||The Antecedents and Consequences of Dynamic Resource Management Model for Organizational Competitiveness
||The Antecedents and Consequences of Dynamic Resource Management Model for Organizational Competitiveness
||Institute of International Management (IIMBA--Master)(on the job class)
Competitive Advantage and Business Performance
As Taiwan’s industries are facing the dynamic change of the environment, the expandable industrial potential market also draws the increasing competitive challenges. Taiwan's future development will have to rely on further transformation to a high technology and service-oriented economy. And the industry has to create the industrial advantages and upgrade the added values in the global industrial value chain. And Taiwan’s economy has largely consisted of small and medium-sized enterprises with the people who are willing to take the risks involved to undertake a business venture. With such social entrepreneurship, Taiwan business entrepreneurs often are willing to accept a high level of personal, professional or financial risk to pursue competitve advantages.
This study intends to explore the status of dynamic resource management model of value creation in Taiwan industries which have not been tested in eastern developing countries. And this study also intends to empirically test the dynamic resource management model of value creation proposed by Sirmon et al. (2007) and to examines whether entrepreneurial orientation can determine the resource management process inside the firm.
This study evaluates seven major research questions and comes up with the conclusion as (1) environmental uncertainty, including dynamics of industry structure and environmental munificence has influenced on firm’s resource management, including structuring the resource portfolio, bundling resources to build capabilities and leveraging capabilities to exploit market opportunities. (2) entrepreneurial orientation, including innovativeness, risk taking and proactiveness, has influenced on firm’s resource management, including structuring the resource portfolio, bundling resources to build capabilities and leveraging capabilities to exploit market opportunities. (3) entrepreneurial orientation, including innovativeness, risk taking and proactiveness, has influenced on business performance, including non-financial performance and financial performance. (4) firm’s resource management, including structuring the resource portfolio, bundling resources to build capabilities and leveraging capabilities to exploit market opportunities, has influenced on competitive advantage, including competitive ability development and competitive performance. (5) firm’s competitive advantage, including competitive ability development and competitive performance, has influenced on business performance, including non-financial performance and financial performance. (6) environmental uncertainty plays a moderating role on the relationship between, however according to the test results, the results unveil that not all facets of environmental uncertainty play a moderator role on the relationship between firm’s entrepreneurial orientation and firm’s business performance. (7) firm’s entrepreneurial orientation plays a moderating role on the relationship between firm’s resource management and firm’s competitive advantage, however according to the test results, the results unveil that not all facets of entrepreneurial orientation play a moderator role on the relationship between firm’s resource management and competitive advantage.
TABLE OF CONTENTS VIII
LIST OF FIGURES XII
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Research Background and Motivations 1
1.2 The Purpose and Scope of the Study 6
1.3 Research Process 8
1.4 Structure of This Study 8
CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 10
2.1 Definition of Conceptual Model 10
2.1.1 Resource-based View and Resource Management Process 10
188.8.131.52 Structuring The Resource Portfolio 13
184.108.40.206 Bundling The Resources to Build Capabilities Structuring 15
220.127.116.11 Leveraging Capabilities to Exploit Market Opportunities 16
2.1.2 Environment 19
18.104.22.168 Definition of Environment 19
22.214.171.124 Environment Uncertainty 20
126.96.36.199 Dimension of Environment 21
2.1.3 Entrepreneurial Orientation 25
2.1.4 Competitive Advantage 26
2.1.5 Performance 27
2.2 Hypothesis Development 28
2.2.1 Resources Management and Environmental Uncertainty 28
2.2.2 Resources Management and Entrepreneurial Orientation 30
2.2.3 Resources Management and Competitve Advantage 32
