||The Effects of Cultural Intelligence on Adaptive Performance
||Department of Business Administration (on the job class)
面對國際經濟環境的快速改變及競爭, 組織常藉由國際併購及合併達更好績效, 跨國企業越來越多,跨國際跨文化的交流不論在日常生活上或工作上也非常頻繁。如何在不同的文化或環境中突顯競爭能力及優勢,也日益受到重視。 國際企業也越來越重視及了解什麼樣的原素可以讓員工的績效可以在跨文化中展現競爭力。
如同情緒智商(EQ)及IQ, 兩者都是工作或社交活動成功的重要原素。 現今另一受屬目的文化智慧 (CQ), 解釋在面對不同文化的衝擊或改變時的能力, 被視為更為進級的社交智慧(SI), 在不同文化的環境下, 不同的法律、 風俗習慣能成功展現績效的能力。 由於目前的社會或經濟環境變化速度很快, 對於工作能力的要求已經不是滿足於達成交辦的任務, 而是需要可以因應環境或文化的改變, 即時提昇知識且改變行為或策略, 這樣的能力被稱為適應性績效。
本研究主要探討文化智慧(CQ)是否可以對適應性績效(adaptive performance)產生影響及供獻,再者也藉由情緒智商(EQ)及個性特的不同及調節, 檢視文化智慧對適應性績效的影響。
本研究調查對象主要來自不同產業的跨國企業員工, 填寫紙本問卷的方式。 研究發現後設認知CQ (metacognitive CQ), 動機CQ (motivational CQ), EQ,及個性特徵都直接對適應性績效產生顯著影響,並且發現EQ較高的人, 動機CQ若較高, 則適應性績效明顯較高。雖然個性特徵在本研究並無顯著影響行為CQ (behavioral CQ)對適應行績效的影響,但個性本身對適應性績效有直接相關, 也代表個性會影響個人適應性績效表現。 管理者藉此可以評估藉由仔細選才或適當的訓練的方式,在需要高度適應性環境或工作特質上,任用具高CQ 的員工以符合多變複雜環境的需求。
The ability to perform effectively in different cultures and environments is increasingly being recognized as important. (Ilgen & Pulakos, 1999; Noe & Ford, 1992). It is vital to understand why some individuals function more effectively than others in culturally diverse situations. Just as emotional intelligence (EQ) complements cognitive intelligence (IQ), cultural intelligence (CQ) is another complementary form of intelligence that can explain variability in coping with diversity and functioning in new cultural settings. The main goal of this study is to determine how CQ, the ability to react properly in an intercultural environment (Earley & Ang, 2003), affect or contribute to adaptive performance.
Participants were selected from various industrial multinational organizations to complete self-rating paper-based questionnaire items including CQ, EQ, personality and adaptive performance constructs. Results suggested that metacognitive CQ, motivational CQ, EQ and personality are significantly related to adaptive performance. EQ has shown to be successfully moderate the relationship stronger between motivational CQ and adaptive performance, but the moderating effect of personality on relationship between behavioral CQ and adaptive performance was not found significant. It is important that managers evaluate ways in which the CQ of employees can either be acquired (by careful selection) or developed (by appropriate training), and select appropriate individuals for jobs where require high adaptation capability especially in cultural diversity environment.
LIST OF TABLES VI
LIST OF FIGURES VII
CHAPTER ONE 1
1.1 Research Background and Motivation 1
1.2 Research Objectives 2
1.3 Research Framework 3
1.4 Research Procedure 4
CHAPTER TWO 6
LITERATURE REVIEW AND HYPOTHESES DEVELOPMENT 6
2.1 Definition of Theory and Research Constructs 6
2.1.1 Cultural Intelligence (CQ) 6
2.1.2 Emotional Intelligence 10
2.1.3 Personality 10
2.1.4 Adaptive Performance 13
2.2 HYPOTHESIS DEVELOPMENT 15
2.2.1 Cultural Intelligence and Adaptive Performance 15
2.2.2 The Moderating Role of Emotional Intelligence 20
2.2.3 The Moderating Role of Personality 21
CHAPTER THREE RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY 26
3.1 Research Model 26
3.2 Construct Measurement 27
3.2.1 Cultural Intelligence 28
3.2.2 Adaptive Performance 30
3.2.3 Personality 33
3.2.4 Emotional Intelligence 34
3.3 Sample and Procedures 35
3.4 Data Analysis Procedure 35
3.4.1Descriptive Statistic Analysis 36
3.4.2 Interrelationships among Research Constructs 36
CHAPTER FOUR RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS 38
4.1 Descriptive Analysis 38
4.1.1 Data Collection 38
4.1.2 Characteristics of Respondents 39
4.1.3 Reliability Test 40
4.1.4 Confirmatory Factor Analysis 41
4.2 Hypotheses Results 42
4.2.1 Descriptive Statistics and Correlations 42
CHAPTER FIVE CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS 50
5.1 Research Conclusions 50
5.2 Managerial Implications 51
APPENDIX I 61
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