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系統識別號 U0026-0812200915043330
論文名稱(中文) 優秀女排選手高手發球及跳躍發球之運動學分析
論文名稱(英文) Kinematic Analysis of Overhand and Jump Serves in Elite Female Volleyball Players
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 物理治療研究所
系所名稱(英) Department of Physical Therapy
學年度 97
學期 1
出版年 98
研究生(中文) 劉昱秀
研究生(英文) Yu-Hsiu Liu
電子信箱 t6695401@mail.ncku.edu.tw
學號 t6695401
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
論文頁數 116頁
口試委員 口試委員-張家豪
口試委員-蘇芳慶
指導教授-徐阿田
中文關鍵字 動力學  排球  發球 
英文關鍵字 serve  volleyball  kinematic 
學科別分類
中文摘要 背景與實驗目的:
為了要預防排球選手的肩關節傷害,我們勢必去了解排球選手的物理性的適應情形(physical adaptation),除此之外,分析動作的生物力學特性是了解傷害產生的一種方法,但近期的研究中缺少對於排球高手發球的動力學及能量轉換的描述性資料,且根據過去文獻回顧,當上下肢的動作是會有一個相互影響的情形,因此,本實驗的主要目的有三:1) 檢測排球選手的物理性適應情形 (physical adaptation) 2)釐清排球發球動作的分期定義 3) 探討高手發球及跳發這兩種發球的動力學變異
實驗方法:
此研究收取了八位在國家中頂尖的大學排球選手,參加者的慣用手都為右手且平均年齡為21.9±2.1歲,當選手們在標準的排球場中進行高手發球及跳發的過程中,將會使用10台3D的動作分析系統來收取選手們發球動作中的動力學參數。最後,我們將會比較在高手發球及跳發之間四個不同時期(early cocking, late cocking, fast acceleration and ball impact)的動力學及時間參數是否有所不同。
結果:
排球選手慣用手的肩關節被動內轉及總旋轉角度較非慣用側來得小(p = 0.012),而被動外轉角度則是慣用側較大(p = 0.05)。在高手發球及跳發中,分期定義的ICC2,1數值分別為0.800 ~ 0.999及0.500 ~ 0.999,選手們在跳發中可表現出較高的球速(66.8±4.0 kph vs. 57.1±3.8 kph, p = 0.012),而跳發(3.213±0.327秒)所花費的總時間也遠比高手發球來得長(2.683±0.324秒, p= 0.012),但有兩個時期(early cocking, late cocking)的時間在跳發中是比較短的(p = 0.012及p = 0.05),此外,選手們會使用軀幹的後仰、側彎及肩膀台舉的角度範圍來調整他們跳發時的動作。
在高手發球的過程中,軀幹、肩膀、手肘、手腕及手掌的最大速度值會依序增加(p = 0.012),而在跳發中也有類似的情形(p = 0.012),而跳發所產生的各個肢段的最大速度是比高手發球來得大的(p: 0.012 ~ 0.036),除此之外,不管在跳發或是高手發球中,近端的肢段(如:軀幹)會先到達最大加速度,最後產生最大速度的為較遠端的肢段(如:手掌) (p = 0.012),手腕及手掌在跳發到達最大速度的時間百分比比在高手發球中來的晚(p = 0.012)。
結論:
排球選手具有一個獨特的肩關節旋轉特性,且一個適合於排球發球的分期定義是必需的。在跳發及高手發球的動作中,下肢的情形不會影響到上肢的動作順序,但跳發時,選手們會使用軀幹的後仰及側彎來代償缺少地面支撐的身體已完成在空中的發球動作。
英文摘要 Background and Purpose:
It is necessary to understand the physical adaptation characteristics in volleyball players for preventing the shoulder injury. Furthermore, there were lack of descriptive kinematic data and energy transformation analysis in volleyball overhead movement such as overhand serve. In accordance of the previous researches, the performance of the upper extremity is seemed to be related to the lower extremities coordination. So, the purposes of this study are as follow: 1) to investigate the physical adaptation in volleyball players 2) to clarify the volleyball phase definition and 3) to describe the kinematic variations in volleyball by investigating two similar techniques of volleyball overhead serve – overhand serve and jump serve.
Methods:
Eight female volleyball players belonging to one of the top university team in the nation were recruited in this study. All participations aged 21.9±2.1 years were right hand-dominant. Ten 3D motion cameras were used for collecting the kinematic data while the player was performing the overhand and jump serve in a volleyball court. The kinematic and temporal parameters were compared in early cocking, late cocking, fast acceleration and ball impact phase among overhand and jump serve.
