進階搜尋


 
系統識別號 U0026-0812200915211207
論文名稱(中文) 以眼球軌跡追蹤系統觀察自行車車架外觀特徵在視覺上的認知研究
論文名稱(英文) Exploring the visual cognition on form features of bicycle frames by using Eye-tracking System
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 工業設計學系碩博士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Industrial Design
學年度 97
學期 2
出版年 98
研究生(中文) 劉正晧
研究生(英文) Cheng-Hao Liu
電子信箱 p3696412@mail.ncku.edu.tw
學號 p3696412
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 95頁
口試委員 指導教授-張育銘
口試委員-陳國祥
口試委員-張建成
中文關鍵字 感性工學  自行車車架  視覺認知  眼球軌跡 
英文關鍵字 Kansei Engineering  Eye-tracking  bicycle frame  visual cognition 
學科別分類
中文摘要 本研究主要是以自行車車架為探討對象,以感性工學為基礎,探討自行車外觀造形特徵對於消費者在視覺認知上的關聯性。現今的消費者對於產品的需求都是以感性為訴求對象。近幾年來感性方面的研究也不斷被提出來探討。對於產品形設計的認知也一直都是以心理學和設計的角度去探討,以往的研究過程大多由消費者對產品進行主觀的評價,然後挑選出產品特徵的元件,最後在和產品的意象做連結。本研究以較客觀的方式來對產品特徵做評價,並以感性工學為基礎,從不同角度來探討,運用成熟的眼球軌跡追蹤技術,找出產品造形特徵和感性語彙的關連性。
本研究實驗分成兩個階段,第一階段在確定實驗樣本和語彙,第二階段進入眼球軌跡追蹤實驗。在眼球軌跡追蹤實驗中分成三個階段,每階段針對一個語彙和8張自行車圖片,受測人數經過篩選共16人。並紀錄視線路徑長度、視覺焦點個數和視線動向位置等等。經由實驗分析結果,其研究結果可以歸納成以下幾點:(1)性別不會影響視線路徑長度和視覺焦點個數。(2)語彙中以休閒的瀏覽自行車車架其視線路徑長度高於獨特的和現代的。(3)視覺動向:一開始都是瀏覽上管和下管,頭管和座管都是最後瀏覽。(4)一開始瀏覽的位置也會是停留最久的位置。最後針對個別外觀特徵影響感性意象語彙作探討,提供設計師設計時參考。
英文摘要 This study mainly discussed relationships between feature of bicycle frames and consumers’visual cognitions on the basis of Kansei Engineering.Today, consumers ask for more sensational need on products.On the other hand, researches of Kansei are constantly discussed in recent years.This study evaluated products in an objective way, based on Kansei Engineering.We can find the relationship between the feature of product and sensitive words by using eye-tracking system.Therefore, understanding the process of consumers’recognition of products’frame and their analysis of visual cognition will much help designers to design a product. In the future,this technique can offer designers as basis to reduce the time for production,and make the feature of the products catch consumers'heart.
This study was divided into two stages,at first stage we confirmed experiment samples and words, and then entered the experiment with the eye-tracking system at second stage.There were three stages in this experiment. There were a word and 8 samples. We recorded the length of scan path,the number of fixation and the distance of scan path,etc.Through the analysis to the data,the results of this research were concluded as follow:(1)The length of scan path and the number of fixation: no significant difference was observed between male and female(2)Longer length of scan path were observed in /Leisure/ image, than /Unique/ image and /Modern/ image.(3)The distance of scan path:People browsed the Top Tube and Down Tube first,and browsed the Head Tube and Seat Tube last.(4)People’s eye contact stayed the longest where they browsed first.Finally, in order to give designers advices in form,the cognitive features of different viewing features were discussed.
論文目次 【本文目錄】
第一章 緒論
1-1研究背景與動機..........................................................................................1
1-2研究目的.......................................................................................................2
1-3研究範圍限制..............................................................................................3
1-4研究架構圖..................................................................................................4

第二章 文獻探討
2-1產品型態特徵之相關研究........................................................................5
2-1-1形態特徵辨識......................................................................................5
2-1-2特徵分析理論在產品設計的研究....................................................7
2-2視覺認知與眼球運動. ...............................................................................8
2-2-1視覺認知...............................................................................................8
2-2-2眼球運動...............................................................................................9
2-2-3眼球運動與其心理意義.....................................................................9
2-2-4眼球注視點及掃視.............................................................................9
2-2-5小結.....................................................................................................10
2-3眼球軌跡追蹤系統技術與視覺感受量測方法分析............................11
2-3-1眼球軌跡追蹤之發展.......................................................................11
2-3-2視線的軌跡及持續時間...................................................................11
2-3-3視點密集度........................................................................................12
2-3-4視覺重心............................................................................................13
2-3-5以眼球軌跡追蹤系統觀察產品造形特徵之相關研究................14
2-4自行車外觀特徵分析...............................................................................16
2-4-1自行車種類........................................................................................16
2-4-2自行車基本構造................................................................................19
2-4-3自行車車架型式分析.......................................................................21
2-4-4自行車車架相關研究.......................................................................23

