進階搜尋


 
系統識別號 U0026-0812200915155560
論文名稱(中文) 三度空間呈現複雜度對目標搜獲作業行為之影響
論文名稱(英文) Effects of 3-D display complexity on target acquisition performance
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 認知科學研究所
系所名稱(英) Institute of Cognitive Science
學年度 97
學期 2
出版年 98
研究生(中文) 吳盈
研究生(英文) Ying Wu
電子信箱 u7696403@mail.ncku.edu.tw
學號 u7696403
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 82頁
口試委員 口試委員-蕭富仁
口試委員-許清芳
指導教授-廖敏如
中文關鍵字 3-D 界面  複雜性  費茨法則  目標搜獲作業 
英文關鍵字 perceptual complexity  Fitts’ law  target acquisition  3-D display 
學科別分類
中文摘要 本研究利用知覺複雜度來探討3-D環境下目標搜獲作業的表現,並且應用費茨法則探討在3-D環境下對移動行為的解釋程度。實驗一操弄干擾球數量,共分成三種不同干擾球數情況:1、3、7個。實驗二操弄干擾球顏色種類,共分為三種不同干擾球顏色種類:2、4、7種。實驗三操弄背景遮蔽程度,共分為三種不同遮蔽程度:無背景、中程度遮蔽、高程度遮蔽。研究結果顯示:不同干擾球數量及不同顏色種類主要影響到目標搜獲作業的反應時間。干擾球數增加至7個時的反應時間顯著長於其他情況,而顏色種類增加到4及7種時的反應時間長於只有2種顏色。整體研究結果顯示,作業困難度對移動時間有顯著的影響,當困難度增加移動時間也隨之增加。另外,在三度空間中,方向也會影響到移動時間。上後方的移動時間最長、下後方與上前方次之、下前方的移動時間最短。最後,當進行費茨法則的檢驗時發現,修正版的費茨法則對於3-D環境下移動時間與困難度之間的線性關係的解釋力較高,而此線性關係不會受到知覺複雜度的影響。
英文摘要 The current study investigates how perceptual complexity influences the target acquisition performance in 3-D display, and the application of Fitts’ law in 3-D environment. The total number of surrounding distracter spheres (1, 3, & 7), the variety of sphere colors (2, 4, & 7), and the degree of background clutters (non-clutter, mid, high) on the display were manipulated in Experiment 1, 2 and 3, respectively. The results show that the reaction time for the display with seven distracter spheres was significantly greater than that with three and one distracter spheres, and the reaction time for the display with seven and four colors of spheres was significantly greater than that with two colors. The movement time was mainly influenced by task difficulty and movement direction. The movement time increased along with the task difficulty and the different movement direction. The depth and the upper direction together have significantly influence on movement time. Modified Fitts’ law explains well in the linear relation between movement time and index of difficulty. The perceptual complexity has no impact on this linear relationship.
論文目次 摘要 I
ABSTRACT II
致謝 III
目錄 IV
表目錄 V
圖目錄 VI
緒論 1
3-D介面(3-D DISPLAY) 1
複雜度(COMPLEXITY) 4
費茨法則(FITTS’ LAW) 6
研究目的與實驗設計 9
實驗一 12
方法 12
結果 16
結論 32
實驗二 34
方法 34
結果 36
結論 52
實驗三 54
方法 54
結果 57
結論 69
結果與討論 70
參考文獻 75
參考文獻 Accot, J., & Zhai, S. (2003). Refining Fitts' law models for bivariate pointing. In Proceedings of CHI'03 (pp. 193-200). New York : Association for Computing Machinery.

Bennett, K. B., Toms, M. L., & Woods, D. D. (1993). Emergent features and graphical elements: Designing more effective configural displays. Human Factors: The Journal of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, 35(1), 71-97.

Boyer, B. S., & Wickens, C. D. (1994). 3-D Weather Displays for Aircraft Cockpits (Technical Report No. ARL-94-11/NASA-94-4). Savoy, IL: Aviation Research Laboratory.