Result:
The passive internal rotation and total rotational range of the dominant side is significantly smaller (p = 0.012) and its passive external rotation was significantly greater than those of the non-dominant side (p = 0.05). The ICC2,1 value of the phase definition of overhand and jump serve range from 0.800 to 0.999 and 0.500 to 0.999, respectively (p ranged from 0.001 ~ 0.05). The ball velocity in jump serve is faster compared with overhand serve (p = 0.012). The time spent during the preparation phase in jump serve is longer than those of the overhand serve (p = 0.012). The total time spent in jump serve (2.683±0.324 sec) is greater than overhand serve (3.213±0.327 sec, p= 0.012). The time spent in early cocking and late cocking phase in jump serve is less than those of the overhand serve (p = 0.012 and p = 0.05). The trunk extension, lateral flexion and shoulder elevation range is adjusted in the jump serve.
In overhand serve, the value of the maximum anterior linear velocity was increased from the trunk, shoulder, elbow, wrist and hand (p = 0.012). In jump serve, the maximum anterior linear velocity is also increased from the shoulder, elbow, wrist and hand (p = 0.012). The maximum anterior linear velocity of the trunk and the joint of the upper extremity in jump serve is greater than that in overhand serve (p ranged 0.012 ~ 0.036). The moment that the peak anterior linear velocity occurred also exhibits a proximal to distal sequence both in overhand and jump serve (p = 0.012). The instant of the maximum velocities of wrist and hand in percentage is lager in jump serve than overhand serve (p = 0.012).
Conclusions:
The volleyball player exhibited a unique characteristic of the rotational range of motion of the shoulder. Suitable phase definition for the volleyball serve is needed. Under the different lower extremity condition, the movement sequence of the segment is the same which is from proximal to distal. However, the player used the trunk extension and lateral flexion to compensate the lack of ground support when she performed the serve in the air.
論文目次 CONTENT
CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1
1-1 Volleyball 1
1-2 Physical Adaptation 3
1-3 Overhand Serve & Jump Serve 7
1-4 Kinetic Chain 10
1-5 Motivation & Purpose 15
CHAPTER II METHOD 16
2-1 Subjects 16
2-2 The Volleyball Court 17
2-3 Instrumentations 19
2-4 Experimental Procedures 20
2-5 Data Processing 22
2-6 Phase Definition 22
2-7 Temporal & Kinematic Data 29
2-8 Statistical Analysis 31
CHAPTER III RESULT 33
3-1 Passive Range of Motion 33
3-2 Test-Retest Reliability 34
3-3 Temporal Data 36
3-3-1 Phase Time 36
3-3-2 Phase Time in Percentage 38
3-4 Kinematics of Volleyball Serve 40
3-4-1 Angular Pattern in the Overhand and the Jump Serve 40
3-4-2 Maximum, Minimum and Total range Angle in Overhand and Jump Serve during Four Phases 64
3-4-3 Angular Range in the Overhand & Jump Serve During Four Phases 76
3-4-4 Linear Velocity of Joint Centers 78
3-4-5 Multiple Regression Analysis in Hand Velocity of the Overhand and Jump Serve 87
CHAPTER IV DISCUSSION 89
4-1 Passive Range of Motion 89
4-2 Phase Definition 91
4-3 Volleyball Serve and Baseball Pitch 95
4-4 Overhand and Jump Serve in Volleyball 97
CHAPTER V CONCLUSION 100
REFERENCE 101
APPENDIX 110
自述 116

TABLE LIST
Table 2-1. Descriptive data of participants 17
Table 3-1. Passive Range of Motion of the Dominant and Non-dominant side 33
Table 3-2. The reliability of the phase definition and the serve hand maximum velocity of serves 34
Table 3-3. The reliability of the absolute time value in each phase of serves 35
Table 3-4. The descriptive statistics of phase time (sec) data of the overhand and the jump serves 37
Table 3-5. The descriptive statistics of total phase time (sec) from early cocking to ball impact (EC ~ BI) and total time of the serves (Total time) 37
Table 3-6. The descriptive statistics of each phase time in percentage of serves 39
Table 3-7. Descriptive statistics of trunk extension, lateral flexion and rotation angle at early cocking phase in overhand serve (OS) and jump serve (JS) 65
Table 3-8. Descriptive statistics of serve shoulder elevation and external rotation angle at early cocking phase in overhand serve (OS) and jump serve (JS) 66