2.2.4 Competitve Advantage and Performance 33
2.2.5 Entrepreneurial Orientation and Performance 35
CHAPTER THREE RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY 39
3.1 The model 39
3.2 Construct Measurement 40
3.2.1 Resources Management 40
3.2.2 Environmental Uncertainty 42
3.2.3 Entrepreneurial Orientation 43
3.2.4 Competitive Advantage44 44
3.2.5 Business Perfonmance 45
3.3 Data Selection and Sampling 46
3.4 Questionnaire Design 47
3.5 Data Analysis Procedure 47
3.5.1 Descriptive Statistic Analysis 47
3.5.2 Purification and Reliability of the Measurement Variables 48
3.5.3 Relationships between Research Variables 49
CHAPTER FOUR DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS AND RELIABILITY TESTING 50
4.1 Descriptive Analysis 50
4.1.1 Response Rates 50
4.1.2 Characteristics of Sample Firms and Respondents 51
4.1.3 Measurement Results for Relevant Research Variables 53
4.2 Exploratory Factor Analysis 58
4.2.1 Structuring of Resource Management Analysis 59
4.2.2 Bundling of Resource Management Analysis 60
4.2.3 Leveraging of Resource Management Analysis 61
4.2.4 Environment Uncertainty Analysis 62
4.2.5 Entrepreneurial Orientation Analysis 63
4.2.6 Competitive Advantage Analysis 64
4.2.7 Business Performance Analysis 65
CHAPTER FIX DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS AND RELIABILITY TESTING 67
5.1 The Influence of Environmental Uncertainty on Resources Management 67
5.1.1 The Influence of Environmental Uncertainty on Structuring of Resource Management 68
5.1.2 The Influence of Environmental uncertainty on Bundling of Resource Management 70
5.1.3 The Influence of Environmental uncertainty on Leveraging of Resource Management 73
5.2 The Influence of Entrepreneurial Orientation on Resource Management 76
5.2.1 The Influence of Entrepreneurial Orientation on Structuring of Resource Management 76
5.2.2 The Influence of Entrepreneurial Orientation on Bundling of Resource Management 78
5.2.3 The Influence of Entrepreneurial Orientation on Leveraging of Resource Management 81
5.3 The Influence of Entrepreneurial Orientation on Business Performance 84
5.4 The Influence of Resource Management on Competitive Advantage 87
5.4.1 The Influence of Structuring of Resource management on Bundling of Resource Management 87
5.4.2 The Influence of Bundling of Resource management on Leveraging of Resource Management 90
5.4.3 The Influence Leveraging of Resource Management of on Competitive Advantage 93
5.5 The Influence of Competitive Advantage on Business Performance 95
5.6 The Moderating Role of Environmental Uncertainty on Entrepreneurial Orientation and Business Performance 98
5.6.1 The Moderating Role of Dynamics of Industry Structure of Environmental Uncertainty on Entrepreneurial Orientation and Business Performance 98
5.6.2 The Moderating Role of Environmental Munificence of Environmental Uncertainty on Entrepreneurial Orientation and Business Performance 100
5.7 The Moderating Role of Entrepreneurial Orientation on Resource Management and Competitive Advantage 104
5.7.1 The Moderating Role of Innovativeness of Entrepreneurial Orientation on Resource Management and Competitive Advantage 104
5.7.2 The Moderating Role of Risk Taking of Entrepreneurial Orientation on Resource Management and Competitive Advantage 105
5.7.3 The Moderating Role of Proactiveness of Entrepreneurial Orientation on Resource Management and Competitive Advantage 107
CHAPTER SIX CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION 110
6.1 Research Conclusions and Managerial Implications 110
6.2 Managerial Implications 113
6.3 Research Limitations and Future Suggestions 115
Adner, R. 2002. When are technologies disruptive? A demand- based view of the emergence of competition. Strategic Management Journal, 23: 667–688.
Ahuja, G., & Lampert, C. M. 2001. Entrepreneurship in the large corporation: A longitudinal study of how established firms create breakthrough inventions. Strategic Management Journal, 22(Special Issue): 521–543.
Alvarez, S., & Barney, J. B. 2002. Resource-based theory and the entrepreneurial firm. In M. A. Hitt, R. D. Ireland, S. M. Camp, & D. L. Sexton (Eds.), Strategic entrepreneurship: Creating a new mindset: 89–105. Oxford: Blackwell.
Arago´n-Correa, J. A., & Sharma, S. 2003. A contingent resource- based view of proactive corporate environmental strategy. Academy of Management Review, 28: 71–88.
Barney, J. B. 1986. Strategic factor markets: Expectations, luck, and business strategy. Management Science, 32: 1231–1241.
Barney, J. B. (1991). Firm resources and sustained competitive advantage. Journal of Management, 17, 100–120.
