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系統識別號 U0026-0812200915183184
論文名稱(中文) 北太平洋地區操作雙發動機展延航程
論文名稱(英文) ETOPS flight operation in North Pacific area
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 航空太空工程學系專班
系所名稱(英) Department of Aeronautics & Astronautics (on the job class)
學年度 97
學期 2
出版年 98
研究生(中文) 林宏洲
研究生(英文) Hung-chou Lin
電子信箱 eeggaatt@hotmail.com
學號 p4796104
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
論文頁數 149頁
口試委員 指導教授-林清一
口試委員-尤芳忞
口試委員-臧瑞傳
中文關鍵字 太平洋航跡組織系統  空中熄火  波音777  北太平洋航線  雙發動機展延航程 
英文關鍵字 PACOTS  IFSD  Boeing 777  NOPAC  ETOPS 
學科別分類
中文摘要 將近24年前,全世界大部份的航空公司成功的導入雙發動機展延航程(ETOPS)使用於商業性的飛機當中,即使是雙發動飛機在全球的ETOPS的航路上被廣泛的使用,特別是在北大西洋的交通市場當中具有重大的支配能力。近年來,某些位於美國與亞洲的航空業者,也開始表現出對於使用雙發動飛機於北太平洋市場的高度興趣,許多的航空業者也開始計劃導入波音777機型。藉由國與國之間的航空服務業的協定、開放天空的政策與雙發動機飛機的經濟效益將可增加北美與亞洲之間點對點的航線。
基於ETOPS操作的效率,本文針對航空公司操作於北太平洋當中,使用不同的機型及飛航計劃等航務規劃,將會導致到不同的載重與成本,因此將可決定節省燃油與飛行成本的成效。本研究以長榮航空公司的B777-300ER與B747-400 執行北太平洋航線為例,做詳細的印證與討論所提的觀點。
英文摘要 For nearly 24 years, operators around the world have successfully conducted extended-range twin-engine operations (ETOPS) with commercial airplanes.
Even though twinjets are used globally on ETOPS routes, they dominate traffic in the North Atlantic market in particular. Recently, some U.S. and Asian operators have shown increased interest in using twinjets in the North Pacific market, where several operators plan to introduce the 777. Changes in air service agreements between nations, open-skies policies, and the availability of
economically efficient twinjets may open additional point-to-point operations between cities in North America and Asia.
Base on the ETOPS efficient, this thesis tries to aim at the airlines operation in the North Pacific, different aircraft models and overall flight plan to result in
different payload and cost. Therefore decisions can be made on the effort of fuel saving and flight operation cost. This thesis adopts EVA B777-300ER and B747-400 in NOPAC flights to verify and discuss the proposed view points.
論文目次 CHINESE ABSTRACT................................................ IV
ABSTRACT..................................................V
CONTENTS................................................ VI
LIST OF FIGURES..........................................X
LIST OF TABLES ........................................ XIV
GENERAL DEFINITIONS AND ACRONYMS....................... XVI
CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION..............................................1
1.1 Motivation ...........................................1
1.2 Objective ............................................4
1.3 Literature Survey ...................................................4
1.4 Thesis Outline........................................5
CHAPTER II
ETOPS HISTORY ..................................................7
2.1 Background of ETOPS ..................................7
2.2 Approved ETOPS Diversion Time Options................12
2.3 ETOPS Approvals......................................27
2.4 Aircraft ETOPS Type Design Approval..................32
2.5 ETOPS Operational Approval...........................41
2.6 ETOPS Maintenance Requirements.......................43
2.7 ETOPS Capability Statement...........................46
CHAPTER III
ETOPS ACROSS THE NORTH PACIFIC ..........................47
3.1 Overview.............................................47
3.2 Transpacific Evolution—pre-WWII.....................48
3.3 Transpacific Evolution—post-WWII....................49
3.4 The Jet Age and Nonstop Pacific Services.............51
3.5 The 747—Workhorse of the Pacific................... 52
3.6 Twins Take the Lead in the Pacific...................53
3.7 The 777—Designed for Pacific ETOPS..................55
3.8 Summary of this Chapter..............................56
CHAPTER IV
OPERATIONAL PROGRAM..................................................57
4.1 Flight Operations ETOPS Requirements.................57
4.2 Definition - Equal Time Points.......................59
4.3 ETOPS fuel requirements..............................69
4.4 Dispatch weather minima .............................88
4.5 ETOPS Alternate Airport Weather Forecast.............91
4.6 Enroute Alternate Airports...........................93
4.7 Airport Rescue and Fire Fighting Services (RFFS)....100
4.8 Dispatching and flight control..................... 104
4.9 Minimum Equipment List (MEL)........................107
4.10 Flight crew procedures.............................110
CHAPTER V
PERFORMANCE EVALUATIONS.................................115
5.1 Introduction........................................115
5.2 Boeing 777-300ER Introduction.......................116
5.3 Boeing 747-400 Introduction.........................117
5.4 Flight Review.......................................119
5.5 Fuel and Unit Cost comparison for different model...123
5.6 Five ETOPS maintenance cost areas...................127
5.7 ETOPS and aviation safety...........................130
5.8 Summary of this Chapter.............................136
CHAPTER VI
CONCLUSIONS ............................................137
6.1 Three areas of ETOPS economic benefits..............138
6.2 Specific ETOPS economic benefits....................142
6.3 Safety Improvement.............................................145
REFERENCES..............................................146
VITA....................................................147
參考文獻 [1] Boeing, “777-300/-300ER Airplane Flight Manual” Dec. 29th.2008,Revision 19.
