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系統識別號 U0026-0812200915065849
論文名稱(中文) 父母婚姻衝突與兒童內化行為問題:整合認知背景架構與氣質
論文名稱(英文) Interparental conflict and children’s internalizing problems: The model integrating cognitive-contexture framework with temperament
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 行為醫學研究所
系所名稱(英) Institute of Behavioral Medicine
學年度 97
學期 1
出版年 98
研究生(中文) 馬湘婷
研究生(英文) Hsiang-Ting Ma
學號 s8694102
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 104頁
口試委員 召集委員-董旭英
口試委員-郭乃文
指導教授-柯慧貞
中文關鍵字 因應策略  兒童內化行為問題  氣質  兒童認知評估  父母婚姻衝突  立即性反應 
英文關鍵字 interparental conflict  internalizing problems  temperament  coping strategies  involuntary responses  cognitive appraisals 
學科別分類
中文摘要 『研究背景』
過去許多研究證實父母婚姻衝突會增多兒童的內化行為問題,且兒童對於父母婚姻衝突的認知評估與因應方式為其重要中介因子,其中:兒童對於父母婚姻衝突的威脅評估、自責評估為父母婚姻衝突與兒童內化行為問題的中介因子,而逃避類型的因應策略會影響兒童形成內化行為問題。然而,過去卻未有研究探討因應反應的兩階段歷程:立即性反應與自主因應,在父母婚姻衝突與兒童內化行為問題間的角色。另外,兒童氣質也被認為是會影響兒童內化行為問題且被假設為會影響兒童在面對壓力時的認知評估及因應策略,卻少有研究對父母婚姻衝突此壓力源進行探討。綜合上述,本研究將企圖以橫斷式研究驗證兒童面對父母婚姻衝突之心理歷程,並建構本土化的評估工具。
『研究目的』
本研究的目的如下:
編制本土化『兒童面對父母婚姻衝突當下反應量表』及『兒童因應父母衝突策略量表』,並以結構方程模式驗證假設模式:
1. 父母婚姻衝突特徵,包含頻率、強度與未解決程度越高,則兒童的威脅與自責認知評估程度也會增高。
2. 父母婚姻衝突特徵,包含頻率、強度與未解決程度越高,可直接導致兒童的立即性不涉入反應程度的增加,或間接透過兒童威脅認知評估影響兒童的立即性不涉入反應程度的增加,導致兒童內化行為問題程度的增加。
3. 兒童的立即性不涉入反應程度的增加,可直接導致兒童內化行為問題的增加,或間接透過兒童逃避/情緒因應,影響兒童的內化行為問題程度的增加。
4. 兒童的情緒性氣質越高,將分別直接影響威脅認知評估、自責認知評估、立即性不涉入反應、逃避/情緒取向因應策略及兒童內化行為問題的程度增加。
『研究方法』
參與者:
本研究自民國90-92年間,由柯慧貞等人所執行之「台南市學齡兒童之情緒與行為問題」計畫,依台南市各行政區的人口分佈,進行分層的隨機抽樣,以重新修訂『學齡前兒童行為發展量表』常模(柯慧貞等人, 2007),所建立之受試者資料庫中,隨機抽取符合條件的七位兒童進行半結構性訪談,再由台南市及花蓮縣某國小的四到六年級中隨機抽取一班,進行句子完成測驗,蒐集質性資料,以利編寫『兒童面對父母婚姻衝突當下反應量表』及『兒童因應父母衝突策略量表』,並隨機抽取台南市某兩國小的四到六年級136位10-12歲兒童,進行量表的信效度分析。最後,自修訂『學齡前兒童行為發展量表』常模(柯慧貞等人, 2007),所建立之參與者資料庫中,篩選國小三年級以上的兒童及其家長,共計301個家庭,參與研究。最後共計117個家庭納入研究分析。
施測工具:EAS兒童氣質問卷中文版(Chinese Version of EAS Temperament Survey for Adults)之情緒性分量表、兒童知覺父母婚姻衝突量表(CPIC)中文版、『兒童面對父母婚姻衝突當下反應量表』之立即性不涉入反應分量表、『兒童因應父母衝突策略量表』之逃避/情緒壓抑因應分量表、兒童情緒與行為檢核量表(CBECL/4-16)之廣泛性焦慮、分離焦慮、社交焦慮分量表、兒童憂鬱量表(CDI)。
施測流程:
以電訪的方式,與篩選出的301個家庭聯絡,向家長說明研究目的,確認接受施測之意願後,研究者寄發問卷、同意書、施測說明書及回函信封。家長部分,邀請家長填寫基本的人口學資料、兒童氣質量表(EAS)。兒童部分,則邀請兒童填寫兒童知覺父母衝突量表(CPIC)中文版、兒童面對父母婚姻衝突當下反應量表、兒童因應父母衝突策略量表、兒童情緒與行為檢核量表(CBECL,兒童版)、兒童憂鬱量表(CDI)。
統計方法:
利用SPSS13.0進行皮爾森相關的分析,利用AMOS7.0,進行結構方程模式的分析,以檢驗假設模型的適配程度。顯著值皆訂為0.05。
『研究結果』
最終的修正模型顯示:
1. 父母婚姻衝突特徵,(包含頻率、強度與未解決程度)越高,則兒童的威脅認知評估程度顯著增高;但兒童的自責認知評估程度並未顯著增高。
2. 父母婚姻衝突特徵,(包含頻率、強度與未解決程度)越高,則兒童的立即性不涉入反應程度增加,或間接透過兒童威脅認知評估的中介,增高兒童的立即性不涉入反應程度。
3. 兒童的立即性不涉入反應程度的增加,則兒童內化行為問題程度的增加,或間接透過使用逃避/情緒壓抑因應策略的中介,兒童內化行為問題增加。
4. 兒童的情緒性氣質越高,則兒童內化行為問題的程度增加,但兒童的威脅認知評估、立即性不涉入反應及使用逃避/情緒壓抑因應策略的程度未增加。
『討論與建議』
1. 本研究嘗試建立『兒童面對父母婚姻衝突當下反應量表』及『兒童因應父母衝突策略量表』之信、效度,結果發現各分量表的內部一致性、校標關連效度,顯示各分量表具有可接受、良好的信效度。但蒐集質性資料時,發現不少台灣兒童報告出『情緒壓抑』的因應策略,但此因應策略在國外目前常使用的因應建構或測驗中很少出現,建議未來的研究探討台灣兒童因應策略之建構與國外建構之異同,亦可利用大樣本研究,重新檢驗本研究所發展之『兒童面對父母婚姻衝突之當下反應量表』與『兒童因應父母婚姻衝突策略量表』中各分量表的題目適切性與信、效度。
