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系統識別號 U0026-0812200914353433
論文名稱(中文) 霧化殺菌劑對於室內空氣中活性微生物濃度之控制效能評估-以超次亞水應用於幼兒照護機構為例
論文名稱(英文) Evaluate the Effects of Nebulizing Disinfectants on Controlling Indoor Airborne Microbes: Utilizing Hypochlorous Acid in Daycare Center
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 環境醫學研究所
系所名稱(英) Institute of Environmental and Occupational Health
學年度 96
學期 2
出版年 97
研究生(中文) 蘇育民
研究生(英文) Yu-Min Su
學號 s7694401
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 75頁
口試委員 指導教授-蘇慧貞
召集委員-趙馨
口試委員-郭浩然
中文關鍵字 次氯酸水  生物性汙染物  室內空氣品質  幼兒照護機構 
英文關鍵字 biological pollutant  indoor air quality  daycare center  weak acid hypochlorous water 
學科別分類
中文摘要 大多數的人一天約有80%的時間處於室內,且眾多研究顯示室內空氣品質的良窳影響著人員的健康,台灣地處亞熱帶溼度較高且常有室內受潮的問題,導致微生物濃度偏高,文獻指出微生物濃度高會影響人體健康。對於尚在發育且易感的學齡前兒童來說,幼兒照護機構為孩童除了家裡外另一個最常居處的室內環境,所以,照護機構內室內空氣品質的好壞也相對的重要。因此本篇研究將針對生物性的汙染問題,嘗試利用已被證實具有良好的殺菌效果的次氯酸水,霧化噴灑於空氣中,以達降低室內微生物濃度之目的。本研究經由初步之建築物勘查選取其中6間具有潛在生物性汙染的照護機構,做進一步完整之室內空氣品質調查。室內空氣品質量測的結果顯示,生物性汙染物如細菌及真菌,為幼兒照護機構主要之室內空氣汙染物,細菌及真菌濃度分別為4024.03-18803.99 cfu/m3與3891.69-9955.18 cfu/m3,遠高於我國環保署建議標準值1000 cfu/m3,此外在通風較差的環境明顯有較高的濃度值,統計上呈顯著相關。有鑑於空氣品質量測結果,根據幼兒照護機構室外環境與微生物室內/室外的比值的差異,從中挑選2間不同狀況之照護機構,來進行次氯酸水霧化噴灑研究之探討。在介入前先進行一週的生物性採樣,包含細菌及真菌;接著於兒童放學後,利用霧化器於晚間至隔天早上上課前,將次氯酸水霧化後噴灑於空氣中,持續噴灑一週,並同時採集生物性樣本;最後停止噴灑次氯酸水後,再進行一週的生物性採樣,次氯酸水的噴灑實驗分別於夏季與冬季各進行一次。結果顯示,在幼兒照護機構KID4的早上可以看到環境菌在三週期間每週的室內/室外濃度比值中位數(median)冬季分別為2.69、1.18、1.17,夏季分別為5.06、0.61、7.36;真菌冬季分別為1.25、0.75、0.94,夏季分別為1.38、0.63、1.67,比較噴灑前與噴灑後的室內/室外濃度比值,在有噴灑次氯酸水的週次有顯著的下降(p<0.05);在中午則可以看到幼兒照護機構KID4的真菌的室內/室外濃度比值中位數冬季分別為1.13、0.75、1.44,夏季分別為0.95、0.98、4.19,在有噴灑次氯酸水的週次有顯著的下降(p<0.05),而在幼兒照護機構KID1則無顯著差異。而根據在同時段的人員數與細菌濃度的比較,可以發現環境菌及人為菌會在當天隨人員進入而引入,在人較多的情況下細菌室內/室外比值較高(p<0.05)。另外透過在假日有無通風情況下,微生物濃度室內外比值的比較,顯示幼兒照護機構KID1外在的環境菌亦可能會透過自然通風進入室內,造成室內環境菌的提升(p<0.05),使得在幼兒照護機構KID1以及KID4中午過後便無法觀察到次氯酸水於前天噴灑對於環境菌的成效,也無法針對由當天才引入之人為菌來進行消毒。在真菌的部份,雖然可以在幼兒照護機構KID4早上與中午的結果看到次氯酸水可以降低真菌的室內/室外比值(p<0.05),可能是由於照護機構KID1有著室內的容易滋生真菌之汙染源,明顯水害痕跡,汙染源仍會持續釋放真菌至空氣中所致,而次氯酸水僅於前天晚上噴灑,因此隔天照護機構KID1室內的汙染源再度釋放出汙染物,導致無法觀察到次氯酸水的效用。由上述結果顯示,以機械噴灑霧化之次氯酸水的方式,在一個沒有明顯汙染源的條件下,次氯酸水的應用似乎可以對某一段特定時間內微生物濃度的改善,可達到預期的殺菌效果。所以在未來針對應用次氯酸水時,可能需要針對環境的狀況來增加噴灑的時段或是增加其他使用方式如針對可能的汙染源進行擦拭,以期可以達到更有效去除室內空氣中微生物的效果。
英文摘要 Except home, kindergartens or day-care centers may be the indoor environments where pre-school-age children spend most their time. Yet, inadequate ventilation is also known to be attributable to increasing indoor air pollution as pollutants are easily accumulated, and children’s health, thereby, is thought to be in jeopardy. Among all indoor hazards of concerns, microbial contamination is given much attention especially for daycare centers. Many control or remedial strategies have been proposed for use to eliminate the exposure, and application of weak acid hypochlorous water (WAHW), identified as a good disinfectant, and was suggested to be one attractive alternative. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether spraying the WAHW could effectively reduce the airborne microbial environment of daycare centers. The study sites were randomly selected from all registered daycare centers in Tainan city, and asked for participation. Six daycare centers were chosen to investigate the indoor air quality (IAQ) in relation to ventilation rate according to the environmental questionnaires through which daycare centers with greater potential of microbial contamination were identified. Results showed the major indoor air