[2] Boeing, “Quick Reference Handbook” Jun. 13th.2005, Revision 19.
[3] Boeing, “FLIGHT PLANNING AND PERFORMANCE MANUAL” Dec.
19th.2008, Revision 04.
[4] Boeing, “777 Flight Crew Training Manual” Oct. 31th.2008, Revision 7.
[5] Airbus, “Getting to Grips with ETOPS”, October 1998, Issue V.
[6] Boeing, “ETOPS Explained”, Feb. 15th.2008.
[7] Boeing, “ETOPS GUIDE VOLUME III” Mar. 06th.2009, Revision 2.
[8] Boeing, “Model 777 ETOPS Configuration, Maintenance, and Procedures”Mar .24th.2009, Revision N.
[9] Boeing, “ETOPS Quarterly Report for fourth quarter 2008”, Dec. 17th.2008.
[10] Boeing, “ETOPS FLIGHT CREW GUIDE”, Dec. 10th.1998.
[11] BOEING COMMERCIAL AIRPLANE GROUP, “Model 777 ETOPS
Configuration, Maintenance, and Procedures”, 2000, Revision M.
[12] BOEING AERO 16, “ETOPS EXPANSION IN THE NORTH PACIFIC
MARKET”, 2007.
[13] Website of National Weather Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, USA, available on web page: http://www.nws.noaa.gov.
[14] BOEING AERO QUARTERLY, “The New ETOPS Rule”, QTR_02.2007.
[15] Wikipedia Encyclopedia, “Great Circle”, available on web page: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_circle.
[16] EVA Airways,“BR-15 / 16 Computer Flight Plan", Mar.30th. 2009.
[17] Civil Aeronautics Administration, “Aircraft / Aircraft Certification /Airworthiness Inspector’s Handbook, Order 3500/8210” Available on website: http://www.caa.gov.tw/en/content/index01.asp?sno=840
[18] Federal Aviation Administration “Advisory Circular No: 120-42BExtended Operations (ETOPS and Polar Operations)”, Jun.13th.2008.
[19] Federal Aviation Administration “Advisory Circular No: 135-42- Extended Operations (ETOPS) Operations in the North Polar Area”, Jun.10th.2008.
[20] Federal Aviation Administration “14 CFR Parts 1, 21, 25, 33, 121, and 135 Extended Operations (ETOPS) of Multi-Engine Airplanes; Final Rule”,Jan.16th.2007.
[21] European Aviation Safety Agency “AMC 20-6 Extended Range Operation with Two-Engine Aeroplanes ETOPS Certification and Operation”, 2008.
[22] EVA Airways, “Flight Operations Manual”, 2007, Revision 34.
[23] EVA Airways, “ETOPS Manual”, 2008, Revision 9.
[24] EVA Airways, “General Maintenance Manual”, 2008, Revision 14.
[25] EVA Airways, “B777 MEL & CDL”, May.17th.2009, Revision 04.
[26] EVA Airways, “777-35EER Flight Crew Operations Manual”, 2005,Revision 13.
[27] EVA Airways, “B777 Maintenance Requirement Manual”, Jul. 22th.2008,Revision H.
[28] EVA Airways, “B747-400 Maintenance Requirement Manual”, Jul.16th.2008, Revision L.
[29] C. E. Padilla, “Optimizing Jet Transport Efficiency: Performance,Operations, and Economics”, Edition 1, July 1st, 1996.
[30] Boeing, “Long-Range Twins Flying Into the Future”, AUG, 1998.
[31] Boeing, “ETOPS Maintenance Briefing”, MAY.08, 2007.
[32] Boeing, “Extended Operations Raising the Standard”, AUG, 2002.
[33] Photo search engine on web page: http://www.airliners.net/
[34] Boeing Commercial Aircraft on web page: http://www.boeing.com/
[35] NASA Ames Research Center, “Air Traffic Control Seminar”, JUL.05,2006.
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