||The Capability Gap of Supply Chain Quality Management
||Department of Industrial and Information Management
Supply chain quality management(SCQM)
Supply chain management(SCM)
In consideration of global competiton, organizations around the wrold have realized that quality management (QM) not only has to meet the requirements of their end customers, but also has to efficiently respond to the challenges in global markets. Many firms have started to extend the QM practices to their supply chain. However, few firms can implement the integrated supply chain quality management (SCQM) successfully. To bridge the capability gaps between QM and SCQM, this study uses in-depth interview method to examine 17 firms of ODM/OEM manufacturers in Taiwan. In this study, we first adopt grounded theory to analyze the critical factors for SCQM implementation then we investigate the association between factors and analyze the developing process of firm capabilities by using formal concepts analysis. We employ system thinking to create the framework of the integrated map for the capability gaps. At last, we adopt the different research methods to find some useful propositions that aim to penetrate and elaborate the capability gaps and help firms to reduce the risk of failure.
LIST OF TABLE VI
LIST OF FIGURE VII
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 RESEARCH BACKGROUND & MOTIVATION 1
1.2 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES 4
1.3 RESEARCH PROCESS 5
CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 6
2.1 QUALITY MANAGEMENT & SCQM 6
2.2 ORGANIZATION CAPABILITIES 14
CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 20
3.1 RESEARCH SCOPE 20
3.2 DATA COLLECTION 21
3.2.1 Sampling selection 22
3.3 GROUNDED THEORY 22
3.3.1 Coding process 24
3.4 FORMAL CONCEPT ANALYSIS 29
3.5 SYSTEMS THINKING 31
CHAPTER 4 ANALYSIS AND RESULT 33
4.1 QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS BY GROUNDED THEORY 34
4.2 FORMAL CONCEPT ANALYSIS 42
4.2.1 Routine and improvement as operation capability 46
4.2.2 Improvement and innovation as transformation capability 49
4.2.3 Coordination as leveraging capability 52
4.3 SYSTEMS THINKING ANALYSIS 56
4.3.1 Performance management loop 56
4.3.2 Operation capability gap 57
4.3.3 Transformation capability gap 61
4.3.4 Leveraging capability gap 66
4.4 RESEARCH DISCUSSION 69
CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS 78
5.1 SUMMARY OF FINDINGS 78
5.2 MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS 80
5.3 IMPLICATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH 83
5.4 RESEARCH LIMITATIONS 85
APPENDIX I 95
APPENDIX II 96
APPENDIX III 97
APPENDIX IV 99
1.Ahire, S. L. & Golhar, D. Y. & Waller, M. A. (1996). Development and validation of TQM implementation constructs. Decision Sciences, 27: 23-56.
2.Amit, R. & Schoemaker, P. J. H. (1993). Strategic assets and organizational rent Strategic Management Journal, 14: 33-46.
3.Aragόn-Correa, J. A. & Garca-Morales, V. J. & Cordόn-Pozo, E. & Baker, W. E. (2007). Leadership and organizational learning's role on innovation and performance: Lessons from Spain. Industrial Marketing Management, 36: 349-359.
4.Arend, R. J. (2003). Revisiting the logical and research considerations of competitive advantage. Strategic Management Journal, 24: 279-284.
5.Argote, L. (1993). Group and organizational learning curves: Individual, system and environmental components. British Journal of Social Psychology, 32: 31-51.
6.Argote, L. (1999). Organizational learning: creating, retaining and transferring knowledge. Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
7.Armstrong, C. E. & Shimizu, K. (2007). A review of approaches to empirical research on the resource-based view of the firm. Journal of Management, 33: 959-986.
8.Avolio, B. J. & Walumbwa, F. O. & Todd, J. W. (2009). Leadership: Current Theories, Research, and Future Directions. Annual Review of Psychology, 60: 421-449.
9.Barney, J. B. (1991). Firm resources and sustained competitive advantage. Journal of Management, 17: 99-120.
10.Barney, J. B. & Hesterley, W. S. (2006). Strategic management and competitive advantage: Concepts and cases. New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall.
11.Barrett, P. & Sexton, M. (2006). Innovation in small, project-based construction firms. British Journal of Management, 17: 331-346.
12.Baskerville, R. & Pries-Heje, J. & Banuelas, R. (1999). Grounded action research: a method for understanding IT in practice. Accounting management and information technologies, 9: 1-23.
13.Black, S. A. & Porter, L. J. (1996). Identification of the critical factors of TQM. Decision Sciences, 27: 1-21.