Baum, J. R., & Wally, S. 2003. Strategic decision speed and firm performance. Strategic Management Journal, 24: 1107–1129.
Becker, B. B., & Huselid, M. A. 1998. High performance work systems. and firm performance: A synthesis of research and managerial implications. Research in Personnel and Human Resource Management, 16, 53–101.
Bettis, R. A., & Hitt, M. A. 1995. The new competitive landscape. Strategic Management Journal, 16(Special issue): 7-19.
Bird. B, 1988. Implementing entrepreneurial ideas: The case for intention. Academy oi Management Review. 13: 442-453
Black, J. A., & Boal, K. B. 1994. Strategic resources: Traits, configurations and paths to sustainable competitive advantage. Strategic Management Journal, 15, 131–148.
Bowman, E. H., & Hurry, D. 1993. Strategy through the options lens: An integrated view of resource investment and the incremental choice process. Academy of Management Review, 18: 760–782.
Brown, S., & Eisenhardt, K. M. 1997. The art of continuous change: Linking complexity theory and time-paced evolution in relentlessly shifting organizations. Administrative Science Quarterly, 42: 1–34.
Brown, S., & Eisenhardt, K. M. 1998. Competing on the edge: Strategy as structured chaos. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.
Brush, T. H., & Artz, K. A. 1999. Toward a contingent resourcebased theory: The impact of information asymmetry on the value of capabilities in veterinary medicine. Strategic Management Journal, 20: 223–250.
Burgelman, R. A. 1983. A process model of internal corporate venturing in the diversified major firm. Administrative Science Quarterly, 28: 223-244.
Business Week. 1993. Enterprise. [Special issue].
Byrd, T. A., & Turner, D. E. 2001. An exploratory examination of the relationship between flexible IT infrastructure and competitive advantage. Information and Management, 39, 41–52.
Carpenter, M. A., & Fredrickson, J. W. 2001. Top management teams, global strategic posture and the moderating role of uncertainty. Academy of Management Journal, 44: 533–545.
Castrogiovanni, G. J. 1991. Environmental munificence: A theoretical assessment. Academy of Management Review, 16: 542–565.
Chatzkel, J. 2002. A conversation with Goran Roos. Journal of Intellectual Capital, 3(2): 96–117.
Christensen, C. M. 1997. The innovator’s dilemma. Boston: Harvard University Press.
Clemons, E. K. 1991. Corporate strategies for information technology: A resource-based approach. Computer, 24(11), 23–32.
Collins, O., & Moore, D. 1970. The organization makers. New York: Appleton-Century- Crofts.
Conner, K. 1991. A historical comparison of resource-based 2007 Sirmon, Hitt, & Ireland 289 logic and five schools of thought within industrial organization economics: Do we have a new theory of the firm? Journal of Management, 17: 121–154.
Cooper. A. C . & Dunkelberg, Vf. C. 1986. Entrepreneurship and paths to business ownership. Strategic Management Journal. 7: 53-6
Covin. J. G.. & Slevin. D. P. 1989. Strategic management of smallfirms in hostile and benign environments. Strategic Management Journal. 10: 75-87.
Covin, I. G.. & Slevin, D. P. 1991. A conceptual model of entrepreneurship as firm behavior. Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice. 16(1): 7-24.
David G. Sirmon, Michael A, Hitt & R. Duane Ireland 2007. Managing firm resources in dynamic environments to create value: looking indside the black box. Academy of Management Review, Vol. 32, No. 1, 273–292.
Dean, C. C , Thibodeaux, M. S.. Beyerlein, M.. Ebrahimi, B., & Molina. D. 1993. Corporate entrepreneurship and competitive aggressiveness: A comparison of U.S. firms operating in Eastern Europe or the Commonwealth of Independent States with U.S. firms in other high-risk environments. In S. B. Prasad (Ed.), Advances in international and comparative management: 31-54. Greenwich, CT: lAI Press.
Denrell, J., Fang, C., & Winter, S. G. 2003. The economics of strategic opportunity. Strategic Management Journal, 24: 977–990.
Dess, G., & Beard, D. (1984). Dimensions of organizational task environments. Administrative Science Quarterly, 29, 52-73.
