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系統識別號 U0026-0812200914365960
論文名稱(中文) 語言相對論假設之檢驗: 時態與性別
論文名稱(英文) Two Tests of Linguistic Relativity Hypothesis: Tense and Gender
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 認知科學研究所
系所名稱(英) Institute of Cognitive Science
學年度 96
學期 2
出版年 97
研究生(中文) 蘇瑞如
研究生(英文) Jui-ju Su
電子信箱 u7695102@mail.ncku.edu.tw
學號 u7695102
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
論文頁數 105頁
口試委員 指導教授-陳振宇
口試委員-麥傑
口試委員-高實玫
中文關鍵字 語言相對論假設  英語  漢語  性別  時間知覺  時態 
英文關鍵字 Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis  Gender  English  Time perception  Sex  Tense  Chinese 
學科別分類
中文摘要 語言相對論假設中指出不同的語言具有不同的詞語及不同的文法形式,而這些不同會將語言使用者的注意力偏向於不一樣的層面,於是使用不同語言的人對整個現實世界的看法會稍有不同,在這篇論文中,我們針對漢語與英語中時態與性別上語言形式的不同檢驗語言相對論的假設。在時態方面,英語有時態標記而漢語沒有,所以我們預測 (1) 英語使用者在描述事件發生時間點的時候正確率會高於漢語使用者 (2)英語使用者的時間知覺廣度會比漢語使用者的時間知覺廣度還要大而且較細緻。在性別方面,英語中第三人稱單數的使用明確的標記出將人的性別而漢語沒有,所以我們預測在對人的性別做提取的時候,英語使用者會比漢語使用者更快更容易。在本論文中,實驗一及實驗二會檢驗時態的預測,實驗三及實驗四會檢驗性別的預測。
在實驗1及2中,請英語及漢語受試者描述所看到的照片中的事件發生的時間點,受試者看的事件照片有未來的時間點(例如: 準備要跨過一個橫木),正在發生的時間點(例如: 正在跨越一個橫木),過去發生的時間點(例如: 剛剛跨過一個橫木);實驗結果顯示,英語受試者對照片中事件發生時間點的描述的正確率高於漢語受試者,而且漢語受試者對未來及過去事件的描述的正確率特別的低;如果請漢語受試者特別注意照片中事件發生時間點的不同時,漢語受試者對未來及過去事件的描述的正確率會提高,可是對正在發生的事件的描述的正確率卻相對的降低了。在實驗3a及3b中,我們用同樣的照片及所有正確的描述來當做實材料,請英語及漢語受試者在時間軸上標出這些事件發生的時間點,我們預先設定時間軸的中心點為正在發生的時間點,因此,受試者所標出的過去事件時間點的距離及未來事件時間點的距離的總合就形成了受試者對事件發生時間的時間知覺廣度;實驗結果顯示,英語受試者的時間知覺廣度比漢語受試者的時間知覺廣度大。在實驗3c中,請相同的這些受試者根據已顯示的句子,在水平的空間軸上標出物件跟參照點之間的相對位置,水平空間軸的中心點為預先設定的參照點位置;結果顯示,英語受試者的左右空間知覺廣度比漢語受試者的左右空間知覺廣度大。在實驗3d中,請相同的這些受試者根據電腦螢幕上的目標日期,在時間軸上標出目標日期與參照日期之間的相對位置,時間軸的中心點為預先設定的參照日期的位置,目標日期與參照日期之間的差距有一天、兩天、三天、五天及十天;結果顯示,英語受試者的日期時間知覺廣度比漢語受試者的日期時間知覺廣度大,而且目標日期與參照日期之間的差距越大,英語受試者與漢語受試者之間的日期時間知覺廣度的差距也越大。
在實驗4中,請英語及漢語受試者聽一小段故事,每一段故事都有一個目標人物,這個目標人物的性別可以從故事內容中的一些線索中得知(例如: 有鬍子或是穿著裙子),除此之外,指目標人物的第三人稱單數“他”或“她”會在故事中出現很多次(在英文版中是he或she,在中文版中是 ‘ta’ ),受試者在聽完每一段故事後,必需回答三個跟故事內容有關的問題,其中會有一個問題問到故事中目標人物的性別;實驗結果顯示,受試者在回答目標人物性別的問題時快於回答其他非性別相關的問題,而且英語受試者的回答速度快於漢語受試者,正確率也高於漢語受試者。在實驗5中,請英語及漢語受試者根據先前所看到的句子,從螢幕上的兩張照片中選出一張符合句中描述的照片,這些句子中,有的是以人的性別為主(他/她是一位醫生),有的是以人的職業為主(他是一位醫生/老師),或只是以物件為主(這是橘子/蘋果) ;實驗結果顯示,受試者在回答人的性別的問題時慢於回答非性別相關的問題,而且英語受試者所慢下來的時間比漢語受試者的少,正確率也高於漢語受試者。
總的來看,本論文中時態與性別的實驗結果與語言相對論的假設一致。
英文摘要 The Linguistic Relativity Hypothesis states that different languages take on different lexical and grammatical forms and these can bias speakers’ attention towards different aspects of the world. Accordingly, speakers of different languages will develop somewhat different views of the world. The Hypothesis was tested in this thesis with respect to the linguistic forms of tense and gender in English and Mandarin Chinese. In terms of tense, English uses tense markers, but Chinese does not. Therefore, it was predicted that (1) English speakers would be more accurate in capturing the time of an event than Chinese speakers, and (2) English speakers tended to employ a larger time scale (more fine-grained) than Chinese speakers. In terms of gender, English marks third-person singular pronouns for biological gender, while Chinese does not. Therefore, it was predicted that the biological gender of a person would be more readily accessible for English speakers than for Chinese speakers. Experiments 1, 2 and 3 tested the tense predictions. Experiments 4 and 5 tested the gender prediction.