14.Blomqvist, K. & Hurmelinna, P. & Seppnen, R. (2005). Playing the collaboration game right—balancing trust and contracting. Technovation, 25: 497-504.
15.Bommer, W. H. & Rich, G. A. & Rubin, R. S. (2005). Changing attitudes about change: longitudinal effects of transformational leader behavior on employee cynicism about organizational change. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 26: 733-753.
16.Bozdogan, K. & Deyst, J. & Hoult, D. & Lucas, M. (1998). Architectural innovation in product development through early supplier integration. R & D Management, 28: 163-173.
17.Burck, C. (2005). Comparing qualitative research methodologies for systemic research: the use of grounded theory, discourse analysis and narrative analysis. Journal of Family Therapy, 27: 237-262.
18.Carlile, P. R. (2004). Transferring, translating, and transforming: An integrative framework for managing knowledge across boundaries. Organization Science, 15: 555-568.
19.Cepeda, G. & Vera, D. (2007). Dynamic capabilities and operational capabilities: A knowledge management perspective. Journal of Business Research, 60: 426-437.
20.Charmaz, K. (2006). Constructing grounded theory: Practical guide through qualitative analysis. Thousand Oaks,CA: Sage.
21.Chow, W. S., Madu, C. N., Kuei, C. N., Lu, M. H., Lin, C., & Tseng, H. (2008). Supply chain management in the US and Taiwan: An empirical study. Omega, 36: 665-679.
22.Choy, K. L., Chow, K. H., Tan, K. H., Chan, C. K., Mok, C. M., & Wang, Q. (2008). Leveraging the supply chain ﬂexibility of third party logistics – Hybrid knowledge-based system approach. Expert Systems with Applications, 35: 1998-2016.
23.Clark, T. H. & Stoddard, D. B. (1996). Interorganizational business process redesign: Merging technological and process innovation. Journal of Management Information Systems, 13: 9-28.
24.Clemons, E. K. & Row, M. C. (1991). Sustaining IT advantage: The role of structural differences. MIS Quarterly, 15: 275-292.
25.Cohen, W. M. & Levinthal, D. A. (1990). Absorptive capacity: A new perspective on learning and innovation. Administrative Science Quarterly, 35: 128-152.
26.Coleman, G. & Connor, R. (2007). Using grounded theory to understand software process improvement: A study of Irish software product companies. Information and Software Technology, 49: 654-667.
27.Cua, K. O. & McKone, K. E. & Schroeder, R. G. (2001). Relationships between implementation of TQM, JIT, and TPM and manufacturing performance. Journal of Operations Management, 19: 675-694.
28.David, R. J. & Han, S. K. (2004). A systematic assessment of the empirical support for transaction cost economics. Strategic Management Journal, 25: 39-58.
29.Dyer, J. H. & Nobeoka, K. (2000). Creating and managing a high-performance knowledge-sharing network: The Toyota case. Strategic Management Journal, 21: 345-367.
30.Easterby-Smith, M. & Prietow, I. M. (2008). Dynamic Capabilities and Knowledge Management: an Integrative Role for Learning? British Journal of Management, 19: 235-249.
31.Ethiraj, S. K. & Kale, P. & Krishnan, M. S. & Singh, J. V. (2005). Where do capabilities come from and how do they matter A study in the software services industry. Strategic Management Journal, 26: 26-45.
32.Flynn, B. B. & Flynn, E. J. (2005). Synergies between supply chain management and quality management: Emerging implications. International Journal of Production Research, 43: 3421-3436.
33.Formica, A. (2008). Concept similarity in formal concept analysis: An information content approach. Knowledge-Based Systems, 21: 80-87.
34.Foster, S. T. (2008). Towards an understanding of supply chain quality management. Journal of Operations Management, 26: 461-467.
35.Foster, S. T. & Ogden, J. (2008). On differences in how operations and supply chain managers approach quality management. International Journal of Production Research, 46: 6945-6961.
36.Frohlich, M. & Westbrook, R. (2001). Arcs of integration: an international study of supply chain strategies. Journal of Operations Management, 19: 185-200.
37.Galanakis, K. (2006). Innovation process. Make sense using systems thinking. Technovation, 26: 1222-1232.
38.Garcia-Morales, V. J. & Llorens-Montes, F. J. & Verdu-Jover, A. J. (2008). The Effects of Transformational Leadership on Organizational Performance through Knowledge and Innovation. British Journal of Management, 19: 299-319.