Dess, G.G., Lumpkin, G.T., & Covin, J.G. 1997. Entrepreneurial strategy making and firm performance: Tests of contingency and configurational models. Strategic Management Journal, 18: 677–695.
Dierickx, I., & Cool, K. 1989. Asset stock accumulation and sustainability of competitive advantage. Management Science, 35: 1504–1511.
Douglas W. Lyon, G.T. Lumpkin & Gregory G. Dess 2000. Enhancing Entrepreneurial Orientation Research: Operationalizing and Measuring a Key Strategic Decision Making Process. Journal of Management, Vol. 26, No. 5, 1055–1085
Duckson, P.H., & Wearver,, K.M. 1997b. Environmental determinants and individual-level moderators of alliance use. Academy of management Journal, 40(2), 1-22.
Duncan, R. B. (1972). Characteristics of organizational environments and perceived environmental uncertainty. Administrative Science Quarterly, 17, 313-327.
Eric flamholtz, Wei hua, 2003. Searching for Competitive Advantage in the Black Box European Management Journal Vol. 21, No. 2, pp. 222–236, 2003
Fredrickson. J. 1986. The strategic decision making process and organizational structure. Academy of Management Review. 11: 280-297.
Gale, B. 1972. Market share and rate of return. The Review of Economics and Statistics, 54: 412–423.
Galbraith, C., Schendel, D., 1983. An empirical analysis of strategy types. Strategic Management Journal 4, 153–173.
Ginsberg, A. 1985. Measuring changes in entrepreneurial orientation following industry deregulation: The development of a diagnostic instrument. Proceedings of the International Council of Small Business: 50-57.
Glynn, M. A., Milliken, F., & Lant, T. 1992. Learning about organizational learning theory: An umbrella of organizing processes. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Academy of Management, Las Vegas.
Gold, A. H., Malhotra, A., & Segars, A. H. 2001. Knowledge management: An organizational capabilities perspective. Journal of Management Information Systems, 18(1), 185–214.
Guth, W.D., & Ginsberg, A. 1990. Guest editors’ introduction: Corporate entrepreneurship. Strategic Management Journal, 11: 5–15.
Hamel, G., & Prahalad, C. K. 1994. Competing for the future. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.
Hamel, G., 2000. Leading the Revolution. Harvard Univ. Press, Cambridge, MA.
Hart, S. L. 1992. An integrative framework for strategy-making processes. Academy of Management Review. 17: 327-351.
Henard, D.H., & Szymanski, D.M., (2001). Why some new products are more successful than others. Journal of Marketing Research 38 (3), 362-375.
Hitt, M.A., Hoskisson, R.E., & Kim, H. 1997. International diversification: Effects on innovation and firm performance in product-diversified firms. Academy of Management Journal, 40: 767–798.
Hitt, M. A., Dacin, M. T., Levitas, E., Arregle, J., & Borza, A. 2000. Partner selection in emerging and developed market contexts: Resource-based and organizational learning perspectives. Academy of Management Journal, 43: 449–467.
Hoopes, D. G., Madsen, T. L., & Walker, G. 2003. Guest editors’ introduction to the special issue: Why is there a resource- based view? Toward a theory of competitive heterogeneity. Strategic Management Journal, 24(Special Issue): 889–902.
Ireland, R. D., Hitt, M. A., & Sirmon, D. G. 2003. Strategic entrepreneurship: The construct and its dimensions Journal of Management, 29: 963–989.
Ireland, R. D., & Webb, J. W. 2006. International entrepreneurship in emerging economies: A resource-based perspective. In A. Cooper, S. A. Alvarez, A. Carrera, L. Mesquita, & R. Vassolo (Eds.), Entrepreneurship and innovation in emerging economies: 47–69: Oxford: Blackwell.
Jennings, D.F., & Lumpkin, J.R. 1989. Functioning modeling corporate entrepreneurship: An empirical integrative analysis. Journal of Management, 15: 485–502.
Jenny, F., Weber, A.P., 1976. Profit rates and structural variables in French manufacturing industries. European Economic Review 7, 187–206.
Johnson, W. H. A. 2002. Leveraging intellectual capital through product and process management of human capital. Journal of Intellectual Capital, 3: 415–429.
