||The Effects of Financial Advertising Appeals, Involvement, and Heuristics on Purchase Intention
||Department of Business Administration (on the job class)
attitude toward the advertisement
Advertising is one of the most common-used tools for enterprises to build up their image and attract consumers. In a great deal of advertising research, advertising appeal is prevailing to be investigated and applied. However, the effectiveness of various kinds of advertising appeals doest not reach an agreement. In fact, different advertising appeals are not appropriate for every kind of product, or rather effective with right product categories. Nevertheless, in the dynamic economic situation nowadays, consumers’ value and preference change quickly, therefore the deduction needs to be further examined in practical field.
This study proceeds to select 50 financial advertisements as the target group of advertising in order to investigate attitude toward the advertisement and brand attitude evoked by two kinds of advertising appeals (emotional-based advertisement and cognitive- based advertisement). In addition, the consequence of consumers’ response is concerned by taking the moderating effects of decision-making style into account. The findings indicate that when emotional messages are dominant in advertising appeals, consumers tend to process emotional responses first, followed by cognitive responses. However, when cognitive messages are dominant in advertising appeals, consumers tend to process cognitive responses first, followed by emotional responses. Comparing these two advertising appeals, emotional-based advertisement seems to be a better application than cognitive-based advertisement. Moreover, the decision-making style plays a crucial role in consumers’ response, proceeds to promote favorable attitudes toward the advertisement and brand. The practitioners in banking industry will get come useful information through this study and realize more about the strength and weakness of their advertisings.
LIST OF TABLES VIII
LIST OF FIGURES X
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Research Background and Motivation 1
1.2 Research Objectives and Contributions 4
1.3 Research Framework 5
1.4 Research Procedure 6
CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 8
2.1 Definition of Theory and Research Constructs 8
2.1.1 Advertising Appeal 8
2.1.2 Involvement 10
2.1.3 Heuristics 11
2.1.4 Emotional Response 13
2.1.5 Cognitive Response 14
2.1.6 Attitude toward the Advertisement, Brand Attitude, and Purchase Intention 15
2.2 Hypotheses Development 19
2.2.1 Responses toward Advertising Appeals 19
2.2.2 Advertising Appeal, Response, and Attitude Formation 20
2.2.3 Cognitive Response and Emotional Response 23
2.2.4 Attitude toward the Advertisement, Brand Attitude, and Purchase Intention. 24
2.2.5 The Moderating Role of Involvement and Heuristics 25
CHAPTER THREE RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY 28
3.1 Research Model 28
3.2 Construct Measurement 30
3.2.1 Advertising Appeal 30
3.2.2 Involvement 31
3.2.3 Heuristics 32
3.2.4 Emotional Responses 33
3.2.5 Cognitive Responses 35
3.2.6 Attitude toward the Advertisement 36
3.2.7 Brand Attitude 37
3.2.8 Purchase Intention 37
3.3 Selections of Advertising Samples 38
3.4 Questionnaire Design 38
3.5 Sampling Plan 39
3.6 Data Analysis Procedure 40
3.6.1Descriptive Statistic Analysis 40
3.6.2 Purification and Reliability of the Measurement Variables 40
3.6.3Relationships among Research Variables 42
CHAPTER FOUR RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS 43
4.1 Descriptive Analysis 43
4.1.1 Data Collection 43
4.1.2 Characteristics of Respondents 43
4.2 Measurement Results for Research Variables 45
4.3 Factor Analysis and Reliability Analysis 48
4.3.1 Advertising Appeal 48
4.3.2 Emotional Response 49
4.3.3 Cognitive Response 50
4.3.4 Involvement 51
4.3.5 Heuristics 52
4.3.6 Attitude toward the Advertisement 53
4.3.7 Brand Attitude 54
4.3.8 Purchase Intention 55
4.4 Confirmatory Factor Analysis: Construct Validity and Reliability 56
4.5 The Effects of Advertising Appeal, Emotional Response, Cognitive Response, Attitude toward the Advertisement, Brand Attitude, and Purchase Intention 59
4.5.1 The Effects of Advertising Appeal on Emotional Response and Cognitive Response 59
4.5.2 The Effects of Advertising Appeal, Emotional Response, and Cognitive Response on Attitude toward the Advertisement 61
4.5.3 The Effects of Emotional Response, Cognitive Response, and Attitude toward the Advertisement on Brand Attitude 65
4.5.4 The Effects of Brand Attitude on Purchase Intention 66
4.6 Causal Relationship between Emotional Response and Cognitive Response 67
4.7 The Moderating Effects of Heuristics and Involvement 70
CHAPTER FIVE CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS 74
5.1 Research Conclusions 74
5.2 Managerial Implications 77
5.3 Limitations and Future Research Direction 79
APPENDIX ADVERTISEMENTS FOR THIS RESEARCH 101
APPENDIX Ⅱ SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE 106
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