39.Gowen, C. R. & Henagan, S. C. & McFadden, K. L. (2009). Knowledge management as a mediator for the efficacy of transformational leadership and quality management initiatives in US health care. Health Care Management Review, 34: 129-140.
40.Grler, A. & Thun, J. H. & Milling, P. M. (2008). System dynamics as a structual theory in operation management Production and Operations Management, 17: 373-384.
41.Grant, R. M. (1996). Prospering in dynamically-competitive environments: Organizational knowledge as knowledge integration. Organization Science, 7: 375-387.
42.Hannah, S. T. & Avolio, B. J. & Luthans, F. & Harms, P. D. (2008). Leadership efﬁcacy: Review and future directions. The Leadership Quarterly, 19: 669-692.
43.Hayes, R. H. & Pisano, G. P. (1996). Manufacturing strategy: At the intersection of two paradigm shifts. Production and Operations Management, 5: 25-41.
44.Helfat, C. E. & Peteraf, M. A. (2003). The dynamic resource-based view: capability lifecycle Strategic Management Journal, 24: 997-1010.
45.Herold, D. M. & Fedor, D. B. & Caldwell, S. & Liu, Y. (2008). The effects of transformational and change leadership on employees' commitment to a change: A multilevel study. Journal of Applied Psychology, 93: 346-357.
46.Holweg, M. & Pil, F. K. (2008). Theoretical perspectives on the coordination of supply chains. Journal of Operations Management, 26: 389-406.
47.Howell, J. M. & Higgins, C. A. (1990). Champions of technological innovation. Administrative Science Quarterly, 35: 317-341.
48.Hsu, C. C. & Tan, K. C. & Kannan, V. R. & Leong, G. K. (2009). Supply chain management practices as a mediator of the relationship between operations capability and firm performance. International Journal of Production Research, 47: 835-855.
49.Huang, X. & Kristal, M. M. & Schroeder, R. G. (2008). Linking learning and effective process implementation to mass customization capability. Journal of Operations Management, 26.
50.Hult, G. T. M. & Ketchen, D. J. & Nichols, E. L. (2003). Organizational learning as a strategic resource in supply management. Journal of Operations Management, 21: 541-556.
51.Hult, G. T. M. & Ketchen, D. J. & Arrfelt, M. (2007). Strategic supply chain management: Improving performance through a culture of competitiveness and knowledge development. Strategic Management Journal, 28: 1035-1052.
52.Hurley, R. F. & Hult, G. T. M. (1998). Innovation, market orientation, and organizational learning: an integration and empirical examination. Journal of Marketing, 62: 42-54.
53.Ireland, R. D. & Webb, J. W. (2007). A multi-theoretic perspective on trust and power in strategic supply chains. Journal of Operations Management, 25: 482-497.
54.Jiang, G. Q. & Ogasawara, K. & Endoh, A. & Sakurai, T. (2003). Context-based ontology building support in clinical domains using format concept analysis. International Journal of Medical Informatics, 71: 71-81.
55.Jiang, G. Q. & Chute, C. G. (2009). Auditing the Semantic Completeness of SNOMED CT Using Formal Concept Analysis. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association, 16: 89-102.
56.Joseph, I. N. & Rajendran, C. & Kamalanabhan, T. J. (1999). An instrument for measuring total quality management implementation in manufacturing-based business units in India. International Journals of Production Research, 37: 2201-2215.
57.Judge, T. A. & Piccolo, R. F. (2004). Transformational and transactional leadership: a meta-analytic test of their relative validity. Journal of Applied Psychology, 89: 755-768.
58.Jun, M. & Cai, S. & Shin, H. (2006). TQM practice in maquiladora: Antecedents of employee satisfaction and loyalty. Journal of Operations Management, 24: 791-812.
59.Kaynak, H. (2003). The relationship between total quality management practices and their effects on firm performance. Journal of Operations Management, 21: 405-435.
60.Kaynak, H. & Hartley, J. L. (2008). A replication and extension of quality management into the supply chain. Journal of Operations Management, 26: 468-489.
61.Ketchen, D. J. & Hult, G. M. (2007). Bridging organization theory and supply chain management: The case of best value supply chains. Journal of Operations Management, 25: 573-580.
62.Kim, D. H. & Senge, P. M. (1994). Putting systems thinking into practice. System Dynamics Review, 10.