pollutant correlated well with the varying ventilation rate was biological pollutant which was. The average indoor bacteria and fungi concentrations were 4024-18804 and 3892-9955 cfu/m3, respectively. Two daycare centers were selected for intervention study by spraying the WAHW in the classrooms without the presence of children. A week-long biological sampling of the background, including bacteria and fungi, was conducted before the remedial action took place. The WAHW was sprayed in the following week after children left the schools and before they returned the next day using a fogger. Airborne samples were also collected concurrently. Environmental sampling continued for one more week after without the application of WAHW. The identical cycle of experiements were performed twice, one in winter and the next one in summer. Two daycare centers were further identified for intervention study: KID1 with visible microbial contamination and high fungal levels measured, and KID4 with no obvious contamination yet still high fungal counts. The indoor/outdoor (I/O) ratios of airborne bacteria (median) at KID4 in the morning of three weeks were 2.69, 1.18 and 1.17 in winter, and 5.06, 0.61 and 7.36 in summer; for fungi, 1.25, 0.75 and 0.94 in winter, and 1.38, 0.63 and 1.67 in summer. For the levels of airborne fungi measured at noon time, these values were 1.13, 0.75 and 1.44 in winter and 1.38, 0.63 and 1.67 in summer. These levels appeared to decrease significantly in the weeks with spraying WAHW (p<0.05). There was, however, no particular reduction of I/O ratios observed in KID1. Meanwhile, increasing I/O ratio for environmental bacteria was correlated with greater number of people present indoors or higher ventilation measured (p<0.05). The people activity and ventilation resulting in entrance of outdoor microbes might be the reasons why reduction of indoor microbes by spraying WAHW the night before was not accomplished as expected in KID1 where high concentrations were actually measured rather than simply with the visual assessment as in KID4. Results showed that when spraying WAHW by a mechanical fogger in an indoor space without obvious contaminations, the WAHW could disinfect microbe by a significant level only over a specific period time. Future study should not only be directed with more focused design to compare concentration changes before or after the spray of WAHW, but also the variation of specific genera to better explore the rationales and mechanisms facilitating the effective reuduction of environmental microbes for formulating remedial strategy.
論文目次 第一章 序論 1
1.1研究緣起 1
1.2研究目的 3
第二章 文獻回顧 4
2.1室內空氣品質及其健康效應 4
2.1.1粒狀及氣狀汙染物 5
2.1.2生物性氣膠 5
2.2幼兒照護機構 7
2.2.1幼兒照護機構室之健康效應 7
2.2.2幼兒照護機構室內空氣品質調查 8
2.3消毒劑 9
2.3.1消毒劑的殺菌機制 9
2.3.2消毒劑的安全性 10
2.4次氯酸水 11
2.4.1次氯酸殺菌的機制 11
2.4.2次氯酸水的生成 12
2.4.3次氯酸水的安全性 13
第三章 材料與方法 15
3.1研究架構 15
3.2研究對象 15
3.2.1室內空氣品質採樣對象選取 15
3.2.2次氯酸水噴灑實驗採樣對象 15
3.2.3採樣點之條件 16
3.3幼兒照護機構室內空氣品質量測 16
3.3.1幼兒照護機構室內空氣品質採樣策略 17
3.3.2幼兒照護機構室內空氣品質之空氣樣本採集 17
3.4幼兒照護機構之次氯酸水霧化噴灑實驗 20
3.4.1次氯酸水霧化噴灑施放之位置 20
3.4.2次氯酸水霧化噴灑實驗之時段與時間量 20
3.4.3次氯酸水霧化噴灑實驗之採樣策略 21
3.4.4生物性樣本收集與培養 22
3.4.5環境因子空氣樣本收集 23
3.5資料統計分析 23
第四章 結果與討論 24
4.1幼兒照護機構室內空氣品質 24
4.1.1環境條件 24
4.1.2粒狀及氣狀汙染物 24
4.1.3生物性汙染物 26
4.1.4通風換氣效率 27
4.2次氯酸水噴灑之微生物濃度變化實驗結果 29
4.2.1幼兒照護機構中細菌的濃度變化 29
4.2.2幼兒照護機構中真菌的濃度變化 33
4.2.3幼兒照護機構中懸浮微粒與溼度之變化 36
第五章 結論與建議 38
參考文獻 40
附錄 74
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