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系統識別號 U0026-0812200915163418
論文名稱(中文) 航空安全人為因素模式與風險因子評估-以飛航駕駛員及維修人員為例
論文名稱(英文) A Human Factors Model for Evaluating Aviation Safety Risk Factors: An Empirical Study of Airline Pilots and Aircraft Maintenance Technicians
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 交通管理學系碩博士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Transportation & Communication Management Science
學年度 97
學期 2
出版年 98
研究生(中文) 王穎駿
研究生(英文) Ying-chun Wang
學號 r5891106
學位類別 博士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 203頁
口試委員 口試委員-鄭永祥
召集委員-李雲寧
口試委員-陳昭宏
口試委員-葉中興
口試委員-黃國平
指導教授-張有恆
中文關鍵字 飛航駕駛員  飛航安全  SHELL模式  風險因子  人為因素  飛機維修人員 
英文關鍵字 Human Factors  Risk Factors  Aircraft Maintenance Technicians  Aviation Safety  Airline's Pilots  SHELL Model 
學科別分類
中文摘要 飛航安全是民航運輸業一項長期而艱巨的重要任務。飛航駕駛員與飛機維修人員位居其中重要環節,一旦發生人為疏失,將可能造成難以彌補的嚴重後果。
本研究以人為因素SHELL模式為基礎,結合相關文獻,加上人與組織互動的介面,提出一個適合航空公司飛航駕駛員及飛機維修人員人為因素應用之分類架構-SHELLO模式。SHELLO模式由SHELL模式原本的核心能力及五個互動構面(人與軟體、人與硬體、人與環境、人與人、人與組織)結合而成,每個構面又各自發展出許多相對應的風險因子。
研究方法採用專家問卷方式,調查資深飛航駕駛員及飛機維修人員的專業意見。在飛航駕駛員方面,以模糊德菲法(Fuzzy Delphi Method)篩選出其對SHELLO模式各構面下之飛航安全人為風險因子,再經模糊層級分析(Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process, FAHP)分析全體專家對於各構面風險因子之相對重要性。最後,根據民航主管機關及航空公司高階主管對風險因子改善可行性的調查,綜合提出四種優先順序及改善建議之組合。在維修人員方面,則以平均數分析資深維修人員對於模式中構面的重要性及風險因子排序,並提供改善建議。
研究發現,SHELLO模式所建立的駕駛員與組織互動構面在全體專家排序中列為第二重要,而維修人員與組織互動構面在全體專家排序中列為第三,顯示本研究所發展的SHELLO模式具有相當的實用性與有效性。另外,本研究所得出的模式重要構面及重要之風險因子排序,可供航空業在資源有限的情況下,聚焦及管理重要之風險因子。
英文摘要 This study proposed a modified human factors SHELL model and applied quantitative analysis to identify the primary risk factors influencing airline pilots and aircraft maintenance technicians (AMTs). An empirical study of Taiwan’s airlines and civil aviation authority was conducted to determine these factors and to illustrate how the approach integrates experts’ opinions about the relative importance and achievability of four risk management strategies for airline pilots. We also conducted the other empirical study of Taiwan’s airlines to determine these risk factors and to illustrate how a quantifiable evaluation approach integrates experts’ opinions about the relative importance of risk factors for AMTs. To help experts weigh such strategies subjectively, a fuzzy Delphi method and Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchical Process (FAHP) were used to deal with the preliminary and primary risk factors for airline pilots, and the mean score was used to deal with primary risk factors for AMTs. The results showed that the modified human factors model is both strategically effective and practically acceptable. The top ten most significant risk factors for airline pilots were found in the dimensions of liveware, organization and hardware. “AMTs and Organization” ranks third in the middle of the six dimensions. Analyzing and ranking the overall influential risk factors for pilots and AMTs, combined with effective risk management strategies, may help airlines better understand the major operational and managerial weaknesses in order to further improve flight and maintenance operations.