Johannessen, J.,&Olsen, B. 2003. Knowledge management and sustainable competitive advantages: The impact of dynamic contextual training. International Journal of Information Management, 23, 277–289.
Jurkovich, R. (1974). A core typology of organizational environments. Administrative Science Quarterly, 19, 380-394.
Justin, T., & Mike, W. P. 2003. Organizational slack and firm performance during economic transitions: Two studies from an emerging economy. Strategic Management Journal, 24, 1249-1263.
Kanter. R. M. 1983. The change masters: Innovation and entrepreneurship in (the American corporation. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Katz. J., Si Gartner. W. B. 1988. Properties of emerging organizations. Academy of Management Review. 13:429-441.
Kazanjian, R. K., Drazin, R., & Glynn, M. A. 2002. Implementing strategies for corporate entrepreneurship: A knowledge- based perspective. In M. A. Hitt, R. D. Ireland, S. M. Camp, & D. L. Sexton (Eds.), Strategic entrepreneurship: Creating a new mindset: 173–199. Oxford: Blackwell.
Keats, B. W., & Hitt, M. A. 1988. A causal model of linkages among environmental dimensions, macro organizational characteristics, and performance. Academy of Management Journal, 31: 570–598.
Kim, W. C., & Mauborgne, R. 1997. Value innovation: The strategic logic of high growth. Harvard Business Reviews. 75(1): 102-112.
Kogut, B. 1991. Joint ventures and the option to expand and acquire. Management Science, 37: 19–33.
Lambin, J.J. (Ed.), 1976. Advertising, Competition, and Market Conduct in Oligopoly over Time. North Holland Publishing Co, Amsterdam.
Lawrence, P. R., & Lorsch, J. W. 1969. Organization and Environment. Homewood I11: Richard D.Irwin.
Lichtenstein, B. M. B., & Brush, C. G. 2001. How do “resource bundles” develop and change in new ventures? A dynamicmodel and longitudinal exploration. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 25: 37–58.
Lippman, S. A., & Rumelt, R. P. 2003. A bargaining perspective on resource advantage. Strategic Management Journal, 24: 1069–1086.
Lumpkin, G.T., & Dess, G.G. 1996. Clarifying the entrepreneurial orientation construct and linking it to performance. Academy of Management Review, 21: 135–172.
Lumpkin, G.T., & Dess, G.G. 1997. Proactiveness versus competitive aggressiveness: Teasing apart key dimensions of an entrepreneurial orientation: 47–58 in P. Reynolds, W. Bygrave, N. Carter, P. Davidsson, W. Gartner, C. Mason & P. McDougall (Eds.), Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research. Wellesley, MA: Babson College.
Lumpkin, G.T. 1998. Do new entrant firms have an entrepreneurial orientation? Paper presented at the Academy of Management Meetings, San Diego, CA.
Makadok, R. 2001. Towards a synthesis of the resource-based and dynamic-capabilities views of rent creation. Strategic Management Journal, 22: 387–401.
Makadok, R. 2003. Doing the right thing and knowing the right thing to do: Why the whole is greater than the sum of the parts. Strategic Management Journal, 24: 1043–1056.
Mata, F. J., fuerst, W. L., & Barney, J. B. 1995. Information technology and sustained competitive advantage: A resource-based analysis. MIS Quarterly, 19(4), 487–505
McGrath, R. G., & Nerker, A. 2004. Real options reasoning and a new look at the R&D investment strategies of pharmaceutical firms. Strategic Management Journal, 25: 1–21.
Miles, R. E., Snow, C. C., & Pfeffer, J. (1974). Organization-environment: Concepts and Iuuses. Industrial Relations, 13, 244-264.
Miles. R.. & Snow. C. 1978. Organizational strategy, structure, and process. New York: Mc-Graw-Hill.
Miles, R.H., 1982. Coffin Nails and Corporate Strategies. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.
Miller, D.. & Friesen. P. 1978. Archetypes of strategy formulation. Management Science. 24:921-933.
Miller. D. 1983. The correlates of entrepreneurship in three types of firms. Management Science, 29: 770-791.
Miller, D., 1986. Configurations of strategy and structure: towards a synthesis. Strategic Management Journal 7, 233–249.