Burns, C. M. (2000). Putting it all together: Improving display integration in ecological displays. Human Factors, 42(2), 226.

Card, S. K., English, W. K., & Burr, B. J. (1978). Evaluation of Mouse, Rate-Controlled Isometric Joystick, Step Keys, and Text Keys for Text Selection on a CRT. Ergonomics, 21(8), 601-613.

Carswell, C. (1992). Choosing specifiers: An evaluation of the basic tasks model of graphical perception. Human Factors: The Journal of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, 34(5), 535-554.

Chung, K. M., & So, R. H. (1999). Effects of hand movement lags on discrete manual control task performance in virtual environments. In Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 43rd Annual Meeting (pp. 1210-1213). Santa Monica, CA: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

Cummings, M. L., & Tsonis, C. (2005). Deconstructing complexity in air traffic control. In Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonimics Society 49th Annual Meeting. Orlando, Florida.

Ellis, S., McGreevy, M., & Hitchcock, R. (1987). Perspective traffic display format and airline pilot traffic avoidance. Human Factors, 29(4), 371-382.

Fitts, P. M. (1954). The information capacity of the human motor system in controlling the amplitude of movement. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 47, 381-391.

Gan, K. C., & Hoffmann, E. R. (1988). Geometrical conditions for ballistic and visually controlled movements. Ergonomics, 31(5), 829-839.

Gaunt, P. N., & Gaunt, W. A. (1978). Three dimensional reconstruction in biology. Kent, UK: Pitman Medical.

Gillam, B. (1995). The perception of spatial layout from static optical information. In W. Epstein & S. Rogers (Eds.), Perception of space and motion (2nd ed., pp. 23-67). San Diego: Academic.

Graham, E. D., & MacKenzie, C. L. (1996). Physical versus virtual pointing. In Proceedings of CHI'96 (pp. 292-299). New York: Association for Computing Machinery.

Grossman, T., & Balakrishnan, R. (2004). Pointing at trivariate targets in 3D environments. In Proceedings of CHI'04 (pp. 447-454). New York : Association for Computing Machinery.

Haskell, I. D., & Wickens, C. D. (1993). Two-and three-dimensional displays for aviation: A theoretical and empirical comparison. The International Journal of Aviation Psychology, 3(2), 87-109.

Hick, W. E. (1952). On the rate of gain of information. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 4(1), 11-26.

Hickox, J. C., & Wickens, C. D. (1999). Effects of elevation angle disparity, complexity, and feature type on relating out-of-cockpit field of view to an electronic cartographic map. JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY APPLIED, 5, 284-301.

Hollands, J. G., Pierce, B. J., & Magee, L. E. (1998). Displaying information in two and three dimensions. International Journal of Cognitive Ergonomics, 2(4), 307-320.

Hyman, R. (1953). Stimulus information as a determinant of reaction time. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 45(3), 188-196.

Jagacinski, R. J., Repperger, D. W., Moran, M. S., Ward, S. L., & Glass, B. (1980). Fitts' Law and the microstructure of rapid discrete movements. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 6(2), 309-320.

Liao, M. J., & Johnson, W. W. (2004). Characterizing the Effects of Droplines on Target Acquisition Performance on a 3-D Perspective Display. Human Factors, 46, 476-496.

Liu, Y., Zhang, X., & Chaffin, D. (1997). Perception and visualization of human posture information for computer-aided ergonomic analysis. Ergonomics, 40(8), 818-833.

MacKenzie, C. L., & Graham, E. D. (1997). Separating A and W effects: Pointing to targets on computer displays. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 20(02), 316-318.

MacKenzie, I. S. (1992). Fitts'Law as a Research and Design Tool in Human-Computer Interaction. Human-Computer Interaction, 7(1), 91-139.

MacKenzie, I. S., & Buxton, W. (1992). Extending Fitts' law to two-dimensional tasks. In Proceedings of CHI'92 (pp. 219-226). New York: Association for Computing Machinery.