論文目次 第一章 緒論…………………………………………………………1
1.1 研究動機……………………………………………………………1
1.2 研究目的……………………………………………………………3
1.3 研究範圍與限制……………………………………………………5
1.4 論文架構與內容……………………………………………………5
第二章 文獻回顧……………………………………………………7
2.1 飛航安全人為因素理論……………………………………………7
2.1.1 錯誤鍊法則……………………………………………………7
2.1.2 骨牌效應原理…………………………………………………9
2.1.3 乳酪理論………………………………………………………10
2.1.4 SHEL模式與SHELL模式………………………………………14
2.1.5 MOTH模式………………………………………………………18
2.1.6 人為失誤理論模式……………………………………………19
2.1.6.1 人為疏失模式.………………………………………………20
2.1.6.2 威脅與失誤管理模式………………………………………22
2.1.6.3 金字塔模式…………………………………………………24
2.2 人為風險因子……………………………………………………27
2.2.1 IATA航空器失事肇因分類……………………………………27
2.2.2 波音公司失事肇因分類………………………………………31
2.2.3 人為因素分析與分類系統……………………………………33
2.2.4 國際民用航空組織人為因素訓練手冊………………………37
2.2.5 組織與安全管理………………………………………………38
2.3 小結………………………………………………………………39
第三章 模式構建……………………………………………………41
3.1 本研究建構及應用之模式………………………………………41
3.2 飛航駕駛員及飛機維修人員人為風險因子之選取……………45
第四章 研究方法……………………………………………………71
4.1 模糊理論…………………………………………………………72
4.2 德菲法……………………………………………………………72
4.3 模糊德菲法………………………………………………………73
4.4 模糊層級分析法…………………………………………………75
4.4.1層級分析法………………………………………………………75
4.4.2 模糊層級分析法………………………………………………78
4.5 改善可行性評估值計算…………………………………………81
第五章 實證分析I-飛航駕駛員……………………………………83
5.1 第一階段飛航駕駛員人為風險因子指標之篩選………………83
5.2 第二階段問卷與模糊層級分析法結果分析……………………91
5.2.1 一致性檢定……………………………………………………91
5.2.2 相對重要性評估值與排序……………………………………91
5.2.3 構面風險因子相對重要性評估值總排序……………………101
5.3 飛航駕駛員人為風險因子改善可行性分析……………………105
5.3.1 可行性評估值計算……………………………………………105
5.3.2 可行性評估值排序分析………………………………………107
5.4 改善飛航駕駛員人為風險優先順序之決定……………………109
5.4.1 相對重要性評估值與可行性評估值之整合…………………109
5.4.2 飛航駕駛員人為風險因子改善策略…………………………110
第六章 實證分析II -飛機維修人員……………………………115
6.1 第一階段問卷設計、發放及分析………………………………115
6.2 第二階段問卷分析………………………………………………121
6.2.1 問卷設計、調查與回收………………………………………121
6.2.2 構面間及構面風險因子相對重要性評估值計算……………121
6.2.3 構面間及構面風險因子相對重要性評估值排序分析………127
6.3 小結………………………………………………………………132
第七章 結論與建議………………………………………………135
7.1 結論………………………………………………………………135
7.2 主要創新與貢獻…………………………………………………138
7.3 實務管理意涵……………………………………………………138
7.4 未來研究建議……………………………………………………139
參考文獻………………………………………………………………141
附錄……………………………………………………………………149
附錄一 飛航駕駛員第一階段問卷…………………………………149
附錄二 飛航駕駛員第二階段問卷-模糊層級分析…………………165
附錄三 飛航駕駛員第三階段問卷…………………………………175
附錄四 飛機維修人員第一階段問卷………………………………179
附錄五 飛機維修人員問卷-口語綜合評判函數分析………………185
附錄六 ICAO人為因素調查表………………………………………189
附錄七 ICAO人為因素內容…………………………………………193
作者簡歷………………………………………………………………197
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