Experiments 1 and 2 asked English and Chinese participants to verbally describe action events shown in photographs, which were taken at three different time points (future: is about to cross over a log, present: is crossing over a log, past: has crossed over a log). It was found that English participants were more accurate in capturing the times of the events, whereas Chinese participants were particularly poor in capturing the past and the future times of the events. When instructed to pay special attention to the time of an event when describing it, Chinese participants improved their descriptions of the past and the future events, but at the cost of the present events. Experiment 3a and 3b used the same photographs or their correct verbal descriptions and asked English and Chinese participants to mark on a time line to indicate when an event occurred. The midpoint on the time line was pre-designated as the present time. A time window was calculated by measuring the distance between the marked past and the marked future for an event. It was found that the English participants employed a larger time window than the Chinese speakers. Experiment 3c asked the same participants to mark on a space line to indicate the position of an object relative to a reference, as described in a sentence. The midpoint on the space line was pre-designated as the location of the reference object. The English participants also displayed a larger left-right window size than the Chinese participants. Experiment 3d asked the same participants to mark on a time to indicate the position of a target date relative to a reference date, as shown on the computer screen. The midpoint on the time line was pre-designated as the location of the reference date. The date interval between the target date and the reference date was designed as 1 day, 2 days, 3 days, 5 days, and 10 days. It was found that English participants employed a larger time window for date than Chinese participants and a trend was found in accordance with each date interval.
Experiment 4 played short passages to English and Chinese participants. Each passage contained a target character whose gender was made apparent by the mention of a content-related cue (e.g., having a mustache or wearing a skirt). In addition, third-person singular pronouns (he or she in the English version, and ‘ta’ in the Chinese version) appeared a number of times for referring to the character. After listening to each passage, the participants had to answer three questions, one of which addressed the gender of the target character. It was found that the participants responded to the gender questions faster than to the non-gender questions. Moreover, the English participants were much faster than the Chinese participants. They were also more accurate. Experiment 5 asked English and Chinese participants to determine which of two pictures matched the sentence previously shown. In some cases, the match was based on the gender of the person (e.g., he/she is a doctor), while in others, it was based on the profession of the person (e.g., he is a doctor/teacher) or simply on the objects (e.g., there are two oranges/apples) shown and described. It was found that the participants responded to the gender trials more slowly than to the non-gender trials; however, the English participants were less slower than the Chinese participants. The English participants also responded to the gender trials more accurately than the Chinese participants.
Taken together, the results of the five experiments were consistent with the predictions of the Linguistic Relativity Hypothesis, with respect to tense and gender.
論文目次 Table of Contents
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
1.1 Different views of cognition 1
1.1.1 Cognitive universal vs. cognitive diversity 1
1.1.2 Linguistic universal vs. linguistic diversity 2
1.1.3 Cognition within different cultures 2
1.1.4 Interaction of language, culture and cognition 3
1.2 Cognition within different languages and Linguistic Relativity Hypothesis.4
1.2.1 A brief story of Linguistic Relativity Hypothesis 4
1.2.2 Empirical tests of Linguistic Relativity 8
1.3 Purpose of the present study 18
1.3.1 Self experience of learning English 18
1.3.2 Purpose of this thesis 19
Chapter 2 Tense Marking and the Perception of Time 22
2.1 Background and purpose 22
2.1.1 How Chinese and English express time 22
2.1.2. Purpose of experiments on tense 26
2.2 Experiment 1: Event description – general instructions 27
2.2.1 Rationale and prediction 27
2.2.2 Method …………………………………………………………………28
2.2.3 Results …………………………………………………………………31
2.2.4 Discussion ……………………………………………………………..35
2.3 Experiment 2: Event description – specific instructions 41
2.3.1 Rationale and prediction 41
2.3.2 Method …………………………………………………………………42
2.3.3 Results…………………………………………………………………..44
2.3.4 Discussion………………………………………………………………48
2.4 Experiment 3: The time window of Chinese and English speakers 49
2.4.1 Rationale and prediction 50
2.4.2 Method 51
2.4.3 Results 59
2.4.4 Discussion 63
2.5 Summary and general discussion 66
Chapter 3 Gender Marking and the Perception of Biological Sex 71
3.1 Gender markers in Chinese and English 71
3.1.1 Spoken forms vs. written forms 72
3.1.2 Purpose of experiments on gender 73
3.2 Experiment 4: Spoken forms 73
3.2.1 Rationale and prediction 73
3.2.2 Method 74
3.2.3 Results 76
3.2.4 Discussion 78
3.3 Experiment 5: Written forms 80
3.3.1 Rationale and prediction 80
3.3.2 Method 81
3.3.3 Results 85
3.3.4 Discussion 87
3.4 Summary and general discussion 88

Chapter 4 Summary of Empirical Findings, Conclusion and
Suggestions for Future Research 90
4.1 Summary of research findings 90
4.2 Conclusion 90
4.3 Suggestions for further research 92
References 94
Appendix 1: Quotes of the former people on the relation between language and thought 98
Appendix 2: Sentences represent each action events in the occurring time judgment – sentence condition in Experiment 3b 99
Appendix 3: Sentences of object location in the object location judgment in Experiment 3c 101
Appendix 4: Target dates and reference dates in the date sequence judgment in Experiment 3d 102
Appendix 5: Example story - in the British Airways, in Experiment 4 103
Biography ……………………………………………………………………………….105
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