2. 與過去研究一致的為兒童立即性反應,可能是一種受情境制約的自動化反應,本研究更進一步發現若兒童的威脅認知評估的增多,則兒童立即性不涉入反應的亦會增多。
3. 本研究發現立即性不涉入反應與內化行為問題有關,且會強化或限制個體後續因應的能力,而立即性不涉入反應及逃避/情緒壓抑因應策略在兒童時期可能是壓力源與心理疾患症狀間的中介因子,此與過去假設相符。
4. 本研究重覆驗證兒童威脅認知評估為父母婚姻衝突與兒童內化行為問題間的一個中介因子,卻發現兒童知覺父母婚姻衝突的特徵無法正向預測兒童的自責威脅評估,可能是受兒童對於事情的解讀方式直到青少年階段才能穩定所影響。本研究十二歲以下的兒童佔了有效樣本80%以上,因兒童們對於父母婚姻衝突的歸因並未如穩定成熟,而造成在本研究中兒童知覺父母婚姻衝突的特徵,無法正向預測兒童的自責威脅評估。
5. 本研究重覆驗證情緒性氣質與兒童內化行為問題相關,但發現情緒性氣質與兒童的認知評估、立即性不涉入反應及逃避/情緒壓抑因應策略等無關,此結果與以往的研究結果並不一致,可能與評量者不同有關。本研究的兒童的情緒性氣質是由父母所報告,而認知評估、立即性不涉入反應及逃避/情緒壓抑因應策略皆由兒童自行報告,而此可能削弱了彼此的相關性。
6. 本研究發現兒童知覺父母婚姻衝突程度越強,則兒童的威脅認知評估及立即性不涉入反應的程度皆會提高,且影響兒童使用逃避/情緒壓抑因應策略的增多,而影響兒童內化問題的程度增加,並發現情緒性氣質與兒童內化行為問題相關。然未來仍需大樣本研究或追蹤研究重複驗證此模式,亦可針對青少年族群進行此模式的檢驗。
『研究貢獻與應用』
本研究為嘗試闡明兒童知覺父母婚姻衝突特徵與兒童內化行為問題間的兒童心理反應歷程,除了提供更多元、更完整的解釋模式,為學術理論提供實證研究,也提供了本土文化的研究成果。就應用價值層面來談,本研究所編制之『兒童面對父母婚姻衝突當下反應量表』、『兒童因應婚姻衝突策略量表』,未來可協助臨床工作者衡鑑兒童面對父母婚姻衝突的反應及因應策略,有利於實務工作者幫助兒童增加其對情緒的覺察度,協助兒童重新解釋其父母婚姻衝突的意義,並發展更為適應性的因應策略;同時亦建議考慮對不同兒童氣質,發展不同的介入策略;並有利家庭教育,使父母瞭解婚姻衝突對兒童所帶來的負面影響及其心理歷程,以減少婚姻衝突或降低其負面影響。
英文摘要 Background
Studies found that children’s cognitive appraisal of threat and self-blame were the mediators between interparental conflict and children’s behavior problems. Previous research indicated that children’s coping strategies with interparental conflict were associated with children’s internalizing, especially avoidant coping strategies. Additionally, another factor that should be considered in relation to children’s internalizing was temperament. However, few studies examined children’s mental responses pathway between interparental conflict and internalizing problems, including cognitive appraisals, involuntary responses, and coping strategies, and how temperament affected the relationship. Thus, we examined the model integrated with children’s mental responses pathway between interparental conflict and internalizing problems and temperament.
Hypothesis
We hypothesized that the characteristics of interparental conflict, including frequency, intensity and being unresolved would be linked to children’s appraisals of threat and self-blame. Additionally, high levels of interparental conflict was directly and indirectly linked to more disengagement responses through children’s appraisal of threat; moreover, increased disengagement responses was directly associated with internalizing problems, or via avoidant/emotional coping strategies. Furthermore, having a higher emotionality would directly or indirectly lead to internalizing problems through children’s appraisals of threat, disengagement responses, and avoidant/emotional coping strategies. The hypothetical model was examined through the maximum likelihood estimation with Structural equation modeling.
Method
