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系統識別號 U0026-0812200915073604
論文名稱(中文) 透明質酸介面維持胎盤間葉幹細胞緩慢增殖與多重抗藥特性之研究
論文名稱(英文) Hyaluronan substratum holds placenta derived mesenchymal stem cells at a slow-cycling status and with multidrug resistant characteristics
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 生物科技研究所碩博士班
系所名稱(英) Institute of Biotechnology
學年度 97
學期 2
出版年 98
研究生(中文) 劉技謀
研究生(英文) Chi-mou Liu
學號 l6890103
學位類別 博士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 135頁
口試委員 召集委員-湯銘哲
口試委員-吳梨華
口試委員-魏耀揮
口試委員-洪士杰
口試委員-沈家寧
指導教授-黃玲惠
中文關鍵字 緩慢增殖  透明質酸  間葉幹細胞  多重藥物抗性 
英文關鍵字 multidrug resistance  slow-cycling  mesenchymal stem cells  hyaluronan 
學科別分類
中文摘要 體內的成體幹細胞,通常具有緩慢生長與藥物抵抗等特性,可受到適當訊號的啟動而進行增生。然而在體外培養的環境下,幹細胞則會迅速地複製,並且產生自發性的分化。因此在體外如何保持幹細胞緩慢生長,同時誘導多重藥物抗性的產生,將是維持其處在原始狀態的良好策略。由於透明質酸是幹細胞利基組成的關鍵性成份,因此本論文將藉由透明質酸塗附介面與一般塑膠培養介面的比較結果,探討透明質酸是否能夠調控胎盤間葉幹細胞緩慢增殖與藥物抵抗的特性。
實驗發現,透明質酸塗附介面會顯著減緩胎盤間葉幹細胞的增生;相較於一般塑膠介面,培養於透明質酸塗附介面的間葉幹細胞,有較多的比例處在G0/G1 phases。PKH-26螢光標定與BrdU嵌入實驗的結果均顯示,大多數培養於透明質酸塗附介面上的胎盤間葉幹細胞,可以順利地進行複製,證明透明質酸並不會抑制幹細胞進入細胞週期。同期化處理的結果亦說明,透明質酸會延長胎盤間葉幹細胞的G1 phase。此外,間葉幹細胞中p27Kip1 與p130蛋白的增加,應是透明質酸延長胎盤間葉幹細胞G1 phase的關鍵因素。
當胎盤間葉幹細胞培養在含30 μg/cm2 透明質酸塗附介面時,與一般塑膠介面上的細胞相比,其對於doxorubicin較具有抵抗性。抑制PI3-K/Akt的訊號傳遞,證實該途徑和P-glycoprotein活性以及藥物抗性的調控有關。此外,由10 M verapamil顯著抑制透明質酸誘發之藥物抗性的實驗結果,顯示P-glycoprotein活性是多重藥物抗性存在所必須。我們進一步發現,當胎盤間葉幹細胞培養在含30 μg/cm2 透明質酸塗附介面時,其經過CD44 siRNA處理後,會使P-glycoprotein+的細胞比例和CD44的表現程度,比起未經siRNA處理的對照組降低(均減少至60%)。此外,CD44 siRNA的處,也會抑制透明質酸介面所引起對doxorubicin的抗性。
本研究的數據顯示,透明質酸或許是一項可藉由延長G1 phase而保持幹細胞處在緩慢生長的適當成分。除此之外,透明質酸誘導幹細胞產生多重藥物抗性,將提供細胞排除引發分化之異源性物質的能力,而讓細胞保持在原始的階段。我們合理的推測,透明質酸可以讓幹細胞進入休眠的狀態,其特性就是具有緩慢生長與藥物抗性。本論文的發現,將使得有關透明質酸在幹細胞生理功能調控的研究上更加了解,並促進其在再生醫學上的進展。
英文摘要 In vivo, postnatal stem cells are usually quiescent and drug resistant; they can be prompted to proliferate when triggered by proper signals. In vitro, however, stem cells propagate quickly and differentiate spontaneously. Therefore, holding stem cells in vitro with reduced growth and multidrug resistance (MDR) phenotype is an appropriate strategy for keeping them in a primitive state. Because hyaluronan has been recognized as a crucial regulator for maintaining the microenvironments termed stem cell niches, we examined whether hyaluronan induces slow cycling and drug resistance in placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells (PDMSCs) by comparing hyaluronan-coated surface with tissue-culture polystyrene surface.
The hyaluronan-coated surface significantly downregulated the proliferation of PDMSCs, more of which were maintained in the G0/G1 phases than were cells on the tissue-culture polystyrene surface. Both PKH-26 labeling and BrdU incorporation assays showed that most PDMSCs grown on a hyaluronan-coated surface duplicated during cultivation indicating that the hyaluronan-coated surface did not inhibit PDMSCs from entering the cell cycle. Mitotic synchronization showed that the G1-phase transit was prolonged in PDMSCs growing on a hyaluronan-coated surface. In addition, increases in p27Kip1 and p130 were the crucial factors that allowed hyaluronan to lengthen the G1 phase.
