 46
4.3.1地電阻影像法施作 46
4.3.2音波回音法施作 47
4.4試驗分析結果討論 48
4.4.1地電阻影像法試驗結果 48
4.4.1.1不同電極排列方式施測結果 50
4.4.1.2 以Wenner method進行量測 53
4.4.2輔助方法音波回音法試驗結果 66
4.5 現地試驗結整理 71
第五章 結論與建議 73
5.1結論 73
5.2建議 74
參考文獻 75
附錄A 地電阻影像法結果 79
A.1 使用阻尼最小均方反算法結果 80
A.2使用平滑模型反算法結果 83
附錄B 音波回音法探測結果 86
附錄C 地電阻儀器量測操作 89
C.1儀器主要選單 89
C.2介紹儀器各個選項 89
C.3 儀器操作流程(自動量測) 91
C.4 執行檔的建立 94
C.5檔案的傳輸 94
C.6 範例 95
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