63.Kim, S. W. (2006). The effect of supply chain integration on the alignment between corporate competitive capability and supply chain operational capability. International Journal of Operations & Production Management, 26: 1084-1107.
64.Krause, D. R. & Handfield, R. B. & Tyler, B. B. (2007). The relationships between supplier development, commitment, social capital accumulation and performance improvement. Journal of Operations Management, 25: 528-545.
65.Kuei, C. & Madu, C. N. (2001). Identifying critical success factors for supply chain quality management. Asia Paciﬁc Management Review, 6: 409-423.
66.Kuei, C. & Madu, C. N. & Lin, C. (2001). The relationship between supply chain quality management practices and organizational performance. The International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, 18: 864-872.
67.Kuei, C. & Madu, C. N. & Lin, C. (2008). Implementing supply chain quality management Total Quality Management & Business Excellence, 19: 1127-1141.
68.Lavie, D. (2006). Capability reconfiguration: An analysis of incumbent responses to technological change. Academy of Management Review, 31: 153-174.
69.Li, S. & Ragu-Nathan, B. & Ragu-Nathan, T. S. & Rao, S. S. (2006). The impact of supply chain management practices on competitive advantage and organizational performance. Omega, 34: 107-124.
70.Lin, C. & Chow, W. S. & Madu, C. N. & Kuei, C. H. & Yu, P. P. (2005). A structural equation model of supply chain quality management and organizational performance. International Journal of Production Economics, 96: 355-365.
71.Lin, Z. & Yang, H. B. & Demirkan, I. (2007). The performance consequences of ambidexterity in strategic alliance formations: Empirical investigation and computational theorizing. Management science, 53: 1645-1658.
72.Linderman, K. & Schroeder, R. G. & Zaheer, S. & Liedtke, C. & Choo, A. S. (2004). Integrating quality management practices with knowledge creation processes. Journal of Operations Management, 22: 589-607.
73.Lorenzoni, G. & Lipparini, A. (1999). The leveraging of interfirm relationships as a distinctive organizational capability: a longitudinal study Strategic Management Journal, 20: 317-338.
74.Luna-Reyes, L. F. & Andersen, D. L. (2003). Collecting and analyzing qualitative data for system dynamics: methods and models. System Dynamics Review, 19: 271-296.
75.Luo, Y. (2008). Structuring interorganizational cooperation: The role of economic integration in strategic alliances. Strategic Management Journal, 29.
76.Makadok, R. (2001). Toward a synthesis of the resource-based and dynamic-capability views of rent creation. Strategic Management Journal, 23: 387-401.
77.Malhotra, A. & Gosain, S. & Elsawy, O. A. (2005). Absorptive capacity conﬁgurations in supply chains: gearing for partner-enabled market knowledge creation. MIS Quarterly, 29: 145-187.
78.March, J. G. (1991). Exploration and Exploitation in Organizational Learning. Organization Science, 2: 71-87.
79.McAdam, R. & Armstrong, G. & Kelly, B. (1998). Investigation of the relationship between total quality and innovation: a research study involving small organizations. European Journal of Innovation Management, 1: 139-147.
80.McAdam, R. & Leonard, D. & Henderson, J. & Hazlett, S. A. (2008). A grounded theory research approach to building and testing TQM theory in operations management. Omega, 36: 825-837.
81.Mellat-Parast, M. & Digman, L. A. (2007). A framework for quality management practices in strategic alliances. Management Decision, 45: 802-818.
82.Mellat-Parast, M. & Digman, L. A. (2008). Learning: The interface of quality management and strategic alliances. International Journal of Production Economics, 114: 820-829.
83.Meredith, J. & Roth, A. (1998). Operations management in the USA. International Journal of Operations & Production Management, 18: 668-683.
84.Meso, P. & Smith, R. (2000). A resource-based view of organizational knowledge management systems. Journal of Knowledge Management, 4: 224-234.
85.Miles, R. E. & Snow, C. C. (2007). Organization theory and supply chain management: An evolving research perspective. Journal of Operations Management, 25: 459-463.
86.Mineau, G. & Godin, R. (1995). Automatic structuring of knowledge bases by conceptual clustering. IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering, 7: 824-829.
87.Molina, M. L. & Llorens-Montes, J. & Ruiz-More Antonia. (2007). Relationship between quality management practices and knowledge transfer. Journal of Operations Management, 25: 682-701.
88.Nair, A. (2006). Meta-analysis of the relationship between quality management practices and ﬁrm performance-implications for quality management theory development. Journal of Operations Management, 24: 948-975.