第三章 研究方法與實驗步驟
3-1研究方法和流程........................................................................................24
3-2實驗架構與進行方式...............................................................................25
3-3實驗步驟及目的.......................................................................................26
3-3-1收集並整理樣本與相關意象語彙..................................................26
3-3-2實驗語彙之挑選調查.......................................................................27
3-3-3實驗樣本挑選調查...........................................................................28
3-3-4建立實驗樣本特徵要項...................................................................30
3-3-5建立樣本3D模型.............................................................................31
3-3-6眼球軌跡追蹤實驗...........................................................................32

第四章 實驗結果分析與討論
4-1視線路徑長度分析...................................................................................37
4-1-1視線路徑長度分析方法...................................................................37
4-1-2實驗樣本的視線路徑長度敘述統計.............................................39
4-1-3語彙差異對視線路徑長度之變異數分析.....................................39
4-1-4性別差異對視線路徑長度之變異數分析.....................................41
4-2視覺焦點分析...........................................................................................42
4-2-1視覺焦點分析方法...........................................................................42
4-2-2實驗樣本的視覺焦點敘述統計......................................................44
4-2-3語彙的差異對視覺焦點的個數之變異數分析.............................44
4-2-4性別的差異對視覺焦點的個數之變異數分析.............................45
4-3視線路徑動向分析...................................................................................46
4-3-1實驗樣本感受評分分析....................................................................46
4-3-2第一點注視點位置............................................................................50
4-3-3停留時間最久的注視點位置...........................................................53
4-3-4第一點注視點位置和停留時間最久的注視點位置....................55
4-3-5觀看順序分析....................................................................................57
4-4自行車車架造形特徵和語彙關係.........................................................62
4-4-1獨特語彙的複迴歸分析...................................................................63
4-4-2休閒語彙的複迴歸分析...................................................................65
4-4-3現代語彙的複迴歸分析...................................................................67

第五章 結論與建議
5-1研究結果....................................................................................................70
5-2研究貢獻....................................................................................................71
5-3研究不足與侷限.......................................................................................71
5-4後續研究建議...........................................................................................72

參考文獻:
中文部分..................................................................................................73
西文部分..................................................................................................74







附錄:

附錄1:樣本挑選問卷
附錄2:語彙差異對視線路徑長度之變異數分析表格
附錄3:性別差異對視線路徑長度之變異數分析表格
附錄4:語彙差異對視覺焦點之變異數分析表格
附錄5:性別差異對視覺焦點之變異數分析表格
附錄6:自行車車架造形特徵和語彙關係分析表格






圖目錄

圖1-1 研究流程概念圖...................................................................................2
圖1-2 研究流程架構圖...................................................................................4
圖2-1 視線軌跡與持續時間圖....................................................................12
圖2-2 視點密度圖.........................................................................................13
圖2-3 加權搜索區域圖.................................................................................14
圖2-4 自行車整車構造圖.............................................................................20
圖3-1 研究流程圖..........................................................................................24
圖3-2 自行車樣本圖......................................................................................26
圖3-3格式統一化之自行車樣本圖.............................................................27
圖3-4自行車意象語彙圖..............................................................................28
圖3-5樣本樹狀集群分析圖..........................................................................29
圖3-6 自行車車架外觀特徵構造圖.............................................................31
圖3-7自行車之3D樣本圖............................................................................31
圖3-8 自行車最終擺放角度圖.....................................................................32
圖3-9 實驗配備與環境之設定.....................................................................33
圖3-10 正式實驗流程圖................................................................................34
圖3-11 正式實驗之實驗樣本圖...................................................................35
圖4-1 瞳孔落點分佈圖..................................................................................38
圖4-2視線路徑圖分佈圖...............................................................................38
圖4-3 瞳孔落點分佈圖..................................................................................43
圖4-4視覺注視點分佈圖...............................................................................43
圖4-5 獨特感的語彙平均數和標準差之散布圖.......................................47
圖4-6 休閒感的語彙平均數和標準差之散布圖.......................................48
圖4-7 現代感的語彙平均數和標準差之散布圖.......................................49
圖4-8 最具獨特感之自行車車架樣本........................................................57
圖4-9 最具休閒感之自行車車架樣本........................................................59
圖4-10 最具現代感之自行車車架樣本......................................................61
圖4-11 最具獨特感之自行車樣本..............................................................64
圖4-12 最不具獨特感之自行車樣本..........................................................65
圖4-13 最具休閒感之自行車樣本..............................................................67
圖4-14 最不具休閒感之自行車樣本..........................................................67
圖4-15 最具現代感之自行車樣本..............................................................69
圖4-16 最不具現代感之自行車樣本..........................................................69



