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系統識別號 U0026-0812200914315818
論文名稱(中文) 新型電感結構之開發:壓控振盪器之應用及雜訊耦合之探討
論文名稱(英文) Development of a Novel Inductor:Application to VCO and Study on Noise Coupling
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 電機工程學系碩博士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Electrical Engineering
學年度 96
學期 2
出版年 97
研究生(中文) 蘇信嘉
研究生(英文) Hsin-Chia Su
電子信箱 n2695472@mail.ncku.edu.tw
學號 n2695472
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
論文頁數 125頁
口試委員 指導教授-黃尊禧
口試委員-楊子毅
口試委員-龐一心
口試委員-湯敬文
中文關鍵字 壓控振盪器  新型電感  超寬頻 
英文關鍵字 novel inductor  VCO  UWB 
學科別分類
中文摘要 在這篇論文中,我們提出了兩種新型電感架構。在射頻電路中,特別是壓控振盪器之設計,電感是最重要的元件。因此針對電感的使用上,我們將此新型電感應用於振盪器中。
在射頻積體電路系統中,整合性的需求越來越高的情況下,每個射頻電路方塊將會被整合進去晶片中。因此系統之雜訊的抑制能力必須相對的提高,否則電路間雜訊互相影響的情況越嚴重,則會造成各元件間的特性效能越降低。嚴重時甚至會使其他元件的功能失去正常的工作狀態而造成電路誤動作。根據上述所說的雜訊耦合量之間的問題,我們設計出第一個新型的電感來解決傳統型的電感,不管是螺旋式電感、或是對稱式電感,其所造成嚴重的雜訊耦合量問題。第二個新型電感則是解決第一顆新型電感無法提高感值的缺點。也就是說我們預期這個新型的電感除了減少電路之間的雜訊耦合量,還能能夠增加其可用性,並使系統電路間互相干擾的能量變小,來達到各較好的效能。
在新型電感的設計中,我們改善傳統型螺旋電感無法抵抗外來磁場的缺點。並且針對外徑、線寬、線距、以及圈數,做電性特性之模擬與分析。探討其變異量對感值與品質因素的影響。然後對於新型電感的架構做進一步的改善,從新型電感(I)到新型電感(III),使其使用性更加完善,減少其不便性。在新型電感與傳統螺旋電感的比較之下,新型電感抑制雜訊耦合量的能力比傳統型電感強之外,此外面積也比傳統型電感來的小。
最後將所設計的電感應用在射頻電路的振盪器上。在振盪器的使用上,則是利用電感與電容當作共振腔以及用互補式交錯耦合架構來完成。此振盪器其操作頻率應用在6.336 GHz,符合超寬頻的應用之載頻頻率之一。然後藉由觀察雜訊耦合量的大小去驗證新型電感,的確可以使得雜訊耦合量少於傳統型螺旋電感。根據實驗結果,其操作頻率為7.1GHz,而且新型電感所產生的雜訊耦合量也確實比傳統型電感小。這結果意味著此新型電感是能夠應用於射頻電路當中,並且有效的抑制雜訊耦合量,進一步減少電路間的互相影響與干擾。
英文摘要 The novel inductors have been presented in this dissertation. In the radio-frequency integrated circuit (RFIC), inductors are constantly used for the RF circuit designs, especially for voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO). Hence concerning the use of the inductors, we will apply the novel inductor into the VCO.
As the integration requirements get more and more in the RFIC system, every RF block will be integrated into the chip. Therefore the ability of restraining noise must be enhanced relatively, or the mutual influences between the circuit blocks are stronger to make every element’s performance low. Even it will make the element’s function not to work ordinarily and then let the circuit get wrong function. According to the problem of the coupling effect above discussion, we design three novel inductors to solve the problem the traditional inductor induces coupling effect. On the other words, we expect that the novel inductor is able to decrease the noise coupling in order to reduce the mutual interfering power between the circuits of system and get better performance.
We improve the defect the conventional spiral inductor cannot to resist the external magnetic field’s interference in the design of the novel inductor, and directing the radius, width, space, and turns, we simulate and analyze the characters of the inductors in order to discuss the influences of variations on inductance and quality factor. Then what are further improved for the novel inductor’s structures from the novel inductor (I) to novel inductor (III) makes the usability flawless and decreases the inconvenience. At the comparison between the novel inductor and traditional spiral inductor, the ability the novel inductor resists the coupling power is stronger than the traditional inductor, besides the area of the novel inductor is also smaller than conventional inductor.