Families with children aged 9 and over were recruited via a stratified and random sampling method from the health centers of the seven districts within Tainan City, Taiwan. The final sample consisted of 117 children aged 9- to 14-year old. Children completed self-reported measures on the properties of interparental conflict, disengagement responses, avoidant/emotional coping strategies, and internalizing problems. Caregivers completed a measure on children’s emotionality. When the families returned the questionnaires and informed consent, a gift was given.
Results
The revised model showed that high levels of interparental conflict was directly and indirectly linked to more disengagement responses through children’s appraisal of threat; moreover, increased disengagement responses was directly and indirectly associated with internalizing problems via avoidant/emotional coping strategies. Meanwhile, high level of emotionality predicted more internalizing problems in a direct way.
Discussion
In our findings, we supported the hypothesis that involuntary responses were automatic, conditioned and overlearned reactions that may or may not be within conscious awareness, and also supported the hypotheses that disengagement responses were related to emotional or behavior problems, and would facilitate or constrain children’s ability to cope. Furthermore, in accordance with previous studies, we found that high frequencies, intense or unresolved interparental conflict led to children’s appraisal of threat and feelings of inability to cope. However, inconsistent with previous studies, we found that interparental conflict did not induce children’s appraisal of self-blame. Possible explanations in why interparental conflict did not lead to children’s appraisal of self-blame in the present study might be that there were different developmental paths of appraisals to the threat and the self-blame. A number of researches suggest that children do not develop a stable and mature way of explaining the events until reaching adolescence. That is why children in our study, which constituted of 86.3% under the age of 13, were unable to develop a stable explanation as pre-adolescence, and in turn, interparental conflict did not lead to the appraisal of self-blame. In accordance with previous studies, we found a direct impact from emotionality to children’s internalizing problems. However, we found that emotionality was not related to appraisals, disengagement responses and coping strategies. The lack of association between emotionality and appraisals, disengagement responses or coping strategies in the present study might be due to methodological reasons in data recruitment.
Contribution
This study clarified the mental response processes of children in Taiwan when they perceive interparental conflict, and how this process result in children’s behavior problems. According to these findings, we can help clinicians develop assessment and treatment programs for families with high interparental conflict.