We found that PDMSCs cultured on a tissue-culture polystyrene surface coated with 30 μg/cm2 hyaluronan were more resistant to doxorubicin compared to control PDMSCs. Inhibiting PI3-K/Akt signaling showed that the PI3-K/Akt pathway modulated both P-glycoprotein activity and doxorubicin resistance. In addition, 10 μM verapamil dramatically suppressed the doxorubicin resistance induced by the hyaluronan-coated surface, indicating that P-glycoprotein activity was necessary for MDR. We further demonstraterd that PDMSCs treated with CD44 small interfering RNA (siRNA) and grown on a polystyrene surface coated with 30 μg/cm2 hyaluronan had fewer P-glycoprotein+ cells and lower CD44 expression levels (less than 60% in both cases) compared with PDMSCs not treated with CD44 siRNA and grown on the hyaluronan-coated surface. Moreover, treatment with CD44 siRNA suppressed the hyaluronan-substratum-induced resistance of PDMSCs to doxorubicin.
The data provided herein demonstrated that hyaluronan might be a promising candidate for maintaining stem cells in slow-cycling mode by prolonging their G1-phase transit. In addition, we presume that induction of MDR by hyaluronan would hold PDMSCs in a primitive state by providing the capability to extrude molecules required for differentiation. It seems reasonable to suggest that hyaluronan may cause PDMSCs to enter a program of dormancy, the natural state of stem cells consisting with slow cycling and drug resistance. Therefore, our findings may contribute to a deeper understanding of physiological functions of hyaluronan in stem cell research, and that is valuable for the applications in regenerative medicine.
論文目次 中文摘要 I
Abstract III
誌謝 V
目錄 VI
表目錄 IX
圖目錄 X
中英文名詞對照 XIII
英文縮寫對照 XVII
第一章 研究動機與文獻回顧 1
1.1 研究動機 1
1.2 幹細胞的分類 3
1.3 成體幹細胞於活體內的生理特性 5
1.3.1緩慢增生 5
1.3.2多重藥物抗性 8
1.4 間葉幹細胞的萃取與鑑定 10
1.5 間葉幹細胞的擴增培養 13
1.6 胎盤間葉幹細胞 15
1.6.1 胎盤的結構 16
1.6.2 胎盤間葉幹細胞的研究進展 17
1.7 透明質酸 18
1.7.1 透明質酸的功能 19
1.7.2 透明質酸對細胞生長的影響 20
1.7.3 透明質酸與多重藥物抗性的關連 22
第二章 實驗材料與研究方法 27
2.1 實驗藥品與器材 27
2.1.1 一般藥品與耗材 27
2.1.2 抗體 30
2.1.3 儀器設備與應用軟體 31
2.2 實驗方法 33
2.2.1 人類胎盤樣品的取得 33
2.2.2 胎盤絨毛組織之免疫化學染色 33
2.2.3 胎盤間葉幹細胞的萃取分離 34
2.2.4 間葉幹細胞的初代培養與繼代 35
2.2.5 間葉幹細胞的標誌鑑定 35
2.2.6 骨細胞的誘導分化 36
2.2.7 脂肪細胞的誘導分化 37
2.2.8 透明質酸塗附介面的製備 37
2.2.9 透明質酸濃度的定量(glucuronic acid assay) 39
2.2.10 間葉幹細胞於不同介面上的附著速率評估 39
2.2.11 間葉幹細胞生長速率的分析 40
2.2.12 免疫螢光染色 40
2.2.13 細胞增生速率的評估(PKH-26 labeling assay) 42
2.2.14 核酸分子的嵌入試驗(BrdU incorporation assay) 42
2.2.15 細胞同期化處理 43
2.2.16 細胞週期調控因子的表現分析 44
2.2.17 間葉幹細胞的連續繼代評估 45
2.2.18 蛋白表現的分析(CD44與P-glycoprotein) 45
2.2.19 膠體電泳與西方轉漬法 46
2.2.20 藥物抗性試驗 47
2.2.21 訊號傳遞途徑的抑制試驗(PI3-K/Akt pathway) 48
2.2.22 螢光受質的滯留率分析(Calcein-AM retention assay) 48
2.2.23 抗藥蛋白活性分析(P-glycoprotein) 49
2.2.24 核酸干擾的處理(CD44 siRNA) 50
2.2.25 數據的統計分析 50
第三章 透明質酸塗附介面調控間葉幹細胞緩慢增殖之研究 51
3.1 實驗目的 51
3.2 實驗結果 52
3.3 討論 60
第四章 透明質酸塗附介面誘導胎盤間葉幹細胞多重藥物抗性 94
4.1 實驗目的 94
4.2 實驗結果 95
4.3 討論 99
第五章 結論與未來展望 118
第六章 參考文獻 121
附錄 附件A 133
自述 135
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