Finally, the designed inductor is applied to VCO in the RFIC. Then in the use of VCO, this novel inductor and varactors are utilized to be resonant tank and be implemented to VCO by complementary cross-couple pair. The operating frequency of VCO is in 6.336 GHz, and that conforms to the applying carrier frequency in the sub-bank of UWB. Then according to observing magnitude of the noise coupling to verify the novel inductor, the novel inductor is sure able to make the noise coupling less than traditional inductor. In the measurement result, the operating frequency is 7.1 GHz, and the coupling the novel inductor induces is less than conventional inductor indeed.
Consequently, this result imply this novel inductor is capable of applying into the RFIC, and effective in restrain the noise coupling to further decrease the influence and interference between the circuits.
論文目次 Contents
摘要 I
Abstract II
Acknowledgement V
Contents VI
List of Tables VIII
List of Figures IX
Chapter 1 1
Introduction 1
1.1 Background 1
1.2 Motivation 3
1.3 Thesis Organization 6

Chapter 2 9
Design and Analysis of Novel Spiral Inductor 9
2.1 Introduction of Traditional Spiral Inductor 9
2.2 The Loss of On-Chip Inductor 10
2.3 Analysis of Novel Inductors (I) 16
2.3.1 Magnetic Field Parting 17
2.3.2 Radius 23
2.3.3 Width 27
2.4 Analysis of Novel Inductors (II) 30
2.4.1 Radius 30
2.4.2 Width 34
2.4.3 Space 36
2.4.4 Turn 38
2.4.5 Drawback and Resolution of Novel Inductor (II) 39
2.5 Analysis of Novel Inductors (III) 43
2.5.1 Radius 44
2.5.2 Width 47
2.5.3 Space 49
2.5.4 Turn 51

Chapter 3 54
Voltage Control Oscillator and Coupling Effect 54
3.1 Introduction of Voltage Control Oscillator 54
3.1.1 Oscillator Fundamentals 54
3.1.1.1 Feedback 55
3.1.1.2 Classification 56
3.2 Performance Parameters 59
3.2.1 Phase Noise 59
3.2.1.1 Definition of Phase Noise 59
3.2.2 Phase Noise Model 61
3.2.2.1 Time Invariant Phase Noise Model (Lesson) 62
3.2.2.2 Time Invariant Phase Noise Model (Hajimiri) 63
3.2.3 Other Parameters 65
3.3 The Basic Oscillator Topologies 67
3.3.1 Ring Oscillator 67
3.3.2 LC Oscillator 68
3.4 Design of LC VCO Using the Novel Inductor (I) 69
3.4.1 Varactor 70
3.4.2 The Design Procedure and Considerations of VCO 75
3.4.3 Design the VCO Core, Bias Circuit, and Output Buffer 78
3.4.4 Simulation result 84
3.5 Coupling Effect 91

Chapter 4 97
Measurement Results 97
4.1 Measurement Results of the Novel Spiral Inductor 97
4.1.1 The Measurement of Novel Inductor (I) 97
4.1.2 The Measurement of Novel Inductor (II) 100
4.1.3 The Measurement of Novel Inductor (III)
(Approximate-Symmetric Inductor) 102
4.2 Measurement Results of VCO 105
4.3 Measurement Results of the Coupling Effect 112

Chapter 5 119
Conclusions and Future Work 119
5.1 Conclusions 119
5.2 Future Work 120
References 122




List of Tables
Table 2.1 The comparison between traditional inductor and novel inductor (I) 27
Table 2.2 The comparison between traditional inductor and novel inductor (II) 33
Table 2.3 The comparison between symmetric inductor and novel inductor (III) 46
Table 3.1 The parameters of VCO 84
Table 3.2 (a) The corner and temperature simulations of VCO1 85
Table 3.2 (b) The corner and temperature simulations of VCO2 85
Table 3.3 (a) The spec of VCO1 at Vtune=0.9 V 90
Table 3.3 (b) The spec of VCO2 at Vtune=0.9 V 90
Table 4.1 The parameter of VCO1 and VCO2 112



























List of Figures
Figure 1.1 The applying range of every communication system 1
Figure 1.2 Spectrum of UWB 2
Figure 1.3 Limit of switching sub-band of UWB 3
Figure 1.4 UWB EIPR emission level 3
Figure 1.5 The transceiver architecture 4
Figure 1.6 The synthesizer architecture 5
Figure 2.1 Shapes of different inductors 9
Figure 2.2 (a) Symmetric spiral inductor (b) Center-tap spiral inductor 10
Figure 2.3 (a) A metal line (b) The cross-section of the metal line 11
Figure 2.4 Laminated cores in a time-varying magnetic field 12
Figure 2.5 The eddy current and magnetic distribution 13
Figure 2.6 Cross-section of the inductor on-chip 13
Figure 2.7 Magnetic flux lines of a magnetic dipole 14