表目錄

表2-1 自行車之分類表................................................................................17
表2-2 自行車系統構造分類表....................................................................19
表2-3車架外型一覽......................................................................................22
表3-1 樣本於軸像上分群之歐幾里得距離計算表..................................30
表4-1 視線路徑長度的平均數和標準差...................................................39
表4-2 語彙間對視線路徑長度差異性檢定...............................................40
表4-3 語彙間對視線路徑長度事後多重檢定............................................40
表4-4 性別差異對視線路徑長度之差異性檢定......................................41
表4-5 獨特語彙的樣本5視線路徑長度之性別差異性檢定.................41
表4-6 現代語彙的樣本7視線路徑長度之性別差異性檢定.................42
表4-7 視覺焦點的平均數和標準差............................................................44
表4-8 語彙對視覺基點個數之差異性檢定...............................................45
表4-9性別的差異對視覺焦點的個數之差異性檢定...............................45
表4-10 休閒語彙的樣本4之差異性檢定.................................................46
表4-11 獨特語彙之第一注視點停留位置表.............................................50
表4-12 休閒語彙之第一注視點停留位置表.............................................51
表4-13 現代語彙之第一注視點停留位置表.............................................52
表4-14 獨特語彙之停留時間最久的注視點位置表................................53
表4-15 休閒語彙之停留時間最久的注視點位置表................................54
表4-16 現代語彙之停留時間最久的注視點位置表................................55
表4-17 獨特語彙之第一點和停留最久注視點位置比較表...................56
表4-18 休閒語彙之第一點和停留最久注視點位置比較表...................56
表4-19 現代語彙之第一點和停留最久注視點位置比較表...................56
表4-20 獨特語彙之觀看自行車車架順序圖............................................58
表4-21 休閒語彙之觀看自行車車架順序圖.............................................59
表4-22 現代語彙之觀看自行車車架順序圖.............................................61
表4-23 獨特語彙相關係數與決定系數表.................................................63
表4-24 獨特語彙變數系數對應表..............................................................63
表4-25 休閒語彙相關係數與決定系數表.................................................65
表4-26 休閒語彙變數系數對應表..............................................................66
表4-27 現代語彙相關係數與決定系數表.................................................68
表4-28 現代語彙變數系數對應表..............................................................68
參考文獻 參考文獻:
(1)中文部份:
1 日本自轉車產業振興協會,1977,自轉車實用便覽。東京。
2 今日中英雜誌社,台灣自行車導覽(TBG),2001,台北。
3 王宗興,2002,自行車車架造型特徵對意象認知影響之研究,國立成功大學工業設計研究所碩士論文。
4 台灣經濟研究院,1992,自行車及其零組件業發展策略研究報告。
5 田曉真,1997,車架造型分類研究,自行車工業研究發展中心。
6 周君瑞,2001,複合感性意象之塑造—以造形特徵為基礎,國立成功大學工業設計研究所碩士論文。
7 陳鴻源,2001,汽車輪廓型態意象與區分特徵之關係,國立成功大學工業設計研究所碩士論文。
8 陳嘉維,2004,自行車造形喜好對騎乘心理感受影響之研究,朝陽科技大學設計研究所。
9 陳俊智,1994,“中西座椅設計風格認知之探討“,工業設計,87 期,23 卷。
10 陳晉玄,2003,消費者對產品識別之視覺認知研究―以汽車造形為例,國立台北科技大學創新設計研究所碩士論文。
11 張華城,2000,應用類神經網路模式於產品造形特徵辨識之研究,國立成功大學工業設計研究所碩士論文。
12 張婉玲,2002,運用瞳孔追蹤系統分析網頁多重瀏覽問題,國立成功大學工業設計研究所碩士論文。
13 張信賢,2006,汽車特徵意象及其在視覺上的認知研究,國立成功大學工業設計研究所碩士論文。
14 謝政峰,2002,產品造形屬性特徵對使用者感官意象的影響-以行動電話為例,國立雲林科技大學工業設計研究所碩士論文。