Table 3-9. Descriptive statistics of serve elbow flexion and wrist extension angle at early cocking phase in overhand serve (OS) and jump serve (JS) 66
Table 3-10. Descriptive statistics of trunk extension, lateral flexion and rotation angle at late cocking phase in overhand serve (OS) and jump serve (JS) 68
Table 3-11. Descriptive statistics of serve shoulder elevation and external rotation angle at late cocking phase in overhand serve (OS) and jump serve (JS) 69
Table 3-12. Descriptive statistics of serve elbow flexion and wrist extension angle at late cocking phase in overhand serve (OS) and jump serve (JS) 69
Table 3-13. Descriptive statistics of trunk extension, lateral flexion and rotation angle at fast acceleration phase in overhand serve (OS) and jump serve (JS) 71
Table 3-14. Descriptive statistics of serve shoulder elevation and external rotation angle at fast acceleration phase in overhand serve (OS) and jump serve (JS) 72
Table 3-15. Descriptive statistics of serve elbow flexion and wrist extension angle at fast acceleration phase in overhand serve (OS) and jump serve (JS) 72
Table 3-16. Descriptive statistics of trunk extension, lateral flexion and rotation angle at ball impact phase in overhand serve (OS) and jump serve (JS) 74
Table 3-17. Descriptive statistics of serve shoulder elevation and external rotation angle at ball impact phase in overhand serve (OS) and jump serve (JS) 75
Table 3-18. Descriptive statistics of serve elbow flexion and wrist extension angle at ball impact phase in overhand serve (OS) and jump serve (JS) 75
Table 3-19. Descriptive statistics of the maximum center velocity of trunk, shoulder elbow, wrist and hand in overhand serve (OS) and jump serve (JS) 81
Table 3-20. Descriptive statistics of the time instant of the maximum velocity in percentage of the trunk, shoulder, elbow, wrist and hand in overhand serve (OS) and jump serve (JS) 86
Table 3-21. Multiple Regression Analysis in Hand Maximum Anterior Linear Velocity of Overhand Serve 87
Table 3-22. Multiple Regression Analysis in Hand Maximum Anterior Linear Velocity of Jump Serve 88


FIGURE LIST
Figure 2-1. A diagram of the volleyball court (18 m × 9 m) used in the study 18
Figure 2-2. Vicon Mx plus system 19
Figure 2-3. Stalker Radar Gun 19
Figure 2-4. Volleyball with reflective markers 19
Figure 2-5. The marker system employed in the present study 21
Figure 2-6. The phase definitions of the overhand serve 23
Figure 2-7. Non-serve hand up/down trajectory of the overhand serve 24
Figure 2-8. Serve elbow medial/lateral trajectory of the overhand serve 24
Figure 2-9. Serve hand anterior acceleration of the overhand serve 25
Figure 2-10. Serve shoulder internal/external rotation of the overhand serve 25
Figure 2-11. The phase definitions of the jump serve 26
Figure 2-12. Non-serve hand up/down trajectory of the jump serve 27
Figure 2-13. Serve elbow medial/lateral trajectory of the jump serve 27
Figure 2-14. Serve hand anterior acceleration of the jump serve 28
Figure 2-15. Serve shoulder internal/external rotation of the jump serve 28
Figure 2-16. Phase time as a percentage from early cocking to ball impact phase 29
Figure 3-1. Phase time of four phases in overhand serve (OS) and jump serve (JS) 38
Figure 3-2. Phase time in percentage of four phases in overhand serve (OS) and jump serve (JS) 39
Figure 3-3. Trunk flexion/extension angle of the overhand serve 41
Figure 3-4. Trunk flexion/extension angle of the overhand serve from the early cocking to the ball impact phase 42
Figure 3-5. Trunk lateral flexion angle of the overhand serve 43
Figure 3-6. Trunk lateral flexion angle of the overhand serve from the early cocking to the ball impact phase 43
Figure 3-7. Trunk rotation angle of the overhand serve 44
Figure 3-8. Trunk rotation angle of the overhand serve from the early cocking to the ball impact phase 44
Figure 3-9. Serve shoulder elevation angle of the overhand serve 46
Figure 3-10. Serve shoulder elevation angle of the overhand serve from the early cocking to the ball impact phase 47
Figure 3-11. Serve shoulder rotation angle of the overhand serve 48
Figure 3-12. Serve shoulder rotation angle of the overhand serve from the early cocking to the ball impact phase 48
Figure 3-13. The elevation plane of the serve shoulder of the overhand serve 49