89.Nelson, R. R. & Winter, S. G. (1982). An evolutionary theory of economic change Cambridge, Mass: Belknap Press.
90.Newbert, S. L. (2007). Empirical research on the resource-based view of the firm: An assessment and suggestions for future research. Strategic Management Journal, 28: 121-146.
91.Newbert, S. L. (2008). Value, rareness, competitive advantage, and performance: A conceptual-level empirical investigation of the resource-based view of the firm. Strategic Management Journal, 29: 745-768.
92.Nieto, M. J. & Santamaria, L. (2007). The importance of diverse collaborative networks for the novelty of product innovation. Technovation, 27: 367-377.
93.Nonaka, I. (1994). A dynamic theory of organizational knowledge creation. Organization Science, 5: 14-37.
94.Nonaka, I. & Takeuchi, H. (1995). The knowledge-creating company: How Japanese companies create the dynamics of innovation. New York: Oxford University Press.
95.O'Connor, G. C. (2008). Major Innovation as a Dynamic Capability: A Systems Approach. Journal of Product and innovation management, 25: 313-330.
96.Ordanini, A. & Rubera, G. (2008). Strategic capabilities and internet resources in procurement: A resource-based view of B-to-B buying process. International Journal of Operations & Production Management, 28: 27-52.
97.Pandza, K. & Horsburgh, S. & Gorton, K. & Polajnar, A. (2003). A real options approach to managing resources and capabilities. International Journal of Operations & Production Management, 23: 1010-1032.
98.Peng, D. X. & Schroeder, R. G. & Shah, R. & Baker, W. E. (2008). Linking routines to operations capabilities: A new perspective. Journal of Operations Management, 26: 730-748.
99.Perdomo-Ortiz, J. & Gonzalez-Benito, J. & Galende, J. (2006). Total quality management as a forerunner of business innovation capability. Technovation, 26: 1170-1185.
100.Powell, T. C. (1995). Total Quality Management as Competitive Advantage: A review and empirical study. Strategic Management Journal, 16: 15-37.
101.Powell, W. W. (1998). Learning from collaboration: Knowledge and networks in the biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries. California Management Review, 40: 228-240.
102.Priem, R. L. & Butler, J. E. (2001a). Is the resource-based view a useful perspective for strategic management research? Academy of Management Review, 26: 22-40.
103.Rai, A. & Patnayakuni, R. & Seth, N. (2006). Firm performance impacts of digitally enabled supply chain integration capabilities. MIS Quarterly, 30: 225-246.
104.Reyniers, D. J. & Tapiero, C. S. (1995). The delivery and control of quality in supplier-producer contracts. Management science, 41: 1581-1589.
105.Richards, L. (2005). Handling qualitative data: A practical guide. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
106.Robinson, C. J. & Malhotra, M. K. (2005). Defining the concept of supply chain quality management and its relevance to academic and industrial practice. International Journal of Production Economics, 96: 315-337.
107.Rosenzweig, E. D. & Roth, A. V. & Dean Jr., J. W. (2003). The influence of an integration strategy on competitive capabilities and business performance: An exploratory study of consumer products manufacturers. Journal of Operations Management, 21: 437-456.
108.Rungtusanatham, M. & Forza, C. & Koka, B. R. & Salvador, F. & Nie, W. (2005). TQM across multiple countries: Convergence Hypothesis versus National Specificity arguments. Journal of Operations Management, 23: 43-63.
109.Samaddar, S. & Kadiyala, S. S. (2006). An analysis of interorganizational resource sharing decisions in collaborative knowledge creation. European Journal of Operational Research, 170: 192-210.
110.Saraph, J. V. & Benson, P. G. & Schroeder, R. G. (1989). An instrument for measuring the critical fctors of quality management. Decision Sciences, 20: 810-829.
111.Schroeder, R. G. & Bates, K. A. & Junttila, M. A. (2002). A resource based view of manufacturing strategy and the relationship to manufacturing performance. Strategic Management Journal, 23: 105-117.
112.Seale. (1999). The quality of qualitative research. London: Sage.
113.Senge, P. M. (1990). The fifth discipline: the art and practice of learning organization. New York: Currency Doubleday.
114.Sila, I. (2007). Examining the effects of contextual factors on TQM and performance through the lens of organizational theories: An empirical study. Journal of Operations Management, 25: 83-109.
115.Sirmon, D. G. & Hitt, M. A. & Ireland, R. D. (2007). Managing firm resources in dynamic enviroments to create value: Looking inside the black box. Academy of Management Review, 32: 273-292.