Miller, D., & Shamsie, J. 1996. The resource-based view of the290 Academy of Management Review January firm in two environments: The Hollywood film studios from 1936 to 1965. Academy of Management Journal, 39: 519–543.
Miller, K.D., & Leiblein, M.J. 1996. Corporate risk-return relations: Returns variability versus downside risk. Academy of Management Journal, 39: 91–122.
Miller, D., & Shamsie, J. 1996. The resource-based view of the firm in two environments: The Hollywood film studios from 1936 to 1965. Academy of Management Journal, 39: 519–543.
Miller, D., Eisenstat, R., & Foote, N. 2002. Strategy from the inside out: Building capability-creating organizations. California Management Review, 44(3): 37–54.
Miller, D. 2003. An asymmetry-based view of advantage: Towards an attainable sustainability. Strategic Management Journal, 24: 961–976.
Mintzberg, H., & Waters, J.A. 1985. Of strategies, deliberate and emergent. Strategic Management Journal, 6: 257–272.
Morris. M. H.. & Paul, G. W. 1987. The relationship between entrepreneurship and marketing in established firms. Journal of Business Venturing. 2(3): 247-259.
Morrow, J. L. Jr., Sirmon, D. G., Hitt, M. A., & Holcomb, T. R. 2007. Creating value in the face of declining performance: Firm strategies and organization recovery. Strategic Management Journal.
Murphy, G.B., Trailer, J.W., & Hill, R.C. 1996. Measuring performance in entrepreneurship research. Journal of Business Research, 36: 15–23.
Nahapiet, J., & Ghoshal, S. 1998. Social capital, intellectual capital, and the organizational advantage. Academy of Management Review, 23(2), 242–266.
Naman. J. L., & Slevin, D. P. 1993. Entrepreneurship and the concept of fit: A model and empirical tests. Strategic Management Journal. 14: 137-153
Pascale, R. 1985. The paradox of 'corporate culture': Reconciling ourselves to socialization. California Management Review, 27(2): 26-41.
Penrose, E. T. 1959. The theory of the growth of the firm. New York: Wiley.
Peters, T., & Waterman, R. 1982. Jn searcii of excellence. New York: Harper & Row.
Porter, M. E. 1980. Competitive strategy. New York: Free Press.
Porter, M.E. 1985 Competitive Advantage. The Free Press, New York.
Powell, T. C. 2001. Competitive advantage: Logical and philosophical considerations. Strategic Management Journal, 22: 875–888.
Priem, R. L., & Butler, J. E. 2001. Is the resource-based view a useful perspective for strategic management research? Academy of Management Review, 26: 22–40.
Puranam, P., Singh, H., & Zollo, M. 2003. A bird in the hand or two in the bush? Integration trade-offs in technology grafting acquisitions. European Management Journal, 21: 179–184.
Rajagopalan, N. A., Rasheed, A., & Datta, D. K. 1993. Strategic decision processes: Critical review and future direction. Journal of Management, 19: 349–384.
Ricardo, D. 1817. Principles of political economy and taxation. London: Murray.
Robert J. Vokurka, 2004. Operationalising the balanced scorecard using the Malcolm Baldrige Criteria for Performance Excellence (MBCPE). Management and Enterprise Development, Vol. 1, No. 3, 2004
Rumelt, R. P. 1984. Towards a strategic theory of the firm. In R. B. Lamb(Ed.), Competitive Strategic Management (pp. 566–570). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Schafer, D. S. 1990. Level of entrepreneurship and scanning source usage in very small businesses. Entrepreneursiiip Theory & Practice. 15(2): 19-31.
Schendel, D.E., & Hofer, C.W. 1979. Strategic management: A new view of business policy and planning. Boston: Little, Brown.
Schollhammer, H. 1982. Internal corporate entrepreneurship. In C. A. Kent, D. L. Sexton. &K. H. Vesper (Eds.). Encyclopedia of entrepreneurship: 209-223. Englewood Cliifs, NJ: 1 Prentice Hall.
Schumpeter, J. A. 1934. The theory of economic development. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Sean Lian. 2007. Internal , External Environment, Strategic Choice and Performance. Unpublished master’s thesis. National Cheng Kung University.
Siggelkow, N. 2002. Evolution toward fit. Administrative Science Quarterly, 47: 125–159.