(2)西文部份:
1. Alastair MacFadden, Lorin Elias, and Deborah Saucier, 2003, “Males and females scan maps similarly, but give directions differently”, Brain and Cognition, Vol53, pp.297–300.
2. Baxter, M., 1995. Product Design Practical Methods for the SystematicDevelopment of New Products, Cgapman & Hall, London.
3. Bichot, N. P. and Schall, J. D., 1999, “Saccade target selection in macaque during feature and conjunction search”, Neuroscience, Vol.16, pp.81–89.
4. BICYCLE CATALOG , 2001 ,JAPAN Cycle Press Corp.
5. Chiu-Shui Chan, 2000. Can style be measured ? , Design Studies Vol21,No3, May, p.277~p291.
6. Dixon Cleveland, and Nancy Cleveland, 1992, “Eyegaze Eyetracking System”,
http://www.eyegaze.com/doc/imagina.htm.
7. Goldberg J. H., Kotval X. P., 1998. Computer ` evaluation using eye movements: methods and constructs. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics 24,p.631-645.
8. G.Underwood, 1998. Eye Guidance in Reading and Scene Perception. North-Holland.
9. Henderson, J.M. , & Hollingworth, A. , 1998,Eye movement during scene viewing: An overview. In Eye Guidance in Reading and Scene Perception, G.Underwood, Ed. Elsevier Science Ltd. ,269-293.
10. Hooge, I. T. C. and Erkelens, C. J., 1999, “Peripheral vision and oculomotor control during visual search”. Vision Research, Vol.39, pp.1567–1575.
11. Loftus, G. R., Mackworth, N. H. , 1978. Cognitive determinants of fixation location during picture viewing. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 4.
12. Mackworth, N.H., 1976. Stimulus density limits the useful "eld of view. In: Monty, R.A., Senders, J.W. (Eds.), Eye Movements and sychological Processes. Erlbaum,Hillsdale, NJ.
13. Norton, D., Stark, L, 1971, Scanpaths in saccadic eyemovements during pattern perception, Science, 308-311.
14. O’Sullivan, J. Dingliana, G. Bradshaw, A. McNamara, 2001, “Eye-tracking for interactive computer graphics”, Conference Program and Abstract from the 11th
European Conference on Eye Movements, Turku, Finland, pp.45.
15. Parlhurst, E. Culurciello, E. Niebur, 2000, “Evaluating variable resolution displays with visual search: task performance and eye movements”, Proceedings
of the Eye Tracking Research and Applications Symposium, Palm Beach Gardens, FL, USA, November 6-8, pp.105-109.
16. Ravindra S. Goonetilleke, W. C. Lau and Heloisa M. Shih, 2002, “Visual search strategies and eye movements when searching Chinese character screens”, Huaman-Computer Studies, Vol.57, pp.447-468.
17. Rayner, K. , 1992, Eye Movement and Visual Cognition Scene Perception and Reading”,Springer-Verlag New York Inc.
18. Rayner, K. , 1998, Eye movements in reading and information processing: 20 years of research. Psychological Bulletin, 124(3), pp.372-422.
19. Schall, J. D. and Thompson, K. G., 1999, “ Neural selection and control of visually guided eye movements”. Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 22, pp.241–259.
20. Selfridge,O.G.,& Neisser, U., 1963, Pattern recognition by machine., Computers and Thought. New York: McGraw-Hill.
21. Simon P. Liversedge and John M. Findlay, 2000, “Saccadic eye movements and cognition, Trends in Cognitive Sciences”, Vol. 4, No.1, pp.6-14.
22. Velichkovsky, 1995, Communicating attention: gaze position transfer in cooperative problem solving, Pragmatics and Cognition, Vol.3, pp.199-222.
23. Yang, Guang-Zhong, Dempere-Marco, Laura; Hu, Xiao-Peng; Rowe, Anthony, 2002, “Visual search: psychophysical models and practical applications”, Image
and Vision Computing, Vol.20, pp. 291-305.
24. Zelinsky, G. J., 1996, “Using eye saccades to assess the selectivity of search movements”, Vision Research,
36, pp.2177–2187.
論文全文使用權限
  • 同意授權校內瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,於2011-07-23起公開。
  • 同意授權校外瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,於2011-07-23起公開。


  • 如您有疑問,請聯絡圖書館
    聯絡電話:(06)2757575#65773
    聯絡E-mail:etds@email.ncku.edu.tw