Figure 3-14. The elevation plane of the serve shoulder of the overhand serve from the early cocking to the ball impact phase 49
Figure 3-15. Serve elbow flexion/extension angle of the overhand serve 51
Figure 3-16. Serve elbow flexion/extension angle of the overhand serve from the early cocking to the ball impact phase 51
Figure 3-17. Serve wrist flexion/extension angle of the overhand serve 52
Figure 3-18. Serve wrist flexion/extension angle of the overhand serve from the early cocking to the ball impact phase 52
Figure 3-19. Trunk flexion/extension angle of the jump serve 54
Figure 3-20. Trunk flexion/extension angle of the jump from the early cocking to the ball impact phase 54
Figure 3-21. Trunk lateral flexion angle of the jump serve 55
Figure 3-22. Trunk lateral flexion angle of the jump serve from the early cocking to the ball impact phase 55
Figure 3-23. Trunk rotation angle of the jump serve 56
Figure 3-24. Trunk rotation angle of the jump serve from the early cocking to the ball impact phase 56
Figure 3-25. Serve shoulder elevation angle of the jump serve 58
Figure 3-26. Serve shoulder elevation angle of the jump serve from the early cocking to the ball impact phase 58
Figure 3-27. Serve shoulder rotation angle of the jump serve 59
Figure 3-28. Serve shoulder rotation angle of the jump serve from the early cocking to the ball impact phase 59
Figure 3-29. The elevation plane of the serve shoulder of the jump serve 60
Figure 3-30. The elevation plane of the serve shoulder of the jump serve from the early cocking to the ball impact phase 60
Figure 3-31. Serve elbow flexion/extension angle of the jump serve 61
Figure 3-32. Serve elbow flexion/extension angle of the jump serve from the early cocking to the ball impact phase 62
Figure 3-33. Serve wrist flexion/extension angle of the jump serve 62
Figure 3-34. Serve wrist flexion/extension angle of the jump serve from the early cocking to the ball impact phase 63
Figure 3-35. Angular range of the trunk extension in overhand serve (OS) and jump serve (JS) 76
Figure 3-36. Angular range of the trunk lateral flexion in overhand serve (OS) and jump serve (JS) 77
Figure 3-37. Angular range of serve shoulder elevation in overhand serve (OS) and jump serve (JS) 77
Figure 3-38. Maximum velocity of the trunk, shoulder, elbow, wrist and hand center in overhand serve (OS) 80
Figure 3-39. Maximum velocity of the trunk, shoulder, elbow, wrist and hand center in jump serve (JS) 80
Figure 3-40. Maximum velocity of the trunk, shoulder, elbow, wrist and hand center in overhand serve (OS) and jump serve (JS) 81
Figure 3-41. Anterior linear velocity of the center of trunk, shoulder, elbow, wrist in overhand serve 82
Figure 3-42. Anterior linear velocity of the center of trunk, shoulder, elbow, wrist in jump serve 83
Figure 3-43. Time instant of the maximum velocity in percentage in overhand serve (OS) 85
Figure 3-44. Time instant of the maximum velocity in percentage in jump serve (JS) 85
Figure 3-45. Time instant of the maximum velocity in percentage of the trunk, shoulder, elbow, wrist and hand in overhand serve (OS) and jump serve (JS) 86
Figure A-1-A-2. The beginning of the preparation phase of the overhand serve 110
Figure A-3. Preparation phase of the overhand serve 110
Figure A-4. The beginning of the early cocking phase of the overhand serve 110
Figure A-5. The beginning of the late cocking phase of the overhand serve 111
Figure A-6. The beginning of the fast acceleration phase of the overhand serve 112
Figure A-7. The ball impact phase of the overhand serve 112
Figure A-8- A-9. The follow through phase of the overhand serve 112
Figure A-10- A-11. The beginning of the preparation phase of the jump serve 113
Figure A-12- A-13. Preparation phase of the jump serve 113
Figure A-14. Preparation phase of the jump serve 113
Figure A-15. Jump in preparation phase of the jump serve 113
Figure A-16. The beginning of the early cocking phase of the jump serve 114
Figure A-17. The beginning of the late cocking phase of the jump serve 114
Figure A-18. The beginning of the fast acceleration phase of the jump serve 114
Figure A-19. The end of the ball impact phase of the jump serve 115
Figure A-20-A-21. The follow-thorough phase of the jump serve 115
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