Simonin, B. L. 1999. Ambiguity and the process of knowledge transfer in strategic alliances. Strategic Management Journal, 20: 595–623.
Sirmon, D. G., & Hitt, M. A. 2003. Managing resources: Linking unique resources, management and wealth creation in family firms. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 27: 339–358.
Smith, K. G., & Di Gregorio, D. 2002. Bisociation, discovery and the role of entrepreneurial action. In M. A. Hitt, R. D. Ireland, S. M. Camp, & D. L. Sexton (Eds.), Strategic entrepreneurship: Creating a new mindset: 129–150. Oxford: Blackwell.
Smith, K. Collins, C., & Clark, K. 2005. Existing knowledge, knowledge creation capability, and the rate of new product introduction in high-technology firms. Academy of Management Journal, 48: 346–357.
Spender, J.-C. 1989. Industry recipes: The nature and source of managerial judgment, Oxford: Blackwell.
Stevenson, H. H., & Jarillo. J, C, 1990. A paradigm of entrepreneurship: Entrepreneurial management. Strategic management journal [Special issue], 11: 17-27.
Teece, D. J., Pisano, G., & Shuen, A. 1997. Dynamic capabilities and strategic management. Strategic Management Journal, 20, 595–623.
Thomke, S., & Kuemmerle, W. 2002. Assets accumulation, interdependence and technological change: Evidence from pharmaceutical drug discovery. Strategic Management Journal, 23: 619–635.
Tung, R. (1979) Dimensions of organizational environments: An exploratory study of their impact on organizational structure. Academy of Management Review, 22, 672-693.
Tushman, M. L., & Anderson, P. 1986. Technological discontinuities and organizational environments. Administrative Science Quarterly, 31: 439–465.
Uhlenbruck, K., Meyer, K. E., & Hitt, M. A. 2003. Organizational transformation in transition economies: Resourcebased and organizational learning perspectives. Journal of Management Studies, 40: 257–282.
Van de Ven, A., Venkataraman, S., Polley, D., & Garud, R. 1989. Processes of new business creation in different organizational settings. In A. Van de Ven, H. Angle, & M. S. Poole (Eds.), Research on the management of innovation: The Minnesota studies: 221–298. New York: Ballinger/ Harper & Row.
Vesper, K.H. 1980. New venture strategies. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice–Hall.
Wan, W. P., & Hoskisson, R.E. 2003. Home country environments, corporate diversification strategies, and firm performance. Academy of Management Journal, 46: 27-45.
Webster. F. A. 1977. Entrepreneurs and ventures: An attempt at classification and clarification. Academy of Management Review. 2: 54-61
Wernerfelt, B. 1984. A resource-based view of the firm. Strategic Management Journal, 5(2), 171–180.
White, R.E., 1986. Generic business strategies, organisational context and performance: an empirical investigation. Strategic Management Journal 7, 217–231.
Wiklund, J., 1999. The sustainability of the entrepreneurial orientation–performance relationship. Entrepreneurship Theor. Pract. 24 (1), 37–48.
Yeoh, P. L., & Roth, K. 1999. An empirical analysis of sustained advantage in the U.S. pharmaceutical industry: Impact of firm resources and capabilities. Strategic Management Journal, 20: 637–653.
Zahra, S., 1991. Predictors and financial outcomes of corporate entrepreneurship: an explorative study. J. Bus. Venturing 6, 259–285.
Zahra, S.A. 1993. Environment, corporate entrepreneurship, and financial performance: A taxonomic approach. Journal of Business Venturing, 8: 319–340.
Zahra. S. A.. & Covin, J. G. 1993. Business strategy, technology policy and firm performance. Strategic Management Journal. 14: 451-478.
Zahra, S., Covin, J., 1995. Contextual influence on the corporate entrepreneurship–performance relationship: a longitudinal analysis. J. Bus. Venturing 10, 43–58.
Zahra, S.A. & George, G. 2002. Absorptive capacity: a review, reconceptualization, and extension. Academy of Management Review, 27, 185-203
Zott, C. 2003. Dynamic capabilities and the emergence of intraindustry differential firm performance: Insights from a simulation study. Strategic Management Journal, 24: 97–125.