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系統識別號 U0026-0812200914334168
論文名稱(中文) 台灣地區GPS誤差監視系統之效能評估
論文名稱(英文) GPS Performance Assessment of a Local Area Monitoring System in Taiwan Region
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 民航研究所
系所名稱(英) Institute of Civil Aviation
學年度 96
學期 2
出版年 97
研究生(中文) 陳君豪
研究生(英文) Chun-hao Chen
學號 q4695402
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
論文頁數 62頁
口試委員 口試委員-袁曉峰
口試委員-王大中
指導教授-詹劭勳
中文關鍵字 本地端誤差監視系統  廣域星基擴增系統  印度星基擴增系統  日本星基擴增系統  全球衛星導航系統 
英文關鍵字 Vertical Protection Level (VPL)  GAGAN  Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS)  Satellite Based Augmentation Systems (SBAS)  MSAS  Local Area Monitoring (LAM) 
學科別分類
中文摘要 對於需要極為高度安全驗證的適航導引飛行而言,近年來,世界各國民用航空相關組織積極推動全球廣域星基擴增系統SBAS (Satellite Based Augmentation System),其目的即為了提升飛航服務之導航的安全性。此項計畫的施行,造福了許多的全球衛星導航系統GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) 使用者。舉例來說,對於台北飛航情報區(FIR)而言,位於本地區的使用者,在同一時刻,可利用導航接收器接收到日本同步衛星(MSAS)及印度同步衛星(GAGAN)的修正量資訊。然而,由於台北飛航情報區所處的地理環境位置,正處於此二者同步衛星可修正範圍的邊界地帶(Service Gap),以致於身處本地的使用者,對於此二者同步衛星系統的相關修正量,並未能完全獲得有效的準確性、連續性、可用性及完整性。

本篇論文的目的在於如何利用本地端誤差監視系統LAM (Local Area Monitoring)來產生適用合本地端區域(台北飛航情報區)的修正量,而所驗證的方法,即是透過垂直方向保護極限VPL (Vertical Protection Level)的運算,而此VPL的運算必須依據WAAS MOPS(RTCA DO-229D)的標準規範。透過本篇論文,我們將產生區域性的修正量,透過網際網路方式傳送,提供給使用者使用。而這些修正量主要反應在造成GNSS使用者誤差最大來源的電離層效應上,同時,我們接收日本及印度二個同步衛星的修正資訊,並比較自主產生本地端的修正量及同步衛星修正量二者,最後將選擇並傳送最佳的修正量來至使用者端。

本地端誤差監視系統主要的優點有二:第一,在傳統上,為了得到衛星星曆及時錶誤差上,需要設立相當大範圍的資料觀測站台,並利用大量的數據進而得到修正資訊。然而,此項工作對於各個國家而言,是一極為艱難的工作任務。有鑑於此,本論文將利用LAM的優點,即透過特定地區的站台設立,完成小區域的監視本地端誤差能力,同時利用其它國家已發展的同步衛星訊號,進行修正量的整合,這將有助於開發台北飛航情報區的自主導航能力。第二,本論文主要方法在於利用LAM系統來產生的修正量,加上Kriging演算法,取代原有同步衛星對於電離層格點之修正值,如此,更有效的監視本地區電離層變化情形,此修正量的產生將能透過VPL的驗證,來得到更理想的信心邊界(Confidence Bound)。未來,我們將可更進一步擴大、整合修正量範圍,完成全亞洲的自主衛星導航。
英文摘要 The civil aviation organizations worldwide are implementing Satellite Based Augmentation Systems (SBAS) for the civil aviation applications. Currently, users in several regions around the world are benefited from the enhanced Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) service provided by SBAS. For example, in Taipei Flight Information Region (FIR), GNSS users can receive SBAS messages from Japanese MSAS and Indian GAGAN. However, aviation users in Taipei FIR are not allowed to use the SBAS messages from both systems, because they are not designed for Taipei FIR. Therefore, there is a navigation service gap for aviation users around the Asia-Pacific region.
The objective of this thesis is to use a local area monitoring (LAM) system to evaluate the GNSS capability for the civil aviation applications in Taipei FIR. The evaluation criterion is the Vertical Protection Level (VPL) calculation under different phases of flight. VPL is the confidence bound of the post-correction vertical positioning and it is defined in the augmented GNSS flight operation standard (i.e., RTCA DO-229D). As a result, this thesis will use a local area monitoring system in Taipei FIR to monitor GNSS satellites over this region. This local area monitoring system will then generate the regional differential (correction) messages for GNSS. This thesis evaluates these regional differential messages from this local area monitoring system and the correction messages from MSAS or GAGAN based on their vertical positioning performance (i.e., VPL values) and maintain high level of confidence which is similar to that of MSAS or GAGAN at the same time. According to the evaluation result, the local area monitoring system will alter its GNSS augmentation messages to optimize its vertical performance (based on VPL calculation).
The LAM system in this thesis will have two advantages in comparison with the conventional approach: first, in order to generate correction for error due to satellite ephemeris and clock, the conventional SBAS approach requires the great diversity in geographical distribution of reference stations and it is a difficult task for many small countries in Asia Pacific region. For our approach in this thesis, we could complete the task by taking the advantage of the MSAS or GAGAN corrections for satellite ephemeris and clock. Second, with the local GNSS monitoring and messages from the MSAS or GAGAN, this local area monitoring system could generate better correction model for error due ionosphere. Therefore, the development of this local area monitoring system can be extended to other neighboring countries to further enhance its performance in the future.
論文目次 LIST OF TABLES……………………………………………………………………XI


