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系統識別號 U0026-0812200915113673
論文名稱(中文) 應用即時影像處理於導盲磚辨識之自走車
論文名稱(英文) Application of Real-Time Image Processing on Guide-Tile Recognition of an Automatic Mobile Vehicle
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 工程科學系碩博士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Engineering Science
學年度 97
學期 2
出版年 98
研究生(中文) 鄭佳其
研究生(英文) Chia-Chi Cheng
學號 N9696144
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 111頁
口試委員 指導教授-王榮泰
口試委員-王宗一
口試委員-周榮華
中文關鍵字 導盲磚  自走車  影像處理 
英文關鍵字 Image Processing  Guide-Tile  Automatic Mobile Vehicle 
學科別分類
中文摘要 本論文主要是設計一個可辨識導盲磚並且幫助引導視障者沿著導盲磚行進的智慧型自走車,為了達到這個目的,必須為自走車設計導航系統,使得自走車能航行在有導盲磚的環境中,自走車透過即時影像處理的技術來達到辨識導盲磚的功能。
自走車使用Netbook電腦(ASUS EEEPC 901)來實行即時數位影像處理技術,並且使用PIC16F877做為控制晶片,人機介面是使用Visual C#.Net 2008所撰寫而成,我們可以透過人機介面對自走車下達指令,自走車是由兩顆直流馬達驅動並且透過RS232與 Netbook 電腦溝通。
自走車上架設1個CCD Webcam 攝影機以擷取影像,並且將擷取到的影像透過USB傳輸至Netbook電腦 (ASUS EEEPC 901),對CCD Webcam 所擷取到的影像使用即時影像處理技術以判斷影像中是否有導盲磚的存在並且獲得導航資訊,而導航資訊可以作為控制自走車行進的依據,使此自走車能夠達到導引盲人之功能。
英文摘要 The goal of this thesis is to design an Automatic Mobile Vehicle (AMV), the automatic mobile vehicle can recognize the guide-tile and help to guide the visually disabled along the guide-tile. To achieve the purpose, a navigation system must be designed for leading the AMV moving in an environment with the guide-tile. The AMV can recognize the guide-tile via real-time image processing techniques.
The AMV makes use of a Netbook Computer (ASUS EEEPC 901) to do the real-time image processing techniques and makes use of PIC16F877 as its control chip. The Human-Machine interface system is achieved by Visual C#.Net 2008. We can send orders to control the AMV by the Human-Machine interface. The AMV is driven by of direct current motors and communicates with the Netbook Computer through RS232.
A CCD Webcam is set on the AMV to capture the images and transmits the images to the Netbook Computer. The images can use to determine if there is any guide-tile here and extract navigational information through the real-time image processing techniques. The navigational information can be the basis to direct the AMV to move, and the AMV can achieve the purpose to guide the visually disabled.
論文目次 中文摘要.............................................................. I
Abstract ............................................................. II
致謝................................................................ III
目錄................................................................. IV
圖目錄............................................................... VI
表目錄............................................................... XI
第1章 緒論..........1
1.1 研究背景與動機..........1
1.2 研究目的..........3
1.3 文獻回顧..........3
1.4 論文架構..........5
第2章 自走車系統之軟硬體架構..........6
2.1 自走車系統整體架構簡介..........6
2.2 CCD Webcam 攝影機..........7
2.3 自走車系統硬體架構..........8
2.3.1 車體部份..........10
2.3.2 控制核心..........11
2.3.3 鋰電池..........13
2.3.4 電壓調整器..........14
2.3.5 直流馬達系統..........15
2.3.6 直流馬達驅動IC TA7291P..........16
2.3.7 自走車控制系統與電路..........17
2.4 自走車系統軟體架構..........19
2.4.1 C#語言簡介..........20
2.4.2 .Net Framework簡介..........22
2.4.3 Common Language Runtime 的功能..........24
2.4.4 自走車系統程式介面..........25
第3章 數位影像處理..........27
3.1 影像擷取..........27
3.2 顏色偵測與常用色彩空間介紹..........27
3.2.1 RGB色彩空間..........28
3.2.2 NCC色彩空間..........29
3.2.3 YUV色彩空間..........29
3.2.4 YIQ色彩空間..........30
3.2.5 YCbCr色彩空間..........30
3.2.6 CIELIB色彩空間..........31
3.2.7 HSV色彩空間..........32
3.2.8 導盲磚顏色偵測..........34
3.3 直方圖..........39
3.4 導盲磚影像直方圖分析..........40
3.5 直方圖等化..........50
3.6 影像二值化與Otsu演算法..........62
3.7 填補破碎缺塊及縫隙..........71
3.8 邊緣擷取..........74
3.9 影像細化..........75
3.10 隨機式直線偵測..........77
3.11 辨識導盲磚完整流程..........80
第4章 模糊控制與實驗結果..........83
4.1 模糊控制..........83
4.1.1 模糊控制系統簡介..........83
4.1.2 模糊控制器的組成..........84
4.1.3 模糊化機制與設計..........85
4.1.4 模糊規則庫..........88
4.1.5 模糊推論..........88
4.1.6 解模糊化..........90
4.2 自走車控制流程..........91
4.3 實驗結果..........95
4.3.1 實驗一..........95
4.3.2 實驗二..........96
4.3.3 實驗三..........98
4.3.4 實驗四..........99
4.3.5 實驗五..........101
4.3.6 實驗六..........103
第5章 結論與未來展望..........108
5.1 結論..........108
5.2 未來展望..........108
参考文獻..........110
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