Figure 2.8 Eddy current is induced on the metal surface 14
Figure 2.9 The current of metal lines is limited by the eddy current 15
Figure 2.10 Spiral geometry and filamentary representation 15
Figure 2.11 The different effect as the frequency goes up 16
Figure 2.12 The novel inductor (I) 17
Figure 2.13 (a) The magnetic field induced by the current of the inductor
(b) A cross-section of the inductor 18
Figure 2.14 The right inductor is influenced by the left inductor 18
Figure 2.15 A cross-section of the inductor and its magnetic flux distribution 19
Figure 2.16 (a) The magnetic field of the traditional spiral inductor
(b) The magnetic field of the novel inductor 20
Figure 2.17 The novel inductor is influenced by the left inductor 21
Figure 2.18 (a) The loss density of the traditional spiral inductor
(b) The loss density of the novel inductor 23
Figure 2.19 The inductance in different radius of novel inductor (I) 24
Figure 2.20 The quality in different radius of novel inductor (I) 25
Figure 2.21 The traditional inductor (I) 25
Figure 2.22 The peak Q and L of novel inductor and traditional inductor 26
Figure 2.23 The inductance in different width of novel inductor (I) 27
Figure 2.24 The Q in different width of novel inductor (I) 28
Figure 2.25 Novel inductor (II) 30
Figure 2.26 The inductance in different radius of novel inductor (II) 31
Figure 2.27 (a) The quality factor in different radius of novel inductor (II) 31
Figure 2.27 (b) The Q peak of novel inductor (II) 32
Figure 2.28 The spiral symmetric inductor 32
Figure 2.29 Comparison of inner or outer radius 34
Figure 2.30 The inductance in different width of novel inductor (II) 35
Figure 2.31 The quality in different width of novel inductor (II) 36
Figure 2.32 The inductance in different space of novel inductor (II) 37
Figure 2.33 (a) The quality in different space of novel inductor (II) 37
Figure 2.33 (b) The Q peak of novel inductor (II) 38
Figure 2.34 The inductance in different turns of novel inductor (II) 39
Figure 2.35 The quality factor in different turns of novel inductor (II) 39
Figure 2.36 (a)、(b)、(c) Different kinds of routing out outside of inductors 40
Figure 2.37 Inductance of the different routing 41
Figure 2.38 (a) Q of the different routing 41
Figure 2.38 (b) the Q peak of the different routing 42
Figure 2.39 Novel inductor (III) 43
Figure 2.40 Inductance in different radius of novel inductor (III) 44
Figure 2.41 (a) Quality factor in different radius of novel inductor (III) 45
Figure 2.41 (b) Quality factor in different radius of novel inductor (III) 45
Figure 2.42 They counteract with each other in inner magnetic field47
Figure 2.43 The inductance in different width of novel inductor (III) 48
Figure 2.44 The quality factor in different width of novel inductor (III) 49
Figure 2.45 The inductance in different space of novel inductor (III) 51
Figure 2.46 The quality factor in different space of novel inductor (III) 51
Figure 2.47 The inductances in different turns of novel inductor (III) 52
Figure 2.48 The quality factor in different turns of novel inductor (III) 52
Figure 3.1 (a) a feedback system (b) Add a frequency-selective network 55
Figure 3.2 Two different topologies of oscillation system 55
Figure 3.3 Classifications of the oscillators 56
Figure 3.4 (a) A SC circuit oscillator 57
Figure 3.4 (b) Timing diagram of the SC circuit oscillator 57
Figure 3.5 (a) RC circuit oscillator (b) LC circuit oscillator 58
Figure 3.6 The ring oscillator is composed of three invertors. 59
Figure 3.7 VCO output spectrum and phase noise 60
Figure 3.8 VCO output spectrum of expressing three frequencies 61
Figure 3.9 Lesson’s phase noise model 62
Figure 3.10 (a)The impulse injected at the peak
(b)The impulse injected at the zero 63
Figure 3.11 The paragraph Kvco diagram 65
Figure 3.12 VCO which don’t change the frequency as the supply voltage
variation 66
Figure 3.13 VCO is composed of four numbers cell. 66
Figure 3.14 Two topologies of ring oscillator 67
Figure 3.15 Complementary cross-coupled pair oscillator 68