LIST OF FIGURES…………………………………………………..………….......XII


GLOSSARY OF ACRONYMS…………………………………………………......XVI


CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION AND OVERVIEW…………………………….…..1

1.1 INTRODUCTION TO GPS…………………………………….………………..2

1.1.1 GPS ERROR SOURCE……………………………………………….....4

1.2 INTRODUCTION TO IONOSPHERE………………………………...…...…...5

1.3 INTRODUCTION TO LOCAL AREA MONITORING………………………...8

1.4 INTRODUCTION TO SBAS………………………………………………..….10

1.5 CONCLUSION…………………………………………………………...…….12

CHAPTER 2: ALGORITHM AND SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE……..…………...13

2.1 INTRODUCTION……………………………………………………………..…13

2.2 SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE………...…………………………………………..14

2.3 KRIGING ALGORITHM………………………………………………………..16

2.4 VPL EVALUATION………………………………………..…………………….20

2.5 CONCLUSION…………………………………………………………………..22

CHAPTER3: EXPERIMENTAL SETUP…………………………………….……...23

3.1 INTRODUCTION………………………………………………………………..23

3.2 THE PROBLEM STATEMENT……………………………...………………….24

3.3 HARDWARE ARCHITECTURE………………………………………………..25

3.3.1 GPS RECIEVER AND DATAMEASUREMENT………………………26

3.3.2 OBSERVATION DATA SOURCE………………………………………28

3.4 THE LAM STATION SETTING…………………………………...……………29

3.5 CORRECTON TRANSFER THROUGH INTERNET………..………………...32

3.6 CONCLUSION……………………………………………………………….….34

CHAPTER 4: EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS AND DISCUSSION…..……………..35

4.1 INTRODUCTION………………………………………………………………..35

4.2 LAM CORRECTION…………………………………........................................35

4.3 VPL CERTIFICATION…………………………………………………………..43

4.4 CONCLUSION………………………………………….……………………….56

CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE WORK…………………………...59

5.1 CONCLUSION………………………………………………………………..…59

5.2 FUTURE WORK………………………………………………………….……..60
參考文獻 [1] P. Enge, T. Walter, S. Pullen, C. Kee, Y. C. Chao, and Y. J. Tsai, “Wide Area Augmentation of the Global Positioning System”, Proceedings of the IEEE, 1996.
[2] R. J. Kelly, J. M. Davis, “Required Navigation Performance (RNP) for Precision Approach and Landing GNSS Application,” Navigation, Journal of the Institute of Navigation, Vol. 41, No. 1, Spring 1994.
[3] B. W. Parkinson, , J. J. Spilker, , Global Positioning System: Theory and Application, AIAA Publication, 1996.
[4] J. Blanch, T. Walter, P. Enge, “Application of Spatial Statistics to Ionosphere Estimation for WAAS,” Institute of Navigation's National Technical Meeting, San Diego, CA, January 2002.
[5] P. Misra, , P. Enge, , Global Positioning System Signal, Measurements, and Performance, Ganga-Jamuna Press, Lincoln, MA, 2001.
[6] J.A, Klobuchar, “Design and Characteristics of the GPS ionosphere Time Delay Algorithm for Single Frequency Users, ” Proceeding of IEEE Position Location and Navigation Symposium, Las Vegas, NV, Nov. 1986.
[7] S. Datta-Barua, , T. Walter, , J. Blanch, , P. Enge, , “Bounding Higher Order Ionosphere Errors for the Dual Frequency GPS User”, ION Institute of Navigation Global Navigation Satellite Systems Conference, Fort Worth, TX, September 2006.
[8] T. Walter, S. Pullen, J. Rife, J. Seo, and P. Enge, “The Advantages of Local Monitoring and VHF Data Broadcast for SBAS, ” Proceedings of Institute of Navigation's Annual Meeting, Cambridge, MA, June 2005.
[9] http://www.egnos-pro.esa.int/newsletter.html
[10] http://www.faa.gov/
[11] J. Blanch, “Using Kriging To Bound Satellite Ranging Errors Due to Ionosphere,” Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Stanford University, 2003.
[12] WAAS MOPS (Minimum Operational Performance Standards for global positioning system/ Wide Area Augmentation System airborne equipment), RTCA/DO-229D
[13] A. Hansen, E. Peterson, T. Walter, P. Enge, “Correlation structure of ionospheric estimation and correction for WAAS”, Proceedings of the Institute of Navigation National Technical Meeting,Anaheim,CA,USA,26-28 Jan 2000 .
[14] Y. C. Lin, “Improving GNSS Ionospheric Correction in the Asia Pacific Region,” Master’s thesis, Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, National Cheng Kung University, 2006
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