MacKenzie, I. S., & Ware, C. (1993). Lag as a determinant of human performance in interactive systems. In Proceedings of INTERACT'93 and CHI'93 (pp. 488-493). New York: Association for Computing Machinery.

Miller, C. (2000). The human factor in complexity. In T. S. J. Weyrauch (Ed.), Automation, Control, and Complexity: New Developments and Directions. New York: John Wiley.
Sebrechts, M. M., Cugini, J. V., Laskowski, S. J.,

Vasilakis, J., & Miller, M. S. (1999). Visualization of search results: a comparative evaluation of text, 2D, and 3D interfaces. In Proceedings of the 22nd annual international ACM SIGIR conference on Research and development in information retrieval (pp. 3-10). Berkeley, CA.

Sedgwick, H. A. (1986). Space perception. In K. R. Boff, L. Kaufman & J. P. Thomas (Eds.), Handbook of perception and human performance, New York, itd: Wiley (Vol. 1, pp. 2101-2157). New York: Wiley.

Sheridan, T. B., & Ferrell, W. R. (1963). Remote Manipulative Control with Transmission Delay. IEEE Transactions on Human Factors in Electronics, 4, 25-29.

St John, M., Cowen, M. B., Smallman, H. S., & Oonk, H. M. (2001). The use of 2D and 3D displays for shape-understanding versus relative-position tasks. Human Factors, 43(1), 79-98.

Stuart, K. C., Jock, D. M., & Ben, S. (1999). 1D, 2D, 3D. In Readings in information visualization: using vision to think (pp. 57-61). San Francisco, CA, USA: Morgan Kaufmann Publishers Inc.

Tullis, T. S. (1981). An evaluation of alphanumeric, graphic, and color information displays. Human Factors: The Journal of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, 23(5), 541-550.

Wanger, L. R., Ferwerda, J. A., & Greenberg, D. P. (1992). Perceiving spatial relationships in computer-generated images. Computer Graphics and Applications, IEEE, 12(3), 44-58.

Ware, C., & Balakrishnan, R. (1994). Reaching for objects in VR displays: Lag and frame rate. ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction (TOCHI), 1(4), 331-356.

Wickens, C. D., & Andre, A. D. (1990). Proximity Compatibility and Information Display: Effects of Color, Space, and abjectness on Information Integration. Human Factors: The Journal of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, 32(1), 61-77.

Wickens, C. D., & Hollands, J. G. (2000). Engineering Psychology and Human Performance (Third ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall Inc.

Wickens, C. D., Merwin, D. H., & Lin, E. L. (1994). Implications of graphics enhancements for the visualization of scientific data: dimensional integrality, stereopsis, motion, and mesh. Human Factors, 36(1), 44.

Wickens, C. D., & Prevett, T. T. (1995). Exploring the dimensions of egocentricity in aircraft navigation displays. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 1(2), 110-135.

Wolfinger, R., & Chang, M. (1995). Comparing the SAS GLM and MIXED procedures for repeated measures. In Proceedings of 20th Annual SAS users group international conference (pp. 1-11). Cary,NC : SAS Institute Inc., 560.

Woods, D. D. (1991). The cognitive engineering of problem representations. In G. R. S. W. J. L. Alty (Ed.), Human-computer interaction and complex systems. London: Taylor and Francis.

Xing, J. (2003). A Framework for Developing Evaluation Metrics of Information Complexity in Automation Displays. In Proceedings of Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting (pp. 995-999).

Zhai, S., Buxton, W., & Milgram, P. (1994). The "Silk Cursor": Investigating Transparency for 3D target acquisition. In Proceedings of CHI'94 (pp. 459-464). New York: Association for Computing Machinery.

Ziefle, M. (1998). Effects of display resolution on visual performance. Human Factors: The Journal of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, 40(4), 554-568.
論文全文使用權限
  • 同意授權校內瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,於2009-07-14起公開。
  • 同意授權校外瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,於2009-07-14起公開。


  • 如您有疑問,請聯絡圖書館
    聯絡電話:(06)2757575#65773
    聯絡E-mail:etds@email.ncku.edu.tw