116.Sirmon, D. G. & Gove, S. & Hitt, M. A. (2008). Resource management in dyadic competitive rivalry: The effects of resource bundling and development. Academy of Management Journal, 51: 919-935.
117.Sousa, R. & Voss, C. A. (2002). Quality management re-visited: a reflective review and agenda for future research. Journal of Operations Management, 20: 91-109.
118.Sroufe, R. & Curkovic, S. (2008). An examination of ISO 9000:2000 and supply chain quality assurance. Journal of Operations Management, 26: 503-520.
119.Sterman, J. D. (2000). Business dynamics: system thinking and modeling for a complex world Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill.
120.Strauss, A. C. & Corbin, J. M. (1990). Basic of qualitative research: grounded theory procedures and techniques. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
121.Strauss, A. C. & Corbin, J. M. (1998). Basics of qualitative research: Techniques and procedures for developing grounded theory. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage
122.Swink, M. & Hegarty, W. H. (1998). Core manufacturing capabilities and their links to product differentiation. International Journal of Operations & Production Management, 18: 374-396.
123.Tan, K. C. & Kannan, V. R. & Jayaram, J. & Narasimhan, R. (2004). Acquisition of operations capability: A model and test across US and European firms. International Journal of Production Research, 42: 833-851.
124.Tan, K. C. & Kannan, V. R. & Narasimhan, R. (2007). The impact of operations capability on firm performance. International Journal of Production Research, 45: 5135-5156.
125.Tari, J. J. & Molina, J. F. & Castejon, J. L. (2007). The relationship between quality management practices and their effects on quality outcomes. European Journal of Operational Research, 183: 483-501.
126.Teece, D. J. & Pisano, G. & Schuen, A. (1997). Dynamic capabilities and strategic management. Strategic Management Journal, 18: 509-533.
127.Teece, D. J. (2007). Explicating dynamic capabilities: The nature and microfoundations of (sustainable) enterprise performance Strategic Management Journal, 28: 1319-1350.
128.Tippins, M. J. & Sohi, R. S. (2003). IT competency and firm performance: Is organizational learning a missing link? Strategic Management Journal, 24: 745-761.
129.Todorova, G. & Durisin, B. (2007). Absorptive capacity: valuing a reconceptualization Academy of Management Review, 32: 774-786.
130.Verona, G. (1999). A resource-based view of product development. Academy of Management Review, 24: 132-142.
131.Waldman, D. A. & Ramirez, G. G. & House, R. J. & Puranam, P. (2001). Does leadership matter? CEO leadership attributes and profitability under conditions of perceived environmental uncertainty Academy of Management Journal, 44: 134-143.
132.Wang, E. & KLein, G. & Jiang, J. J. (2007). IT support in manufacturing firms for a knowledge management dynamic capability link to performance. International Journal of Production Research, 45: 2419-2434.
133.Williamson, O. E. (1996). Transaction cost economics and the Carnegie connection. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 31: 149-155.
134.Wilson, D. D. & Collier, D. A. (2000). An empirical investigation of the Malcolm Balridge National Quality Award causal model. Decision Sciences, 31: 361-390.
135.Winter, S. G. (2003). Understanding dynamic capabilities. Strategic Management Journal, 24: 991-995.
136.Wolff, K. E. (1993). A first course in formal concept analysis - how to understand line diagrams. Gustav Fischer Verlag.
137.Wu, F. & Yeniyurt, S. & Kim, D. & Cavusgil, S. T. (2006). The impact of information technology on supply chain capabilities and firm performance: A resource-based view. Industrial Marketing Management, 35: 493-504.
138.Zahra, S. A. & George, G. (2002). Absorptive capacity: A review, reconceptualization, and extension. Academy of Management Review, 27: 185-203.
139.Zhao, Z. & Yeung, C. L. & Lee, T. S. (2004). Quality management and organizational context in selected service industries of China Journal of Operations Management, 22: 575-587.
140.Zhu, K. & Zhang, R. Q. & Tsung, F. (2007). Pushing Quality Improvement Along Supply Chains. Management science, 53: 421-436.
141.Zollo, M. & Winter, S. (2002). Deliberate learning and the evolution of dynamic capabilities. Organization Science, 13: 339-351.
142.Zott, C. (2003). Dynamic capabilities and the emergence of industry differential firm performance: Insights from a simulation study. Strategic Management Journal, 24: 97.