Figure 3.16 (a) The output swing decays due to the positive resistance, (b) Add a negative resistance to decease consumption of the positive resistance, Rp, (c) The active circuit is used to cancel the loss of Rp, and the active circuit is completed by the right of (c). 69
Figure 3.17 The cross-section of PN junction varactor 70
Figure 3.18 The C-VR curve of PN junction varator 71
Figure 3.19 The cross-section of NMOS varator 72
Figure 3.20 The C-V curve of NMOS varator 72
Figure 3.21 The cross-section of PMOS varator 73
Figure 3.22 The C-V curve of PMOS varactor and five characteristics 73
Figure 3.23 The cross-section of inversion mode MOS varator 74
Figure 3.24 The C-V curve of inversion mode MOS varator 74
Figure 3.25 The cross-section of accumulation mode MOS varator 75
Figure 3.26 The C-V curve of accumulation mode MOS varator 75
Figure 3.27 The flow chart of the design flow of VCO
using the novel inductor (I) 77
Figure 3.28 The structure of VCO we design the novel inductor into 78
Figure 3.29 (a) all-NMOS VCO (b) all-PMOS VCO (c) complementary VCO 79
Figure 3.30 The bias current topology 81
Figure 3.31 The output buffer topology 81
Figure 3.32 VCO diagram 83
Figure 3.33 (a) The tuning range of VCO1 86
Figure 3.33 (b) The tuning range of VCO2 86
Figure 3.34 (a) The output power of VCO1 87
Figure 3.34 (b) The output power of VCO2 87
Figure 3.35 (a) The phase noise @1M Hz of VCO1 88
Figure 3.35 (b) The phase noise @1M Hz of VCO2 88
Figure 3.36 The layout of VCO 89
Figure 3.37 The distribution of three inductors 91
Figure 3.38 The simulation of two inductors 92
Figure 3.39 The simulation of three inductors 93
Figure 3.40 The coupling effect simulation of three inductors 94
Figure 3.41 Spur power of symmetric inductor from VCO using novel inductor and its harmonic tone. 95
Figure 3.42 Spur power of symmetric inductor from VCO using traditional inductor and its harmonic tone. 95
Figure 3.43 Spur power of symmetric inductor from VCO using traditional inductor and its harmonic tone. 96
Figure 4.1 The microphotograph of the novel inductor (I) 98
Figure 4.2 The microphotograph of the traditional middle-routing inductor 98
Figure 4.3 The inductances of the simulation and measurement result 99
Figure 4.4 The quality factor of the simulation and measurement result 99
Figure 4.5 (a) type b as shown in sub-section 2.4.5
(b) type c as shown section 2.4.5 100
Figure 4.6 (a) L simulation and measurement result of novel inductor (II) 101
Figure 4.6 (b) L simulation and measurement result of novel inductor (II) 101
Figure 4.7 Q simulations and measurement results of type b and type c 102
Figure 4.8 (a) the novel inductor (III) of s2 (b) the novel inductor (III) of s3 102
Figure 4.9 L of novel inductor (III) in the different space 103
Figure 4.10 Q of novel inductor (III) in the different space 103
Figure 4.11 L of novel inductor (III) in the different topology 104
Figure 4.12 Q of novel inductor (III) in the different topology 105
Figure 4.13 (a) Spectrum of VCO1 in E4440A 106
Figure 4.13 (b) Spectrum of VCO2 in E4440A 106
Figure 4.14 (a) Tuning range of VCO1 in E5052A 107
Figure 4.14 (b) Tuning range of VCO1 in E5052A 107
Figure 4.15 (a) Phase noise of VCO1 in E4440A 108
Figure 4.15 (b) Phase noise of VCO2 in E4440A 108
Figure 4.16 (a) Phase noise of VCO1 with filter capacitor in E4440A 109
Figure 4.16 (b) Phase noise of VCO2 with filter capacitor in E4440A 109
Figure 4.17 (a) (b) Output power of VCO1 and VCO2 in E5052A 110
Figure 4.18 (a), (b) Power consumption of VCO1 and VCO2 in E5052A 111
Figure 4.19 (a), (b) Core power consumption of VCO1 and VCO2 in E5052A 111
Figure 4.20 The coupling of whole circuit 113
Figure 4.21 Coupling test chip 114
Figure 4.22 Coupling test chip and PCB1 114
Figure 4.23 (a) Coupling measurement of PCB1 (1) 116
Figure 4.23 (b) Coupling measurement of PCB1 (2) 116
Figure 4.24 Coupling test chip and PCB2 117
Figure 4.25 (a) Coupling measurement of PCB2 (1) 118
Figure 4.25 (b) Coupling measurement of PCB2 (2) 118
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