論文目次 第一章、研究背景‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧ 1
第一節、序論‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧ 1
第二節、父母婚姻衝突與兒童內化行為問題‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧3
第三節、父母婚姻衝突如何影響兒童內化問題‧‧‧‧‧‧‧ 4
(一)情緒安全感假說(Emotional security hypotheses)‧‧ 5
(二)認知背景架構(Cognitive-Contextual Framework)‧‧ 7
(三)因應策略‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧ 11
(四)兒童面對父母婚姻衝突的立即性反應、因應策略與兒童內化行為問題‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧ 15
(五)兒童對父母婚姻衝突之認知評估、立即性反應、因應策略與兒童內化行為問題‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧ 16
(六)小結‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧ 18
第四節、兒童氣質與兒童內化問題‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧ 19
(一)氣質之定義‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧19
(二)氣質之相關建構模式及測量工具‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧20
(三)兒童氣質與兒童內化行為問題‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧22
(四)兒童氣質、認知評估、因應策略及兒童內化問題‧‧‧‧23
(五)小結‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧24
第五節、結論‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧24
(一)目前相關因子間橫斷式研究的發現及不足‧‧‧‧‧‧‧24
(二)根據文獻回顧對影響兒童內化行為問題的相關因子的假設25
(三)小結‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧26
第六節、研究目的與假設‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧27

第二章、研究方法‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧ 29
第一節、參與者‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧29
第二節、施測工具‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧30
第三節、施測流程‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧39
第四節、統計方法‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧39
第三章、研究結果‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧ 41
(一)基本人口學資料‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧ 41
(二)各變項基本統計學資料暨皮爾森相關結果‧‧‧‧‧‧‧41
(三)假設模式檢驗暨模式修改‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧ 42
第四章、討論‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧ 45
第一節、台灣兒童面對父母婚姻衝突之當下反應與因應策略之建構特點與信、效度‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧ 45
第二節、主要的研究發現‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧46
第三節、兒童威脅認知評估為兒童知覺父母婚姻衝突特徵與兒童立即性不涉入反應間的部分中介因子‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧48
第四節、兒童逃避/情緒壓抑因應策略為兒童立即性不涉入反應與兒童內化行為問題間的部分中介因子‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧49
第五節、兒童知覺父母婚姻衝突、兒童認知評估與兒童內化行為問題‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧ 51
第六節、兒童知覺父母婚姻衝突特徵、兒童威脅認知評估、兒童立即性不涉入反應、兒童逃避/情緒壓抑因應策略暨情緒性氣質與兒童內化行為問題‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧ 54
第七節、總結‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧ 55
第五章、本研究限制與未來研究方向‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧ 57
第六章、本研究之理論、學術貢獻與應用價值‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧59
第七章、參考文獻‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧ 61
表一、基本人口學資料與各變項平均分數/標準差‧‧‧‧‧ 72
表二、皮爾森相關表‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧ 73
圖二、『壓力反應問卷』建構 74
圖三、『兒童因應策略量表』建構 75
圖四、假設模式圖‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧ 76
圖五、兒童對於父母婚姻衝突之立即性涉入反應分量表之驗證式因素分析結果‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧ 77
圖六、兒童對於父母婚姻衝突之立即性不涉入反應分量表之驗證式因素分析結果‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧ 78
圖七、兒童因應父母婚姻衝突策略量表之嘗試解決問題分量表驗證式因素分析結果‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧ 79
圖八、兒童因應父母婚姻衝突策略量表之轉移注意力分量表驗證式因素分析結果‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧ 80
圖九、兒童因應父母婚姻衝突策略量表之分享情緒分量表驗證式因素分析結果‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧ 81
圖十、兒童因應父母婚姻衝突策略量表之逃避/情緒壓抑分量表驗證式因素分析結果‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧ 82
圖十一、最終修正模式‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧83
圖十二、移除氣質後的模式‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧ 84
附錄一、訪談大綱 85
附錄二、兒童氣質量表(父母版)‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧ 86
附錄三、兒童知覺父母婚姻衝突量表‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧ 87
附錄四、兒童面對父母婚姻衝突當下反應量表‧‧‧‧‧‧ 90
附錄五、兒童因應父母衝突策略量表‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧ 93
附錄六、兒童憂鬱量表‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧ 96
附錄七、兒童焦慮問題量表(CBECL/4-16)‧‧‧‧‧‧ 100
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